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Full text of "The geology of the Greymouth subdivision, North Westland"



u.,6^^^ ■ 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 
in 2013 



http://archive.org/details/geologyofgreymouOOmorg 



To a*:t:vmpa3iy BuJletinN^lS, Greyrnouth SiXbdirisioii' .Norfh Wvstlgjid Divistorb, Westlajut Jjojid' JHstrict 




Bn Authority : John Mackuy. Qthnmincnt PHnttr. 



Ii> uvcympunv Bidtetin N9 /3. G,eynioufh Su/>diyisi"" . M'rf7> )r,-.>r/«-»trf Divi.iu/ri . WcsUfuid JjluicI Dtsbu-/ 




M- Btiifrfin N?J3. Uriynoi'tU SuhdiviA-iofi .TihrfJi W,-<rln7id m-fisifi . Wr.^fUauI Lajul V'sirict. 







- Reference 



Rcatls shown, thus 

Tracka 

Trigorwnetrical Staliona. 
tUighta abovt Sea Level . - 

Swamp 

WeUer Races _ 

RaiXwc^s 

3Vam,Zih«s 



.BJ074.2' 



GEOLOGICAL MAP OF 

L^^Ki^ti^y ^y^¥Ev £)iis?i^oe¥ 

AND PORTION OF TE KINGA SURVEY DISTRICT 

Scale of Chains — 



I 1— I h- 1 I— ^ 



.Newer FluvialJlesMarine Gravels 



PL'^rocENE(0|-''f'"™'''''f'"«'" 31-1=1 Gravels -.C 

(Morainic Gravels, (parfly Fluvio-glacial)p 



- Reference to Geolo gic al Colours and S i^na — 

GftEYMOUTH SEfllES , , Gft££^LAND S£/ttES 

PALAE0Z0lc| Grauwackzs s Argili 



(Blue Borrom Formarion.. 



" [Cobden limesrone_ 



I BB I 



Comptltd from data otlameJ fnm Ike Lands & 
Snrrty Dtpartmani with a'tdtCuital samjs by 
P.6Jiari/tui s JASartram o/Uie ffeaJogkai Survey 



Oc'tcrops with observed strike and dip X ^^f^^ 

Anticlinal axis ^.^""'^^^ 

Basic Dykes ^ Acrdic Dykes gS| Fauirs [^S 
TUHUA FORMATION [ Granitic Rochs s^ ^^| 



CompLUd 6. drawn by y/'T'Bardslvy J9U 



iwruptiiiy butletiii N9 13. Uifyninnfh Suhdn 



' ,Xnfth Wf'sthuhd Dhvision , Wrstlarid Lajift Distt'i ct 






Fluviarilc s Marine Gravels 



c«ls L> ^ Flu vi o-glacial __g ravels ^ 



BB 





riuvio - glacial a Mc 



_ X'ftii^^y lB~cas' hefoW 'S'rue 'Boft'oiri' fttjfifo Vj7s7W>vz^ — 
Port Ellxabefh slower beds probably dte out. 




Section along line abc waimea s hohonu s.ds. 



: R Tl C A L 



> C A LE APPR OX 1 



itATELY SAME AS HOF 



r Z O N TA L SCALE 




MABLY UNDERLIE MfOCENE ROCKS 



VAUABLE 




P.O. MORGAN 
DIRECTOR 



GEOLOGICAL SEGTIONS 

GREYMOUTH SUBDIVISION 



Natural Scale 



Reference to Geolo ;^i cal ColourB and Si gns - 



Pliocene. Pleistocene « Recent Gravels 1 

GpeYMOUTH Series 

j'Biuc Boriom Formahon S~ ^^- 

MIOCENE /Cobden Limcsronc- ^ 

)Porr Elizabeth Beds — I E 

' OmorumoNi Beds I O 

By AtUhortty : John Mackay 1,0 



Coal Measuhes 

/'Kaisra Mudstonc 1 ^ I 

r^r^^r^,^ ) Island Sandstone- J I I 

tOCtNtV ^ I o 1 

iBrunner Beds " 

^^Paparoa Beds -I P H 

PALAEOZOIC-GrecnIand Series f ^ 1 

TUHUA FORMATION - GRANITIC ROCKS |^g$jggg^^^ 



FAULTS.- _ L.fc-::^rE.- 

aoUK/DAdY UNES BETWEEN MAIN SUBDIVISIONS OFi 

0REYM0UTM SERIES S, COAL MEASURES ' 

30U/VOARY BETWEEN BRUNNER <S PAfAROA BEDS — — — 

UNCONFORMITIES — ' — ' 

COAL SEAMS ' """ ' 




Porl- Eli5aberh fi Omorumolu Beds underlaii 

by Coal Measures probably present 



Sect 


ON 


ALONG 


LINE 


D E, 


B R U NNER 


S 







VERTicau 


Scale Approxihately 


Double 


Horizontal Scale 




CMAIMS i 


i^-^ 


« 





HORIZONTAL 




jeo 


CHA 



7b (JCcvmpaitY Bidlelin If?r3. UreymonJtc Suhriiv>su>n , .Yof-fi tKafiojirf IHviaii"! Wr'tflnjirl Ltatd 7)1. 




Refej 

Reads ahortn thus 

Triecrwn«Crical StaClcns ,, „ _ M @ )73( 

Heights aboreSealexel.^,, ^ _ „_ too' 

Water Races „ „- — — 

Roilwa^s 

Tram,Luias 

ANTrcuiNAL Axis. 

HIN£RAISpRIN6S . „ „_ .0. 

6as Escapes .. _-, © 

Oil Seepages ,.-_,.._ X 

BOREHOIES (01L» . • 

Sites Recommended for Bobing„ . - e 
AppfloxiHATE Boundary Between |,. 

RAPAROAsBnuMNER BEDS 

Outcrops with obaervsd elritie and dip A. 

Lompiltd /rem data oblatnid/jvi/hiLands *. 
iSumyDtpartntnl. vtilh addltUnal surrtys liy 
PGMcrsan tJABarrmm-^thtScahgical^t 

Otology byP.QHorgantJABariTam 



GEOLOGICAL MAP OF 



(INCLUDES A SMALL AREA IN WAIWHERO 
SURVEY DrSTRICT 

Scale of Chi 

Tm m m h 4 ^^^^^^ °y- 'T 

— Reforence to Gaolo ft ical Colours and S ifei 
rFluviallleiManneGi 



Di^-lcTnJruF ° -1 0l''8''f^l'""a'"''e « Fluvio-glaoal Gravels. -CZIIIIZ) 
PLEISTOCENE [ m,,,,^,^ G.^.^ls ( parflyFluvoglaclal M 1 



PLIOCENE {Old Man or MouTere Gravels-, ^[ _J l.Paparoa Bed; 

(BlucBorromFormarion _ _ _ 1_BB I PALAEOZOIC [Grauwaches .Arg.llitesI _ 1 

vllOCENE I'portEl.zabelhBeds L- ^ I Q^arrz veirs^C^D Faiiirs_[^n 

I I Coal ouTcrops i 







c 
2; 



c 
< 



g 



o 



<! 

O 



!i 



NEW ZEALAND 



I)t'vavtmtntt 




i^\ of "piTincs. 



OEOLOGICAl^ SIJUVEY BKANCH. qA^i 

(P. G. MORGAN, Director.l J^^ it» 



BULLETIN No. 13 (NEW SERIES). 



THE GEOLOGY 



OF THE 



GKEYMOUTH SUBDIVISION, 



NOBTH WEST LAND. 



PERCY GATES MORGAN, 



ISSUED UNDER THE AUTHORITY OF THE HON. RODERICK MoKBNZIE, MimSTEK OF .HINES. 




WELLINGTON. 
BY AUTHORITY: JOHN MACKAY, GOVERNMENT PRINTER. 

1911. 



LETTEK OF TRANSMITTAL. 



Geological Survey Office, 

Wellington, 5th September, 1911. 
Sir, — 

I have the honour to submit herewith Bulletin No. 13 (new series) of 

the Geological Survey Branch of the Mines Department, which deals with the 

general and economic geology of the Greymouth Subdivision, North Westland. 

The field-work in connection with this Bulletin was done under the 
direction of Dr. J. M. Bell, and the Bulletin itself was written while Dr. Bell 
was still in charge of the Geological Survey. 

The volume contains 159 pages of letterpress, and is illustrated by six 
plates, nine text-diagrams, two general maps, a special map of tlie Kotuku 
Oilfield, another of the Greymouth Coalfield, four detailed geological maps, 
and a sheet of three geological sections. 

I have the honour to be, 
Sir, 
Your obedient servant, 

P. G. xMORGAN, 

Director, New Zealand Geological Survey. 

Hon. Koderick McKenzie, 

Minister of Mines, Wellington. 



COEKIGENDA 



Page 22, line 1 : For " who " read " which." 

Page 22, line 2 from bottom : For " many " read " some." 

Page 25, line 17 : Note that black damp is a mixture of nitrogen and carbon-dioxide. 

Page 31, line 19 from bottom : Delete " out." 

Page 31, line 2 from bottom: Delete "small." 

Page 32, line 2 : Delete " out." 

Page 32, line 22 : For " a faulted " read ' an uplifted." 

Page 51 : In table make estimated thickness of Brunner Beds (a) 200 ft. to 300 ft. or 

more, and of Brunner Beds (6) ft. to 200 ft. or more. 
Page 60, line 19 : For " Quercus, cp. elliptica,'' read " Quercus, sp. cp. Q. elliptica." 
Page 70, line 9 from bottom : After " (ziczac) " insert " McCoy." 
Page 75, line 13 from bottom : After " mentioned " insert " above and." 
Page 98 : In table of analyses alter practical evaporative power of No. 5 from 9-30 to 

9-27. 
Page 101 : In analysis alter practical evaporative power frotn 9-15 to 8-24. 
Page 102 : In table of analyses alter practical evaporative powers of Nos. 1-4 to 9-19, 

8-66, 8-73, 7-81, respectively. 
Page 110, lines 19 and 24: For "Laura Creek" read "Iris Ci:eek." 
Page 129 : In log of No. 2 bore make thickness of last two beds 2 ft. 6 in. and 

1 ft. 6 in. respectively. 
Various verbal iilteratioiis will suggest themselves to the reader. 



Bulletin No. 13.] 



O O N T E N T S, 



Letter of Transmittal 



Page 



( 


'hapter 


I.— G 

Page 


Introduction 




1 


Field-work and Acknowledgments . 




2 


Previous (ieological Surveys 




2 


Literature 




3 


Character of Land and Soil 




11 


Climate 




12 



General Information. 

Inhabitants 

Means of Communication . . 

Primary Industries other than Mining 
(1.) Timber Industry .. 
(2.) Agricultural and Grazing Industries 
(3.) Miscellaneous Industries 



Page 
12 
12 
14 
14 
14 
14 



Introduction 

(1.) Alluvial Mining 

General and Historical Accoimt 

Hydraulic and Ground Sluicing 

Driving-out 

Blacksanding 

Dredging . . 
(2.) Lode-mining 



Chapter II. — Mining Industry. 

Paul- 



15 
15 
II) 
17 
17 
17 
18 



(3.) Coal-mining .. 

General and Historical Account 

Methods of Working 

Labour-conditions . . 

Output 

Future Prospects of Coal-mining 
dustry . . . . . . 

Conservation of Coal Resources 
(4.) Petroleum 



In- 



Page 
20 
20 
23 
26 
27 

27 
28 
30 



Chapter III. — Outline.s of Physiographv and Geology. 



Outline of Physiography 
Introductory . . 
Mountains an<l Hills 
The .\ncient Coastal Plain 
The Grey River \'allev . . 
The Modem Coastal Plain 
Raised Beaches 
River-Hats (Flood-plains) and Terrace-to jw 
Rivers 

Volumes of Streams . . 

Table of River Discharges 



Page 
31 
31 
31 
33 
34 
34 
34 
35 
35 
3« 
37 



Outline of Physiography — continued. 

Springs and I'nderground Watercourses 

Lakes 

Lagoons 

The Shore-lijie. . 
Outline of Geology 

Sequence and General Structure of 
Several Formations .. 

Table of (ieological Formations . . 

Geological History 



the 



Page 

38 
39 
40 
40 

40 

40 
41 
42 



Introduction 
.Age of Faults 



Chapter 1\'. — F4ULTS of the Area. 
Page 
. . 44 Detailed Description 

..44 



Page 
44 



Chapter V. — General Geology. 







Page 


Greenlanfl Series . . 




. 48 


Content, Correlation, and Age 




. 48 


Distribution 




. 49 


Structure 




. 49 


General Petrology 




. 50 


(1.) Grauwackes 




. 50 


(2.) .Argillites 




. 50 


Coal-measures 




. 50 


Content 




. 50 


Table of Subdivisions. . 




. 51 


Conditions of Deposition 




. 51 


Age 




. 52 


Correlation 




. 53 


Nomenclature . . 




. 53 


Distribution 




. 54 



Page 
Coal-measures — continued. 

Structure . . . . . . 54 

General Petrology . . . . . . 56 

(1.) Paparoa Beds .. .. ..56 

((/.) Basal Conglomerate. . .. 56 

(c.) Lower Sandstones and Shales . . 56 
(6.) Middle Sandstones with Minor 

Shales . . . . . . 57 

(a.) Upper Sandstones and Shales. . 57 
(2.) Brunner Beds . . . . . . 57 

{b.) Pebble-beds and Conglomerates 57 
(«.) Coarse Sandstones, Grit.s, and 

Pebble-beds . . . . 58 

(3.) Island Sandstone. . ., ..59 

(4.) Kaiata Mudstone . . oO 



VI 



Chapter V. — General Geology — continued. 



Coal-inoasuros — continued. 
Pahi'oiitology . . 

Piiparoa Beils 

Brimmer Beds 

Age of Paparoa and Brunuer Beds 

Island Sandstone 

Kaiata Mudstone 
Greymouth Series 

Content and Sulxlivision 

Nomenclature . . 

Conditions of Deposition 

Age and Correlation 

Distribution 

Structure 

General Description 

Omoturaotu Beds 

Lower Kotuku Conglomerate 

Port Elizabeth Beds . . 

Cobden Limestone 

Blue Bottom Formation 

Upper Kotuku Conglomerate 
Palaeontology . . 

Omotumotu Beds 

Port Elizabeth Beds . . 

Cobden Limestone 

Blue Bottom Formation 
Pliocene Beds 
Introduction . . 



Page 

60 
60 
60 
61 
61 
62 
62 
62 
62 
63 
63 
63 
64 
65 
65 
67 
67 
68 
68 
68 
69 
69 
69 
69 
71 
73 
73 



Page 



Pliocene Beds — continued. 






Content 


73 


Age and Correlation 


73 


Distribution 


73 


Structure 


74 


General Account 


74 


Origin 


75 


Pleistocene Deposits 


75 


(n.) Morainic and Fluvio-glacial Gravels . 


75 


(6.) Fluviatile Gravels . . 


76 


(c.) Marine Gravels and Sands . . 


76 


Recent Deposits . . 


76 


Igneous Rocks 


76 


Introduction . . 


76 


I. Tuhua Formation 


77 


Content 


77 


Distribution and Mode of Occurrence 77 


Age and Correlation 


77 


General and Special Petrology 


78 


(q^) Muscovite-biotite-granites 


78 


(h.) Biotite-granite 


78 


(c.) Pegmatite 




78 


(d.) Aplites '. . 




78 


(e.) Granite-porphyries . 




78 


II. Basic Igneous Rocks 




80 


(a.) Basic Dykes 




80 


(6.) Basalt 




81 



Chapter VI. — Economic Geology. 



Page 
Metalliferous Quartz Veins . . . . 83 

Special Area — Langdon Creek . . . . 84 

General Obsen'ations . . . . . . 86 

Auriferous Alluvial Deposits . . . . 86 

I. Early Tertiary Conglomerates . . 86 

II. Pliocene River-gravels . . . . 87 

III. Pleistocene Deposits . . . . 87 

{a.) Morainic, Fluvio - glacial, and 

Fluviatile Gravels . . . . 87 

(6.) Marine Gravels and Sands (Raised 

Beaches) . . . . . . 88 

IV. Recent Deposits . . . . . . 88 

(a.) Fluviatile Gravels .. ..88 

(6.) Marine Gravels and Sands (Black- 
sand Leads) . . . . 88 
Character and Quality of AUuvial Gold . . 
Origin of Auriferous Alluvial Deposits 
Unworked Auriferous Gravels on or near 

the Surface . . 
Deeper Ground and Possible Deep Leads . . 
Minor Alluvial Deposits other than Gold 
Stream-tin 
Platinum 

Monazite and Chromite 
Ironsand 
Iron-ore 

Building and Ornamental 
Road-making Material 
Limestones for Manufact 
Cement 
Analyses of Limestones 
Clays for Brick and Cement Manufacture 
Fireclay and Shale 
Coal 

Detailed Description of the Various Coal- 
seams 
^^I. ^Coal-seams of the Paparoa Beds 
(n.) Lower Series 
(6.) Upper Series (Moody's Creek 

Seams) . . 
Summary 



Stones 



ure of Lime and 



89 



90 
90 
91 
91 
91 
91 
92 
92 
93 
94 

94 
94 
95 
95 
96 

96 
97 
97 

101 
103 



Coal — continued. 

D 'tailed D ascription of the Various Coal 
seams — contin u ed. 

I. Coal-seams of the Paparoa Beds — contd. 

Detailed Description of Coal-out 

crops in the Paparoa Beds . 
Upper Rocky Creek . . 
Upper Bray Creek 
Upper Paparoa Creek and Tribu 

taries 
Upper Ford Creek and Tribu 

taries 
Tom Ridge . . 
Main Divide and Subsidiary 

Ridges 
Upper Seven-mile Creek and 

Tributaries 
Spring Creek 
Miscellaneous Analyses 

II. Coal-seams of the Brminer Beds 

No. 1 Point Elizabeth State Coal 

mine 
Brminer District 
The Bnmner Seam 
The Brunner Rider . . 
The Blackball Mine Seams 
Brown's Coal-prospecting Lease 
Northern Part of Cobden Survey 
District and Southern Part of 
Temiko Survey District 
Cavern Creek 

Rocky Creek (Tributary of Seven- 
mile Creek) 
Nine-mile Bluff Seam. . 
Nine-mile Creek 
Ten-mile Creek 
Southern Part of Temiko Survey 

District 
Analyses 

III. Coal-seams of the Kaiata Mudstone 

Kane's Seam . . 
Minor Seams . . 



Page 



103 
103 
103 

104 

106 
108 

108 

109 
111 
112 
113 

113 

116 
116 
118 
118 
120 



121 
121 

121 
121 
122 
122 

123 
123 
124 
124 
124 



Vll 



Chapter VI. — Economic Geology — continued. 



Coal — contin iied. 
Origin of Coal . . 

Estimates of Coal in Ground and of Coal 
available for Extraction 
Summary 
" Rolls" 
Bore Logs 
Oil and (ias Shale 
Petroleum 

Introduction . . 
Mode of Occurrence 
Mode of Accumulation 

Anticlinal Theory 
Mode of Origin 

Physical and Chemical Properties 
Special Arcn — The Kotuku Oilfield 
Situation and Topographj- 
Risumi of Geology 



Page 

125 

12G 
127 
127 
128 
131 
132 
132 
132 
133 
133 
133 
134 
136 
13() 
137 



Petroleum — continued. 

Special Area — The Kotuku Oilfield — contd 
Oil-indications 

Petroleum Seepages 
Gas-escapes 
Rock smelling of Oil 
Mineral Springs 
Exploitation. . 

Kotuku Consolidated Oil Company 
Kotuku Oil .Association or Syndicate 
Lake Brunner Oil Company . . 
Kotuku Oilfields Syndicate . . 
Possible Oil-bearing Strata — Source of Oil 
Possible Oil-bearing Anticlines, Domes, am 

Terraces 
Recommendations regarding Boring 
General Recommendations 
Summary of Economic Geology 



Page 



138 
138 
139 
139 
139 
139 
140 
140 
143 
148 
148 

148 
149 
149 
150 



Index 



Page 
151 



Rainfall 

River Discharges 

Geological Formations 



Tables. 



Page 
.. 12 
.. 37 
41,51 



Vlll 



PLATES. 



I. The Paparoa Coal Company's Bins and Station at Roa, as seen from the Foot of 
No. 1 Incline 
II. Bucket Elevator, Wheel of Fortune Claim, Stafford . . 

III. The Paparoa Coal Company's Brakehouse at Head of Incline 
Cobden Limestone — Quarry South Side of Grey River 

IV. A Reach of the Arnold River between Kotuku and Lake Brunner 
The Exit of the Arnold River from Lake Brunner 

V. Lake Brunner from a Point near Moana Railway-station 
The Greymouth Gorjic — A Typical Water-gap 
VI. Sluiced Face of Fluvio-glacial Gravels near Hayes Terrace 

Manzoni and Party's Claim, CaUaghan's . . . . . . 



Facing pa!;e 

Frontispiece. 
10 

'. 20 



3-t 



40 



90 



DIAGRAMS IN TEXT. 



Fig. 1. Section near Healy's Gully, showing Pliocene Beds (Moutere Gravels) unconformably overlain 

by Auriferous Gravels 
Fig. 2. Section showing Structure in Upper Paparoa Creek 
Fig. 3. Plan of Outcrops, Waterfall Creek 
Fig. 3a. Semi-ideal Section along Course of Waterfall Creek 
Fig. 4. Plan of Outcrops, Tom Ridge 

Fig. 4a. Semi-ideal Section along Line o, 6, c, d, Tom Ridge 
Fig. 5. RoU in Coal-seam . . 
Fig. 6. Floor-roll or " Horseback " in Coal-seam 
Fig. 7. Roof-roll and Floor-roll or " Pinch " in Coal-seam 



Page 

74 
105 
107 
107 
108 
108 
127 
127 
128 



MAPS. 



Facing page 

1. Map of New Zealand, showing Land Districts and Divisions . . . . . . . . viii 

2. Map of North West land Division, showing Survev Districts and Area geologicaUv surveved viii 

3. Map of Kotuku Oilfield .. .. .. " .. .. .. .". \. 146 



Geological Map of Waimea Survey District . . 

Geological Map of Hohonu Survey District . . 

Geological Map of Cobden, Greymouth, Arnold, and Part of Temiko Survey Districts 

Geological Map of Mawheranui and Brunner Survey Districts . . 



In portfolio. 



GEOLOGICAL SECTIONS. 



(1.) Section along Line ABC, Waimea and Hohonu Survey Districts 

(2.) Section along Line D E, Brimner Survey District 

(3.) Section along Line F G H, Cobden and Mawheranui Survey Districts 



In portfolio. 




9ooo.*o9.sia 



By Authcrily : John Uatkay, Gcvtmmtnt Printer. 



BULLETIN No. 13 (NEW SERIES). 



THE GEOLOGY 



OF THE 



GREYMOUTH SUBDIVISION 



NORTH WESTLAND, 



CHAPTER I. 



GENERAL INFOHMATIOX. 





I'age 


Introduction 


1 


Field-work and Acknowledgments 


2 


Previous Geological Surveys . . 


2 


Literature . . 


3 


Character of Land and Soil . . 


. 11 


Climat* 


. 12 


Inhabitants 


. 12 



Means of Communication 

Primary Industries other than Mining — 

(1.) Timber Industry 

(2.) Agricultural and Grazing Indus- 
tries 

(3.) JLscellaneous Industries 



Page 

14 

14 
14 



iNTltODCCXrOX. 

The Greymontli Subdivision forms part of the North Westland Division, and lies to the 
north of tlie Hokitika Subdivision, described in Bulletin No. 1 * It includes the survey 
districts of Waimea, Hohonu, Brunner, Arnold, Greyuiouth, C'obden, and Mawheranui, 
together with the southern part of Teuuko Survey District, and a very small portion of 
Waiwhero Survey District,! and has approximately an area of 510 squaie miles. The 
western boundary of the subdivision is the Tasman Sea, its southern a line just over 
twenty-five miles h)ng that runs due east from a point on the coast a little to the north 
of Hokitika. The eastern boundary runs for nearly nine miles due north: it then runs 
south-east for four miles and a half, and then due north again for almost nineteen 
miles to the initial trigonometrical station of the Greymouth circuit near Ahaura. The 
northern boundary is an approximately east and we.st line .somewhat under fifteen miles 
long, the western extremity of which meets the coast-line about ten miles north of 
Grevmouth. 



* Bell, J. M., and Fraser, C. : " The Geology of the Hokitika Sheet, North Westland Quadrangle." 
Bull. No. 1 (New Series), N.Z. G.S., 1906. 

t Those mmor areas are included so as to bring the northern boundarj- of the Grey Coalfield within the 
subdivision. 
1 — Greymouth. 



Though considerable aie.is have been brouglit uiuler giass, the surface of the 
Greymouth Subdivision is as yet in great part covered by forest. Its relief is varied, 
mountains of considerable height appearing in tlis south-eastern and nortliern paits, 
whilst elsewhere hills and high terraces occupy niucli of the subdivision. 

In mineral wealth the district may be considered one of the richest in New Zealand. 
Its gravels have yielded millions of ounces of gold to the alluvial miner, and are still 
being extensively worked. The northern part of the area contains a coalfield of great 
economic impojtance. In the Kotuku district the occtirrence of petroleum under ap- 
parently favourable conditions indicates the existence of an oilfield as yet untapped. 

The stibdivision aUo contains good building-stones and brick-clays, together with 
limestones suitable for cement or for the manufacture of lime. Its timljer resources 
form an asset of great present value. 

Field-work axd Ackxowledgmexts. 

Field-work in the Greymouth Subdivision was commenced towards the end of 
October, 1908, and, except for an interval of about fotir months dtiring the winter of 
1909, was carried on contintiously to the middle of April, 1910. During the first eight 
months of this period the writer was aided by Mr. J. A. Bartrum, M.Sc, late Assistant 
Geologist,* whose capable co-operation may here be acknowledged. 

Much valuable information relating to topography was obtained from the Lands 
and Stirvey Office, Hokitika. Throughout the area the writer fottnd those engaged in 
the mining industry, as well as many others, always willing to give any information 
in their possession, and, though it is impossible to name all those wdto have assisted 
the work of the geological stirvey, thanks are due to one and all. To Dr. J. S. 
Maclatirin, Dominion Analyst, and his staff the writer is indebted for all analyses 
and assays appearing in this report, except a few expressly stated as obtained from 
other sources. 

Previgcts Geological Surveys. 

The late Sir Julius von Haast was the first geologist to examine any portion of the 
Grey Subdivision. In the year 1860 he travelled overland from Nelson to Greymouth, 
the last part of his journey lieing down the Grey Valley. Before setting out on his 
return jottrne}- vw the coast-line. Von Haast spent some time in an examination of the 
coal-measures exposed on the banks of the Grey River at the Brunner Gorge. Again in 
1865 and subsequent years Westland was revisited by Von Haast. He finally embodied 
the restilts of his explorations in his charmingly written " Geology of Canterbttry and 
Westland." 

In 1867 Sir James Hector made his first visit to the Grey district. He formed a 
very favourable opinion of the Grey Coalfield, and in his report urged the institution 
of an "exact geological survey." During the next thirty years several other flying in- 
spections of portions of the Greymouth Subdivision were made by this eminent geologist, 
T)ut he did not live to see the detailed survey that he had recommended carried otit. 

Late in 1870, or at the beginning of 1871, Mr. E. H. Davis, Assistant Geologist, 
visited the Greymouth district; but on 9th February, 1871, whilst engaged in the per- 
formance of his duties, he was drowned at the mouth of the Ten-mile Creek, and thus 
the country was deprived " of a talented and zealous worker in the fi.eld of science."! 

In 1873 Mr. Alexander McKay, besides collecting fossils from numerous localities 
in the Greymouth Subdivision, wrote a report containing many valuable notes. The 

* Since this was written Mr. Bartrum has rejoined the Oeological Survey staff. 

T W. T. L. Travers : " Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute," vol. iv, 1871, p. SfiO. 
See also Grey River Argm, 11th February, 1871. 



same geologist, in 1876, accompanied Mr. S. H. Cox (now Professor of Mining at tha 
Imperial College of Science and Technology, London) in a reconnaissance survey of the 
whole of Westland. In the Greymouth Subdivision the chief alluvial mining centres 
— Ahaura, Notowu, Pounaniu (Greenstone), Goldsborough, and Stafford — were visited. 
An inspection of a coal-outcrop at Coal Creek, near Blackball, was also made. 

In later years Mr. McKay repeatedly visited the subdivision, and embodied his 
results in a uuniljer of reports. Almost every part of the area has been examined by 
this veteran geologist, whose writings will always renuiin a mine of infdiination for 
the student of Westland geology. 

Ml-. ^V. U. Campbell, afterwards and until recently a meiMoei' of the geological 
survey staff of Western Australia, in 1877 inspected the Grey Coalfield, and wrote a 
shoi-t ixport thereon, containing a considerable amount nf infoiniati<)n. 

In 1887 the late Professor F. W. Hutton made a brief examination of tlie Cobden 
Limestone near Greymouth. 

Messrs H. A. Gordon, X. D. Cochrane, and other officers of the New Zealand 
Mines Department, who from time to time have inspected the various mining dis- 
tricts, iiave written reports that contain considerable material of pernuvnent value. 
These for the most part will be found in the annual reports of the Mines Depaitment, 
as published durintr tiie past twenty-three or twenty-four years. 



Literature. 

The list of literature here presented, wliilst giving, .so far as known to the writer, all 
the more important pul)lication8 relating to North Westland geoh)gy, as well as some 
relatively less imjjortant, is by no means complete 

The following abbreviations aie used :-- 

Trans. : Transactions of the New Zealand Institute. 

Rep. G.S. : Reports of the Geological Survey of New Zealand. 

Mines Report : Papeis and Reports inferring td .Minerals and .Mining (the 

annual volume publisheil by the New Zealand Mines Department). 
A capital letter followed by a figure (thus, C.-.'ij refers to a New Zealand par- 
liamentary paper. 

1861. Von Haast, Julius: "Report of a Topographical and Geological Exploration of 
the Western Districts of the Nelson Province." On page 29 mention is made 
of the coal-measures at Hrunner, of the limestone near Greymouth, and of the 
supposed Cretaceous rocks at Port Elizabetii. On pages .'{0-.'31 is a further 
mention of the coal-measures at the Brunner Gorge. Pages 43-4rj give the 
results of a detailed examination of the Brunner coal-measures made from 17th 
to 28th May, 1860. Pages 45 and 46 contain some geological details of the 
coast-line from Greymouth northwards. In the Chapter on Geology, pages 104- 
108 are devoted mainly to the coal-measures of the Grey district. These are 
considered to be of Oolitic age. 

1866. Hector, James : '' First General Report on tlie Coal Deposits of New Zealand." 
Rep. G.S., No. 1 (vol. 1). This publication, which appears to have been the 
first report issued by the New Zealand Geological Survey, contains some par- 
ticulars concei-ning the Grey Coalfield furnished by Sir Julius von Haast, and 
gives the results of boiler (steam-raising) trials of Brunner coal made at Wool- 
wich Dockyard. 

1* — Grevmoutli. 



1867. Hoclistetter, Ferdinand von : " Now Zealand." In tliis work, translated from 
the German (" Neusoeland," published in l^<(j;^), there are various references 
to the geology of the (Jreyinouth Subdivision or neighboui hood, founded on 
material derived from Di-. (afterwards Sir .luliusj von Haast. Pages <SG-87 give 
some account of the Brunner coal-mea.sures. 

18G8. Hector, James : " Abstract Report on the Progress of the Geological Survey of Xew 
Zealand during 1866-67." Rep. .G.S., No. 4 (vol. -1). On pages 24—27 the 
Grey Coalfield is briefly desci-ibed. Its prospects are discussed, and a favour- 
able opinion of the Urunner Mine is expressed. 

1869. Hector, James: "Mining in New^ Zealand." Trans., vol. ii, pages .361-84. On 

page ."509 are references to alluvial gold in North Westland. Some description 
of the Grey Coalfield is given on pages 380-81, and a geological map of the 
district is also included. 

1870. " Catalogue of the Colonial Mu.seum, Wellingion, N.Z." On page 192 is a list of 

fossils fi'om " Chalk and Chalk Marls " [Cobden Limestone and underlying 
mudstone] near the mouth of the Grey River. 

1871. Hector, James, and Blackett, J. : Parliamentary paper D. No. 6b, 1871. This 

paper refers unfavoural)ly to the capal:)ilities of Port Curtis (Port Elizabeth) 
for the construction of an artificial port. It mentions, however, that in 1868 
the late Mr. J. M. Balfour reported favourably. 

1872. Hector, James: "Report on the Coal-mines in the Western District of the Pro- 

vince of Nelson." Rep. G.S. during 1871-72, vol. 7, pages 129-141. On 
pages 130 and 131 the Giey River district is referred to. An accompanying 
plan shows the workings of the Brunner Mine, the line of fault to the north- 
west, various coal-outcrops, &c. 

1872. Hector, James: "General Report on the Coals of New Zealand." Rep. G.S. 

during 1871—72, vol. 7, pages 172—181. A classification of New Zealand coals 
is followed by a list of localities, with a large number of analyses. Of these 
analyses six (page 175) refer to the Brunner seam (average composition, .56'62 
per cent, fixed carbon, r.59 per cent. Avater, 6"11 per cent. ash). An analysis 
of the seam outcropping on the coast north of Point Elizabeth (at the Nine-mile 
Bluff) is also given (page 177). 

1873. Hector, James: "The Coalfields of New Zealand (Reports on)." E.-IO. On 

page 2 reference is made to the Grey River Coalfield. On page 4 are some 

analyses of Grey coals. 
1873. Hutton, F. W. : " Catalogue of the Tertiary Mollusca and Echinodermata of New 

Zealand in the Collection of the Colonial Museum." In this catalogue localities 

and geological formations are given for each fossil (in separate lists). A number 

of the fossils listed are from the Greymouth Subdivision. 
1877. Hector, James: "Progress Reports." Rep. G.S. during 1873-74, vol. 8. On 

page iv is a paragraph referring to the Grey Coalfield. Two sketch-maps of 

the " Coal Reserves, Grey District," are given. Page xiv contains a further 

reference to the geology of the district. 
1877. McKay, Alexander: " Reports Relative to Collections of Fossils made on the West 

Coast of the South Island." Rep. G.S. during 1873-74, vol. 8, pages 74-115. 

Pages 74-84 of this report refer to districts within the Greymouth Subdivison. 

While collecting fossils in Decemljer, 1873, McKay travelled over much of the 

area. His notes, besides giving descriptions of fossiliferous localities, contain 

valuable information concerning the general geology of the subdivision. 



1877. Hector, James: "Progress Report." Rep. G.S. (hiring 1S74-7G, vol. 9. On 
pages vii-xii are several references to the geology of tlie Greyiuouth Subdivision. 

1877. Cox, S. H. : •• Ueport on Westland District." Rep. G.S. during 1874-76, vol. 9, 
pages 03-93. In 1875-76 Cox, accompanied by McKay, made a reconnaissance 
of the whole country from Reefton to Bruce Bay (South Westland). In his 
report, which is one of considerable value, he makes a number of references to 
the geology of the Greymouth Subdivision. Cox considered that the auriferous 
rocks at Reefton rested unconformably on fossiliferous Devonian rocks (pages 68, 
75). On pages 64 and 80 are references to coal at Blackball. 

1877. Hector, James: "Progress Re^joit, 1876-77." Rep. G.S. during 1876-77, vol. 10. 
On pages iii-v is a new classification of tlie Xew Zealand geological formations. 
On pages xvi and xvii are paragraphs referring to coal-mines in the Greymouth 
District. 

1877. Campbell, W. D. : "Report on the Kanieri and Grey River Coal Districts." Rep. 

G.S. during 1876-77, vol. 10, pages 31-40. Pages 33-38 of this report give 
interesting particulars concerning the Grey Coalfield and the mines working 
therein. Several plans are appended. 

1878. Cox, S. H. : " Report on the Coal-mine.s of New Zealand inspected during the past 

Year." Rep. G.S. during 1877-78, vol. 11, pages 160-179. On pages 170-73 
the workings and machinery of the Wallsend, Coal-pit Heath, and Brunner 
coal-mines are described. On page 179 are analyses of coal from these three 
mines. 

1879. Von Haast, Julius: "The Geology of Canterbury and We.stland." The portions 

of this interesting volume that chiefly concern the Greymoutli Sulxlivision are 
those relating to the alluvial gold (pages 361-65) and to the coal-measures 
(pages 298-99, 451). See also the first publication on this li.st (1861V 

1879. Hector, James: "Progress Report." Rep. G.S. during 1878-79, vol. 12. Pages 
1-17 give an outline of New Zealand geology, and contain a number of refer- 
ences to the Greymouth Subdivision. Pages 18-19 give some particulars con- 
cerning the then recently opened gold-workings at Kumara. On pages 19-20 
are described the gold- and antimony-bearing reefs in the valley of Langdon 
Creek, near Brunnerton. 

1879. Hector, James: ■"Handbook of New Zealand." This publication, ])repared for 
distribution at the Sydney International Exhibition in 1879, contains, inter 
alia, brief accounts of New Zealand geology and mining. There are vai'ious 
references to the (Jieymouth Subdivision. A second edition was pul)lished in 
1880 (Melbourne Exhibition): a third in 1883; and a fourth in 1886 (Indian 
and Colonial Exhibition). 

1881. Cox, S. H. : " Notes on the Mineralogy of New Zealand." Trans., vol xiv, 

pages 418-50. The only minerals recorded as occurring in the Greymouth Sub- 
division are stibnite, spathic iron-ore (siderite), and gold. 

1882. Cox, S. H. : " Notes on the Mineralogy of New Zealand." Trans., vol. xv, 

pages 361-409. The minerals specifically recorded from the Greymouth Sul)- 
division are : Bituminous coal (analysis given) and nephiite (two analyses 
given). Besides these, various other minerals tliat occur in tlie subdivision aie 
mentioned as coming from Westland. 

1883. McKay, Alex. : " On Antimony Ix)de and Quartz Reefs at Langdon's Hill, 

Grey County." Rep. G.S. during 1882. vol. 15, pages 83-85. 



a 

1883. McKa}-, Alex. : "" On the Geology of the Keefton District, luangahua County," 
Rep. G.S. during 1882, vol. 15, pages 91-153. In this report McKay datails 
fully his reasons for considering the Reefton auriferous rocks younger than 
the Devonian locks. On page 131 the former are correlated with tlie rocks 
of the Grey Valley above Brunnarton, particularly as observed at Langdon's 
Hill (south end of Paparoa Range), where lodes carrying gold and antimony, 
as at Reefton, occur. 

1886. Hector, James: "Detailed Catalogue and Guide to the Geological Exhibits, 
New Zealand Court, Indian and Colonial Exhibition, 1886." This catalogue 
gives a number of fossils occurring in the Greymouth Subdivision, and con- 
tains several analyses of coals therefrom. 

1886. Hector, James: "Outline of New Zealand Geology." This little pamphlet 

was originally issued as the second part of the catalogue for the Indian and 
Colonial Exhibition, mentioned above. It contains scattered references to the 
geology of the Grey Subdivision, and drawings of several f(}ssils from the 
neighbourhood of Greymouth and Brunner are among the illustrations. 

1887. " Index to Fossiliferous Localities in New Zealand." Rep. G.S. during 

1886-87, vol. 18, appendix (pages 255-70). The index gives a number of 
localities in the Greymouth district. Numbers are attached by which the 
fossils therefrom can be traced in the collection now in the Dominion Museum, 
Wellington. 
1887. Ettinghausen, Constantin von: " Beitrage zur Kenntniss der fossilen Flora 
Neuseelands." Denkschriften der ]\Iathematisch-Naturwissenschaftlichen Classe 
der Kaiserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften (Vienna), Band liii. This paper 
describes plants from the New Zealand ct)al-measures, including a number of 
fossil leaves from the Grey District (Brunner). Nine plates of drawings are 
appended. See also Trans., vol. xxiii, 1890. 

1887. Galvin, P.: "The Handbook of New Zealand Mines." This publication, 
edited by Mr. P. Galvin, has a preface by the Hon. W. J. M. Larnach, Minister 
of Mines, under whose direction it was compiled. The volume contains a 
good account of the early gold-discoveries on the West Coast. The alluvial 
gold - mining and the coal - mining industries receive considerable attention. 
References are made also to iron-ore, antimony-ore, &c., within the Greymouth 
Subdivision. 

1887. "Accident in Wallsend Coal-mine." Parliamentary paper (not lettered or num- 
bered). This paper, the report of the Commissioner appointed to incjuire 
into the cause of an explosion wliereby a miner named James Dunn was in- 
jured, is of interest in that it attributes the explosion to a blown-out sliot, 
which, aided by firedamp, gave rise to a coal-dust explosion. The evidence 
given seams fully to justify this conclusion. In 1896 tlie disastrous Brunner 
explosion appears to have been similarly caused. 

1887. Hutton, F. W. : " On some Fossils recently obtained from the Cobden 
Limestone at Greymouth." Trans., vol. xx, pages 267—69. Hutton concludes 
that the fossil evidence indicates the Cobden Limestone to be of Upper Eocene 
or Lower Miocene — i.e., Oligocene — age. 

1889. " AVestland Coalfields Committee (Report of, together with Minutes of Evidence 
and Appendix)." I. -6. This report deals with the state of the coal-mining 
industry on the west coast of the South Island in 1889. It is concerned largelj' 
with commercial questions. 



1889. Hutton, F. W. : •' On the Kelative Ages of the New Zealand Coalfields." Irans., 

vol. xxii, 1889, pages 377-(^7. On page 387 the Grey Coaltield and its fossils 
are discussed. 

1890. Ettiughausen, Constantin von.: "'Contributions to the Knowledge of the Fossil 

Flora of New Zealand." Trans., vol. xxiii, pages 237—310. This is a trans- 
lation by C. Juhl, of Von Ettinghausen's paper of 1887. The plates, repro- 
duced on a smaller scale than the original, are of a poor character. 

1890. Hector, James: "Progress Report." Kep. G.S. during 1888-89, vol. 20. Pages 

xiii— xxiii refer to the Grey Coaltiehl. Hectoi- estimates the workable coal- 
bearing area (not including the Blackball district or coal below sea-level) at 
6,000 acres, and estimates the probable yield of coal from this area at 
37,000,000 tons. A small map facing page xvi shows the Cobden Coal Com- 
panj-'s lease (now part of the State Coal-mine reserve). On page xxvii the 
probable area of the Grey Coalfield is estimated at 4-1,800 acres, containing 
r)3,7G0,00O tons of coal. These figures appear irreconcilable witli those just 
quoted. 

1891. " Report of Royal Commission on Grey Valley Coal-mines." C.-3a, Sess. II. 

This report contains a considerable amount of information regarding the 
history and working of the Brunnei', Coal-pit Heatli, and Wallsond mines. 

1892. Hector, James: 'Progress Report." Rep. G.S. during 1890-91, vol. 21. 

Under the heading of " Duller Coalfi:;ld " (page xxxiii), the age of the New 
Zealand c<jal-measures is discussed, with special reference to tlie paper by 
Professor F. \V. Hutton, in vol. x.\ii of the " Transactions of the Ne^y Zea- 
land Institute " (1889). Page xxxviii deals in great part with tlie Grey Coal- 
field. Here Hector asserts tliat there is no unconformity between the Brunner 
coal-seam and the Cobden Jjimestone. Opposite page xl is a plan showing the 
underground workings of the Grey Valley coal-mines (Brunner, Coal-pit Heath, 
and Wallsend collieries). 

1892. .McKay, Alex. : " On the Geology of Marlborough and South-east Nelson " 
(Part II). Rep. G.S. during 1890-91, vol. 21, pages 1-28. In this report 
Mr. McKay endeavours to show how, tiirough faulting and other physical 
causes, tlie present land-features of the South Island originated. This paper, 
wiiich deserves careful reading by all students of New Zealand geology, contains 
many references tliat apply to the Greymouth Sulxlivision and neighboiii liood. 

1892. Hector, James: "Minerals of New Zealand.'' R:!p. G.S. during 1890-91, 
vol. 21, pages 105-20. Some minerals and localities in the Grey Subdivision 
are mentioned. For this list see also Irans. Aust. Ass. Adv. Sci., vol. ii, 1891, 
page 269; and New Zealand Mines Record, vol. iii, 1899-1900, pages 256-62. 

1892. "Index to Fossiliferous Localities in New Zealand"; "Index to Fossiliferous 
Localities according to the Counties in which they occur." Rep. G.S. during 
1890-91, vol. 21 (appendices), pages 120-78. These indexes contain various 
references to fossiliferous localities in the Grey Subdivision (see particularly 
page 153;. 

1892. McKay, Alex.: "On that Part of the West Coast Goldfields lying Ix'tween the 
Teremakau and the Mikonui Rivers, Westland." Bulletin No. 1 [Old Series] 
of N.Z. Geol. Sur., 1892. This little pamphlet describes the geology of the 
Kumara gold-drifts, and recommends (somewhat doubtfully) a site for a pro- 
specting-shaft designed to prove the lower gravels of the deep ground Ix'tween 
Kumara and Dilmanstown. 



1892. Binns, George J.: "Mining in New Zealand." A paper read before the Fede- 

rated institute of Mining Engineers, and published in their Transactions. It 
contains manj- valuable mining data, some o,f which refer to the Greymouth 
Subdivision. 

1893. McKay, Alex.: "Geological Explorations of the Northern Part of Westland." 

Mines Report, C.-3, pages 132-86. This valuable report describes the general 
geology, auriferous leads, etc., of the area between the Grey and Mikonui risers. 
It contains a summary of previous literature relating to Westland, and is 
accompanied by a coloured map. McKay gives full consideration to the 
alluvial gold-deposits of Westland. He considers that nmch of the gold 
therein was derived from a mountainous area that once lay to the west of the 
present coast-line. The Kumara gold, however, came from the east (Taipo 
River watershed). 

1893. Gordon, H. A., McKay, Alex., and Cochrane, N. D. : " Report on Leaseholds of 

Grey Valley Coal Company." C.-8. This report deals with the conditions 
prevailing in the Brunner, Coal-pit Heath, and Wallsend mines in 1893. 
Pages 5-7 deal with the geology of the Grey Coalfield, and- pages 7-8 
with faults. Finally, certain recommendations for future developments are 
made. A map of the Grey Coalfield and plans of the mine-workings are 
appended. 

1894. McKay, Alex.: "On the Kumara Gold-drifts, Westland." Rep. G.S. during 

1892-93, vol. 22, pages 6-11. 

1894. McKay, Alex.: "On the Geology of the Northern Part of Westland and the 
Gold-bearing Drifts between the Teremakau and Mikonui Rivers." Rep. G.S. 
during 1892-93, vol. 22, pages 11-50. This report covers much the same 
ground as that published in the Mines Report, 1893 (C.-3). 

1894. Tate, Ralph: "Critical List of the Tertiary MoUusca and Echinodermata of 

New Zealand in the Collection of the Colonial Museum." Rep. G.S. during 
1892-93, vol. 22, pages 121-27. This list refers to type specimens of Echino- 
dermata named or identified by F. \V. Hutton in " Catalogue of the Tertiary 
Mollusca and Echinodermata of New Zealand," 1873. 

1895. McKay, Alex. : " Report on the Geology of the South-west Part of Nelson and 

the Northern Part of the Westland District." Mines Report, C.-13. This 
report is one of considerable value for reference in connection with the geology 
of the Grey Subdivision. 

1896. Gordon, H. A., and McKay, Alex. : " Mining Reserves, Nelson and Westland." 

Mines Report, C— 9. This report, inter aha, contains a sunimai'y of North 
Westland geology, discusses the origin of tlie auriferous gravels, and repeats 
McKay's opinion as expressed in his reports of 1893 and 1894. 

1896. "Report of Royal Commission on Brunner Coal-mine Disaster." C.-6. The 
report of the Commissioners (one of whom was Sir James Hector), the evidence 
obtained from witnesses, and tlie appended plans give information concerning 
the workings of the Brunner Mine that otherwise would probably not now be 
available. 

1896. " Midland Railway Arbitration." D.-4. In this arbitiation case much evidence 
concerning the mineral and other natural resources of the Grey Subdivision was 
given. In particular, the evidence of the Hon. R. J. Seddon (pages 208, 316), 
Sir James Hector (pages 183, 259), Messrs. Alex. McKay (page 240), H. A. 



9 

Gordon (pages 280, 286), P. F. Daniell (page 240), and T. F. Fenton (page 42), 
as well as of others, is of value in this connection. The addresses of counsel, 
together with the award given by the arbitrator (Hon. E. Blake), may also be 
consulted. 

1896(/). Hutton, F. W. : '• Keport on the District traversed by the New Zealand Mid- 
land Railway, Clrii.stcliurch." Not seen by the writer. Title quoted from A. 
Hamilton's list of papers on Now Zealand geology in Trans., vol. xxxv, 1902 
(page 509). 

1897. Gordon, H. A. : Presidential Address, Trans. X.Z. Inst, of Mining Engineers, 
vol. 1. On pages 13 and 14 are references to Westland geology-. 

1899. McKay, Alex. : "" Ni)tos on the Auriferous Ironsands of New Zealand." Mines 
Report, C.-9, pages I.j-IG, (See also Sew Zeahiud Mines liecord, vol. i, 
1897-98, pages 395^ 446.) Reprinted in 1901 as a pamphlet. Mention is made 
of the auriferous black-sands occurring on the sea-beaches of Westland. 

1899. Hutton, F. W. : '"The Geological History of New Zealand." Trans., vol. xxxii, 

pages 159-8.3. This iniportant- paper has references to the geology of the Grey- 
mouth Subdivision on pages 168, 171. 

1900. Park, James: "Notes on the Coalfields of New Zealand." Xew Zealand Mines 

Record, vol. iii, pages 349-52. (See also Proc. Inst. Min. and Metall., vol. viii, 
page 146.) This paper gives a general description of New Zealand coal-mea- 
sures, together with estimates of the amount of coal contained therein. Regaid- 
ing the age of the coal, Park remarks: "All the workable seams of coal are 
found in measures of Lower Eocene age." He has, however, somewhat altered 
his views during recent years. See '" The Geology of New Zealand " (1910), 
Chapters VIII and XIII. 

1901. "Report of Royal Commi.ssion on I'oal-miiies oi New Zealand." C.-4. From 

this report much information may be gleaned concerning the coal-mines of the 
Greynioutli District. 

1901. McKay, Alex. : 'Geological Explorations." (General Report for the year 1900-1.) 
Mines Report, C.-lO. On page 2 is a paragrajdi heudud " Boring for Coal at 
Dobson, Grey Valley." Though he recommends a bore near the Dobson Bluff, 
McKay states that he is not sanguine as to success. His reasons will l)e found 
in the Xew Zealand Mines Record, vol. iv, 1900-1, page 86. 

1901. McKay, Alex. : " Report on Supposed Coal-seams in Kaiata Range, Greyniouth." 
Mines Report, C.-IO, pages 2, 7-8. See also Xew Zealand Minex Record, vol. iv, 
1000-1, pages 203-4. 

1901. McKay, Alex. : "Report on Indications of Petroleum at Deep Creek, Lake Brunncr, 

Nelson." Mines Report, C.-IO, pages 3, 10-12. See also New Zealand Mines 
Record, vol. iv, 1900-1, pages 201-3. In this report McKay states what was 
then known concerning the petroleum <jccurrences at Kotuku. He ascribes the 
origin of the oil to Miocene beds containing a large amount of fragmentary 
coal. 

1902. Hamilton, A. : " List of Pajiers on the Geology of New Zealand." Trans., 

vol. xxxv, pages 489-546. 

1903. McKay, Alex. : " Gold Deposits of Xew Zealand." In tliis little work, reprinted 

with additions from vols, v (1901-2) and vi (1902-3) of the New Zealand. Mines 
Record, McKay has a good deal to say concerning the alluvial goldfields of the 
Greymouth Subdivision (see more especially pages 36-41 and pages 74, 75). 



10 

1903. "State Coal-mines (Report on the Working of)." Mines Report, C— 3b. This is 
a general report on the State coal-mines on the west coast of the South Island 
by the manager, Mr. A. B. Lindop. Similar reports, with maps, by Mr. James 
Bishop appear in the Mines Reports of succeeding years. 

1903. Park, James : "On the Age and Relations of the New Zealand Coalfields." Trans., 
vol. xxxvi, pages 405-18. In this paper the coalfields of New Zealand are placed 
in two groups, one of Oamaru [Miocene] age, the other of AVaipara [probably 
Upper Cretaceous] age. The Greymouth coal-measures are assigned to the older 
group. See also Park's " Geology of New Zealand," Chapters VIII and XIII. 

1903. McLeod, H. N. : "Some Caves and Water-passages in tlie Greymouth District." 
Tians., vol. xxxvi, pages 479—80. 

1905. Marshall, P. : " Geography of New Zealand.'" In this work various references 

are made to the physical features, rainfall, &c., of Westland. On pages 141-42 
the supposed history of the Grey River and its valley is indicated. The coal- 
mining industry of Westland is mentioned on pages 283 and 284. 

l'JU(3. Bell, J. M., and Fraser, C. : "The Geology of the Hokitika Sheet, North West- 
land Quadrangle." N.Z. Geol. Surv., Bull. No. 1 (New Series). This report 
deals with the detailed geology and mineral resources of an area innnediately 
adjoining the Greymouth Subdivision, and therefore should be consulted in 
connection with the present publication. In future references the title of this 
bulletin will generall}- be abbreviated to Bull. No. 1. The titles of later 
bulletins will be similarly abbreviated. 

1906. P. Galvin and others: "The New Zealand Mining Handbook." This publica- 

tion, on nearly the same lines as the 1887 Handbook, was also edited by Mr. 
P. Galvin, and was issued under the authority of the Hon. James McGowan, 
Minister of Mines. 

1906. Loughnan, R. A. : "■ The First Gold-discoveries in New Zealand." This publica- 

tion, reprinted from vols, ix and x (1905-6, 1906-7) of the iVew Zealand 
Mines Becord, is a compilation from various sources of information, written 
in a popular style. Pages 49-66 deal with the Westland Goldfield. 

1907. Maclaurin, J. S. : " Report on Analyses of New Zealand Coals made at New Zea- 

land Intei'national Exhibition, Christchurch, 1906-7." This report contains 
proximate analyses of coal from the various mines of the Grey Coalfield. Calo- 
rific values are appended to all analyses. The analytical work was performed 
by Messrs. W. Donovan, M.Sc, and L. Andrew. 

1907. Smith, J. P.: "Some Alkaline and Nepheline Rocks from Westland." Trans., 

vol. xl, pages 122-137, plates xvii-xix. The rocks described in this paper are 
nearly all from the Grey Subdivision. The identification of a riebeckite-granite- 
porphyry may be specially mentioned. 

1908. Morgan, P. G. : "The Geology of the Mikonui Subdivision, North Westland." 

N.Z. Geol. Surv. Bull. No. 6 (New Series), llie more general portions of 
this report are often applicable to the Greymouth Subdivision. The references 
on page 102 to the Greymouth coal-measures require some revision in the light 
of the present report. 

1908. Marshall, P: "Additions to the Li.st of New Zealand Minerals." Trans, vol. xli, 
pages 105-10. Nepheline and riebeckite in rocks from the Greymouth Sub- 
division are specially noted. See also paper by J. P. Smith (1907). 



11 

190B. Marshall, P.: "Distribution of the Igneous Rocks of New Zealand." Trans. 
Au.st. Ass. Adv. Sci. (Adelaide, 1907), vol. xi, pages 3G6-7G. On pages 369 
and 370 are references to the igneous rocks of North Westland. 

1908. Maclaren, J. Malcolm: "Gold: its Geological Occurrence and Geograpliical Dis- 

tribution." On page 91 is a reference to the mode of formation of auriferous 
beach-sands in New Zealand and elsewhere. On page 319 the auriferous gravels 
and sands of Westland are mentioned. 

1909. Hamilton, A.: "The Present Position of New Zealand Palivontoh.gy ; with a 

List of Papers on the Palaeontology of New Zealand, including the Titles of 
those Stratigraphical Papers containing Important liists of Fossils." Trans., 
vol. xlii, pages 4:G-()3. 

1910. Park, James: "The Geology of New Zealand." The numerous references in this 

work having bearing upon the geology of the Greyniouth Subdivision cannot 
here be detailed. The most important are those relating to the coal-measures 
(Chapters VIII and XIII). The bibliography (pages -109-04) is of great value. 

1910. Anonyuious . "The OilHelds of New Zealand."" Minitiy Jounuil, vol. Ixxxix, 11th, 
18th, and 25th June. In the issue of the 2jth June, page 805, is a brief de- 
scription of the Kotuku District. 

In addition to the literature already cited, a number of references to North West- 
land geology will be found in the numerous papers by Sir Julius von Haa.st, published 
in the " Transactions of tlie New Zealand Institute," and in vaiious foreign journals 
(see " Bibliography " in Park's " Geoh)gy of New Zealand "). 

In the earlier reports of the Colonial Museum and Laboratory, edited by Sii James 
Hector, various references of a geological character will Ije found, together with analyses 
by Mr. Wm. Skey. The later Laboratory Keports of Mr. Hkey and of Dr. J. S. Mac- 
laurin contain many analyses -of samples from the Greyniouth Subdivision. 

The annual reports of the Mines Department (" Papers and Repoits relating to 
Minerals and Mining ") from 1887 to the present time contain a vast amount of infor- 
mation relating to the mining industries in the Greyniouth Subdivision. 

The New Zenlaml Mines Record, fiom its first issue in 1897 until its publication 
was discontinued in 1909, also contains mucii valuable matter relating to mining, &c. 

Finally, it may be mentioned that during the last ten or twelve years the various 
mining journals of the English-speaking world have published numerous articles on gold- 
dredging in New Zeahuul. Many of these articles contain references to di-edging in 
North Westland. 

Chakacteu of Land axd Soil. 

Though, like other parts of Westland, the Greyniouth Subdivision contains no land 
well adapted for the production of cereals, there are extensive areas which, wiien cleared 
and grassed, form good pasture-land. The largest of these are in the Grey Valley, 
above Stillwater, and again between Taylorville and the Greymouth Gorge. The valleys 
of the Lower Arahura, Taramakau, and New rivers contain numerous fertile river- 
flats. Along the greater part of the coast-line is a narrow coastal plain, mo.st of which 
is now under grass. Many of the terrace slopes and tops, if cleared, would afford fair 
pasture-land. In the Grey Valley and elsewhere are swamp-areas, perhaps difficult and 
costly to drain completely. Such land, however, if partly drained, would grow New- 
Zealand flax (Phorrmum tenax) very readily. 



I'A 

The gentler slopes of the Rapahoe Range and the limestone liills south of Grey- 
niouth are likely to be cleared in future years, and will then make excellent graziug- 
land. On the Hohonu Range, above the timber-line, is a considerable area that supports 
native gi-asses and herbs, and is now being utilized in the summer months for the pas- 
turage of sheep. 

Climate. 

The climate of the Greymouth Subdivision is of the same character as that of tjie 
Hokitika and Mikonui subdivisions described in Bulletins Nos. 1 and 6. It niay 
be noted, however, that the rainfall is, in general, somewhat less than at Hokitika, 
though perhaps slightly greater in the decidedly mountainous parts. At Ahaura, in 
the north-east corner of the subdivision, the rainfall appears to be notably less than 
at Greymouth or Hokitika. 

The following table, kindly supplied by the Metaorological Department, shovrs the 
average monthly and yearly rainfall at Greymouth, at Hokitika (just to the south of 
the subdivision), and at Otira (some distance to the east of the subdivision): — - 



Locality. 



>, 


^ 














i 


_ 


1 


1 

1 


3 


ID 


1 


1 


& 


5 




3' 


i 

Pi 


o 


s 

o 


►^ 


^ 


g 


■< 


B 


i-j 


1-5 


< 


a§ 


O 


2; 


" 



Greymouth . . 


9-01 


6-09 


10-18 


8-76 


8-47 


8-82 


8-44 


7-27 


7-34 


10-03 


8-43 


9-27 


101-31 


Hokitika . . 


9-78 


7-66 


10-12 


8-71 


10-24 


10-20 


9-32 


9-01 


8-65 


11-38 


10-03 


10-98 


116-09 


Otira 


13-10 


6-94 


16-24 


22-50 


16-68 


19-78 


12-71 


11-71 


15-24 


24-31 


12-57 


16-84 


188-62 



The annual average at Greymouth is founded on an 18-year period, that at Hoki- 
tika on a 31-year period, and that at Otira on a l-year period. The monthly averages 
show that the heavy rainfall of North Westland is well distributed over the various 

months. 

Inhabitants. 

The Grey Subdivision, with probably nearly fifteen thousand inhabitants, is more 
thickly populated than any other part of the western coast of the South Island. The 
principal centre is the rapidly growing Port of Greymouth, which with its suburb Cob- 
den contains a population of over six thousand. The coal-mining industry is responsible 
for the townships of Ruuanga, Dunollie, Brunnerton, Blackball, and Roa. At Nelson 
Creek (Hatters), Notown, Kuniara, Stafford, and Goldsborough alluvial gold-mining is the 
chief resource of the inhabitants, whilst tiiuber-milling has given rise to a large number 
of small settlements, among which may Ije mentioned Kokiri, Kaimata, Kotuku, and 
Moana. Other townships where the inhabitants follow a variety of pursuits are Ahaura, 
Ngahere, Stillwater, and Dobson. 



Means of Communication. 

Ihroughout the Greymouth Subdivision the internal means of communication ai-e 
better than in most parts of New Zealand. Communication with the outside world, 
however, is impeded on the one hand by tlie want of a thoroughly reliable harbour, on 
the other by the barrier of the Southern Alps, crossed at only one point by a road suit- 
able for wheel-^d traffic. 

Greymouth, the only harbour, is a river-port with, as a rule, between 20 ft. and 
21 ft. of water on the bar at high tide. \Vlien, however, anything more than a moderate 
sea is running, or when the river is in flood, the bar becomes unnegotiable for shipping 



13 



Though artificial moans liave been successful in practically doubling the original depth 
of water on the bar, it appeals that heavy expenditure is necessary in order to secure 
further substantial improvement. 

The following figures for tiie year 1909, supplied by Mr. H. 15. Burnett, formerly 
secretary to the (Ireymouth Harbour Board, will give some idea of the dimensions of 
the shipping trade : — 

Vessels entered inwards Number. Tonnage. 

Steamers G80 337, IG? 

Sailing-vessels .. ... . .31 4,552 



11 



341,719 



G79 


336,765 


31 


4,518 


710 


341,283 




£99,429 




£387,372 




335,151 tons 




2,596 tons. 




31,1,^1,000 sup. ft 



Total 
Vessels entered outward 
Steamers 
Sailing-vessels 

Total . 
Value of imports passed tlirough Customs 
,, e.\ports passed through Customs 

Coal exported 
Coke exported 
Timlier (including sleepers) exp<jrted 

At th^ so-called Port Elizabetli (more correctly named Port Curtis), five miles nortii 
of Greymouth, there is a shallow bay, sheltered from south-west weather by Point 
Elizal>eth, but open to the north and north-west. By taking advantage of a line of small 
islanils luuTiing northward from Point Elizal)eth, a mole could be constructed without 
difliculty, and this, witli a minor mole from the north side of the bay, would form a 
safe harbour of ade(iuate size for North Wcstland reipiirements. Considerable dredg- 
ing, however, would be necessary before the harbour could be used by laige vessels. 

The subdivision is well provided with railways. From Greymouth a line luns 
south-west along the coast to Hokitika, and thence to Rdss, thirty-nine miles from 
Greymouth. A second line runs south-eastward for fifty-two miles to Otira, and is 
now being continued by means of a great tunnel through the Southern .Alps. With 
the completion of this tunnel and of the works in progress on the eastern side of the 
Alps a connection with the main railway system of the South Island will be made, and 
the isolation from which Westland has suffered so much will in great measure be 
removed. 

At Stillwater a laihvay intended to connect ultimately with northern Nelson 
branches off from the Otira line. At present it reaches Cronadun, a small township a 
few miles north of Reefton. At Ngahere a branch line that runs westward a fow miles 
serves to transport the coal from the Blackball and Paparoa mines. 

The la.st line to be mentioned has lieen constructed from Greymouth to Dunollie, the 
site of Point Elizabeth State Coal-mine Xo. 1 bins. This line is being extended up the 
valley of the Seven-mile Creek for several miles, so as to serve the new mine now being 
opened up by the Mines Department (Point Elizabeth State Coal-mine No. 2). 

On the whole, the subdivision is very well furnished with roads and tracks. Tlicre 
is, however, no direct road between Greymouth and Hokitika, ordinary vehicular traffic 
having to proceed via Kumara. A somev.hat important road now under construction 
is one up the Arnold Valley, which, when completed, will supplement the railway, which 
at present affords the oidy means of communication between the Kotuku - Tiake Brunner 
district, and Greymouth. 



14 

PiinfAKY Industries othkh than Mixing. 
(1.) Timber liifliisfnj. 

Next to mining, the conversion of timber is the most important industry of the sub- 
division. There are about twenty-five sawmills in the area, two of which belong to 
the State coal-mine, llie majority of the mills are capable of cutting from 8,000 to 
12,000 superficial feet of timber per day of eight working-hours. One or two have a 
slightly greater capacity, and a few are very small concerns. It will be noted that the 
subdivision possesses no sawmills comparable with the great lumber-mills of Puget Sound, 
some of which are said to be capable of producing 500,000 ft. of sawn timber per day 
of ten working-hours.* 

All the larger sawmills are situated within a mile of the railway, but a few mills 
have to cart or tram their sawn material several miles. Though easily accessible bush 
is fast being cut out, there is enough timber in the subdivision to maintain the present 
production for many years. Plentiful supplies of mining timber are still available, 
but in the coal-mining districts a scarcity will Ije experienced within a few years. 

The chief timlier tree is the rimu, or red-pine. Other timbers milled are manoao 
or silver-pino, kahikatea or white-pine, the so-called Ijlack-birch — really a beech {Fagiis 
fuHca) — and to a less extent totara, inatai or black-pine, miro, hinau, and the silver- 
beech (Fagus Menziesii). 

During the years 1907—10 the exports of timber from Greymouth were as follows: — 

1907 ... ... ... 44,195,000 superficial feet. 

1908 ... ... ... ... 50,531,000 

1909 ... ... ... ... 31,181,000 

lOlOt ... ... ... ... 41,703,126 

Probably three-fourths of these amounts was milled in the Greymouth Subdivision. The 
figures for home consumption are not availaljle, but this may be estimated as l^etween 
5 and 10 per cent, of the timber exported. 

(2.) Agriciiltvral arul Grazinr/ Industries. 

Though in the strict sense of the word there is little agriculture in the Greymouth 
Subdivision beyond the cultivation of small gardens, the clearing of bush-land so as to 
enable it to be laid down in grass is proceeding at a fairly rapid rate. There is, 
however, but little attempt being made to complete the felling of the bn«h in areas 
where the large timber is being cut down for sawmilling purposes. It ought to be 
stated, however, that in many cases such work would be unprofitable at the present time. 

Cattle-grazing is the principal branch of farming followed at the present time. 
Dairying receives some attention, there being creameries at Matai (Grey Valley) and 
Omotumotu, and a central butter-factory at Greymouth. Sheep-farming is but little 
practised. 

(3.) Miscellaneous Industries. 

The miscellaneous primary industries of the Greymouth Subdivision include bee- 
farming, fruit-farming, the milling of New Zealand flax, sea-fishing, quarrying build- 
ing-stone, lime-burning, and brick-making. Xone of these industries is conducted 
on a large scale. 



* Report of Royal Commission on the Timber and Timber-biulding Industries, H.-24, 1909, pages 
290, 827. 

t The figures for this year are taken from the Greymouth Evening Star (11th January, 1911). The same 
naper gives the timber export for 1909 as 39,879,503 superficial feet, and that for 1908 as 50,625,935 superficial 
feet. 



15 



CHAPTER II. 



MINING INDUSTRY. 



Page Page 

Introduction .. .. .. 15 (3.) Coal-mining .. .. .. 20 

(1.) Alluvial Mining .. .. 15 General and Historical Account 20 

General and Historical Account 15 Methods of Working . . 23 

Hydraulic and Grouml Sluic- , Labour Conditions . . . . 26 

"ing .. .. .. '^ Output .. .. .. 27 

Driving-out .. .. 17 I Future Prospects of Coal-mining 

Blacksanding .. .. 17 Industry .. .. 27 

Dredging .. .. .. 17 Conservation of Coal Resources 28 

(2.) Lode-mining .. .. .. 18 (4.) Petroleum .. .. .. 30 



Inthodlction. 

Mining is by fiii- the most iiiipt)itaut intlusti'v of the Greyiiioiith Subdivision, more tiiaii 
half its inhabitants depending directly or indirectly on coal or ^o\d mining for their 
livelihood. Foi- some years after the first gold-discoveries alluvial mining was almost 
tlie only occupation followed by the inliabitants, but is now in a somewhat decadent 
state. In lode-mining little has l)een done, but coal-mining, whieli l)egan in a small 
way, has developed into an industry of great conse(|uence, that promises to be even 
more important in the futuie. 

An account of tiie mining industry may Ik' given under th;.' headings of (1) alluvial 
mining, (2) lode-mining, and (-"5) coal-mining. In addition, the occurrence of petroleum 
and the attempts made to develop an oil-industry will be mentioned, though a full 
description will be deferred to the last chapter. 

(I.) Alluvial Minino. 
Genrrnl and /fisforical Account. 

It is not certain when gold was discovered in the Gieymouth Subdivision. For 
some years prior to 1863 its existence seems to have been i^nown to the .NLioris, and 
pf>ssibly to a few Euiopeans. Early in 186"^ " jiayalile gold " is said to liave been found 
in the terrace on tiie .Miuth bank of the Taramakau River, close to the sea-lx;ach.* 
During the next twelve numths a considerable amount of desultory prospecting went on, 
and in January, 186-1, a few ounces of gold had lieen obtained.! 

Some months later it transpired that Albert Hunt, an e.\perienced miner, was 
obtaining good results at Maori Point, on the Greenstone or Big Hohonu River, a few 
miles south-east of where Kumara now stands. In August, two hundred diggers, it is 
said, were at work in this locality. Before tiie end of the year alluvial gold was found 
at many other places in the subdivision, and early In 186.") a great rush set in, men 
from all parts of New Zealand and Australia flocking in thousands to the new Eldorado. 
Among the more notable alluvial diggings discovered within a year or two of this time 
may be mentioned Stafford and Goldsborough, in the Waiinea watershed, Callaghan's 
(Waimea Survey District), Rutherglen, Cameron's, Marsden, Maori Creek (Dunganville), 



* " Handbook of New Zealand Mine.«," 1887, p. 112. (Part I.) 
t" Handbook of New Zealand JUnes," 1887, p. 115. (Part I.) 



16 

Maori Gully (south side of Arnold River), Candlelight, Xotown, Red Jack's, the Lamp- 
lough lead near Chesterfield, and the Auckland lead on the coast north of Waimea 
Creek. The beach-sands themselves were found to be auriferous, often richly so. The 
Kumara Goldfield, however, perhaps the most important of all, was not discovered until 
1876. Since then there have been no notable discoveries of alluvial gold within the sub- 
division. 

It is in the nature of most alluvial goldfields that their licher portions should be 
quickly exhausted, though the poorer ground may take many years to be worked out. 
Thus, by 1890 the Westland goldfields showed a serious decline in production. This 
decline, though checked by the extension of dredging about 1900, is still continuing. 
Ultimately, of course, alluvial mining will become unprofitable, but the introduction of 
new and more economical methods of working may considerably prolong the life of the 
industry. 

At the present time alluvial gold is being obtained by hydraulic and ground sluicing, 
by driving-out, by "' blacksanding, " and by dredging. 

Hydraulic and Ground Sluicing. 

The working of surface gravels by sluicing processes still employs a considerable 
number of men. The chief hydraulic-sluicing claims are at Notown, Maori Gully (south 
side of Arnold River), Greenstone (Pounamu), Cape Terrace, Kumara, Callaghan's, 
Stafford, and Goldsborough. 

The main principle of hj-draulic sluicing may be described as the breaking-down of 
auriferous gravels by powerful jets of water throAvn from suitable nozzles. In Westland 
the disintegrated material is passed through sluice-boxes set on an average grade of 1 
in 12, and paved with wooden blocks, in the interstices of which the gold is caught. 
Undercurrent sluices are hardly ever employed. 

In the Greymouth Subdivision, as elsewhere in Westland, the two greatest difficulties 
of the miner are the disposal of large stones and the obtaining of fall for the tailings. 
In most claims large stones are very numerous, and have to be built up in regular 
stacks in the worked-out parts of the claims. Boulders of large size usually have to 
be broken up by blasting. Thus the getting-rid of large stones involves an immense 
amount of labour, and it is seldom that the miners, even when they have an abundant 
supply of water, can sluice for so much as half their time. 

In the early days of a claim there is generally no great difiiculty in obtaining 
sufficient fall for the sluice-boxes and dumping-ground for the tailings, but as the work- 
ings extend it becomes more and more difficult to attend to these matters and at the 
same time to keep on the "bottom," where the best washdirt usually occurs. The line 
of sluice-boxes becomes longer and longer, so that more and more fall is needed, and at 
the same time the tailings are accumulating and filling up the dumping-ground. Even 
if the tailings are discharged into a large stream, the bed of the latter will be raised 
considerably, and trouble thus be caused. By increasing the water-supply the grade of 
the sluice-boxes may be decreased to perhaps 1 in 20, or even 1 in 24, and thus a certain 
amount of fall saved. At Kumara several long tunnels for the sluice-boxes (sludge- 
channels) have been driven from the neighbourhood of the Taramakau River. Similar 
tunnels have l^een constructed at Callaghan's and elsewhere. It has been found that the 
upkeep of such sludge-channels is very expensive, and claims that under ordinary cir- 
cumstances would pay to work become unprofitable with half a mile or so of channel to 
maintain. Owing apparently to high-pressure water being too scarce and expensive, 
hvdraulic elevating through pipes is not practised. At the Wlieel of Fortune Claim, 
Stafford, the stones that pass through the sluice-boxes are lifted from a well by bucket 



Pl.ATK II. 




HrCKKT El.KVAIOIi, WlIKEI, OK FoiCIl XK Cr.AIM, SlAKFtPD. 

(rtol. Hull. So. l.L] -To face page 10 



17 

elevators worked by Pelton wheels (see Plate II). The water and fine material pass 
away through a long tunnel driven as a tail-race. The system is similar to that formerly 
employed in the Ross United Company's claim.* 

A ground-sluicing method is sometimes employed by small parties uf miners, or by 
diggers who are working alone. Generally the operations of such men are largely in 
the nature of prospecting. 

A few words may be said concerning the nature of the " bottoms '' on wliicli the 
sluicing claims work. One or two small claims in Upper Blackball and in the Ten-mile 
Creek are working creek-gravels on a "'slate" (grauwacke and argillite) bottom. Near 
Blackball and Bruuner, in the lower part of the Ten-mile Creek, and elsewhere, coal- 
measure rocks (sandstone, mudstone. Sec.) form the bottom. In the more important 
mining districts the bottom consists of Upper .Miocene strata or of younger rocks. The 
Miocene clays form what is known as "' Blue Bottom " or " Blue Reef." Sometimes 
sandstone of equivalent age is the bottom. The gravelly layers that occasionally appear 
near the top of tlie Miocene beds may be called '" Bi-ighton Bottom," or tliis term may 
be applied to distinctly younger gravels, if not very coarse. A common bottom is the 
more or less eroded surface of the Pliocene giavels. This, whicli is usually maiked by 
many large stones, is designated "" Old Man Bottom. " Similar, but younger, horizons 
may also be occasionally, though erroneously, called by the same name. At Kumara the 
chief claims work on a "false" bottom in the Pleistocene gravels. Here, as elsewhere 
in Westland, the Miocene clays and sandstones are considered to be the " true " bottom. 

Driviny-out. 

Wliere a rich layer of washdirt is found Ix-neath tlie super incumVjent gravels which 
cannot be profitably sluiced, it is won by a driving-out method, similar to that piac- 
tised in the deep leads of Australia. As a rule, gravel that pays for driving out is 
found resting on the Blue Bottom. At present very little ground is lu'ing worked by 
this method, though probably tiierc are many patches that could Ix- profitably driven 
out if once located. In Chapter VI some remarks on possibly payable deep ground will 
be made. 

Bldcknandiiig. 

The term " blacksanding " implies the working of tlie auriferous black sand of the 
present beaches. As is well known, under certain conditions! black sand rich in gold 
gathers on the sea-beaches in various parts of New Zealand. Thi.s is hastily collected 
by the miner, and treated by passing it over a small amalgamated copper plate fixed 
on a portable stand. J As has been mentioned, tlie beaches and beach leads of the Grey- 
mouth Subdivision have yielded a good deal of gold, but now the known beach leads, 
with the exception of places where water is too troublesome, have been worked out, 
and the beaches seldom show payable black sand, doubtless owing to much of the gold 
originally present having been already won. 

Drtfh/itKj. 

Gold-dredging in the Greymouth Subdivision seems to have begun about 1888, 
when Mr. Joseph Taylor built a " land-dredge " on the narrow coastal plain about 
three miles north of Greymouth (North Beach). This machine had no pontoons, but 

* BuU. No. 6, p. 27. 

t For an exposition of the conditions alluded to see J. Malcolm Maclaren's " Gold : Its Geological 
Occurrence and Geographical Distribution," p. 91. See also Bull. No. 6, p. 1.5.3. 
X Further particulars will be found in Bull. No. 6, p. 2.5. 

2 — Grevmouth. 



18 

consisted of a centrifugal sand-pump and a grab of the Priestinan type (Shanks's 
patent), fixed with gold-saving appliances on a travelling frame that ran on wheels and 
could be moved backwards as the ground was worked out. The sand-pump was intended 
to lift sand and small shingle, but apparently did not act satisfactorily. The grab, how- 
ever, did better work, and in 1890 the dredge was reported as giving good returns. In 
those days dredging was in the experimental stage, and during the next two or three 
years, as may be gathered from the Mines Reports, many changes were made in the 
dredging apparatus, gold-saving appliances, &c.* 

Soon after the North Beach dredge had been built a pontoon dredge with "Cataract" 
suction pump was constructed on the Saltwater Creek, Paroa. Owing to difficulties with 
the pump tliis machine proved unsuccessful. 

In 1891 a bucket dredge known as Parker's had been built, and was at work on 
the North Beach. It had some novel features in connection with the gold-saving appli- 
ances ;t but its career seems to have been short and, it may be presumed, unsuccessful. 

For some years gold-dredging in the subdivision was wholly or almost abandoned, 
BO far as can be judged from the lack of information in the Mines Reports. In 1898, 
however, owing to the success of gold-dredging in Otago, renewed interest in this form 
of mining became apparent in Westland. Many claims were taken up during 1898 
and the next three or four years. A dredging lx)om, with the usual history of such 
excitements, followed. By the end of 1900 seven or eight dredges were at work, and 
ten at least were being built, in the Greymouth Subdivision. In 1901 these figures were 
practically doubled. Already, however, it was perceived that owing to faulty design 
of machinery, unexpected difficulties (such as buried timber and enormous stones), want 
of proper preliminary prospecting, mismanagement, and even fraud, failure was in 
many cases certain. It is probable that at least sixty companies, public and private, 
have spent substantial sums of money in dredging within the subdivision, and of these 
■ only four or five are known to have returned the capital expenditure to their share- 
holders. The most successful concerns have been the Pactolus Company, operating 
in Nelson Creek Valley, the Nelson Creek Company, and the Notown Creek Company. 

At the present time (1910) the following dredges are at work within the subdivi- 
sion : Stafford, North Beach, Greenstone, Big Hohonu River, Notown Creek, New Tra- 
falgar, Pactolus No. 2, and Nelson Creek. These dredges are all of the bucket type, and 
have the gold-saving appliances usual in Otago dredges. 

The chief difficulties attending dredging in Westland are heavy wash (large botilders) 
and buried timber, but the more successful dredges work in localities where these ob- 
stacles are not serious. 

(2.) Lode-mining. 

The existence of qtiartz reefs in the belt of argillites and grauwackes ("slate 
country ") that is found on the eastern side of tlie Paparoa Range from Bruniier north- 
wards has been known for at least forty years. 

Little prospecting, however, was done until 1879, when the finding in Langdon 
Creek of specimens rich in gold, silver, and antimony led to the discovery ot the parent 
vein near the head of the creek. This vein, entitled " Langdon's Antimony Lode," 
though of considerable width where first prospected, was found to be of smaller dimen- 
sions elsewhere. In 1882 seventeen claims had been taken up in tlie locality, the 
most important of which was Langdon's Extended Claim, containing besides the 
antimony-lode an older discovery known as "Langdon's Reef." Ten tons of ore from 
the antimony-lode was shipped to England for treatment about this time, but it appears 

* For full particulars concerning this and other dredges see Mines Reports, 1889, p. 64 ; 1890, p. 86 ; 
1891, p. 76 ; 1892, p. 97. 

t Mines Report, 1892, p. 97. 



L9 



that tlie I'esults were disappointino;. Xotliing has been ascertained of the history of 

the Langdon Creek lodes during the next twelve years, but in 1894 Langdon's Extended 

Claim, by this time known as the Julian Claim, was being worked on tribute by Curtis 

Bros., wlio, while clearing a way for a tram-line, found a rich piece of quartz, 

and by following up this indication located a reef outside the Julian Claim. The 

ground was pegged off by the discoverers under the title of the Victory Claim. A 

battery of light stamps was erected, and the new lode was worked with very good results 

for about five years. The Victory l>ecame amalgamated with the Julian in 1898, but in 

May, 1899, work ceased on tlie property, and since then no mining has been done in 

this locality. 

The following returns have been gathered from tlie Mines Reports of 1895 to 1899, 

inclusive: — 

Victory Claim. 

Tons 
crushed. 



Year. 



1894 

1895 
1896 
1897 
1898 



1895 
1898 



Total 



Total 
Grand total 



3 


44 


.. 125 


251 


.. 226 


624 


. . 255 


322^ 


. . 187i 


214 


. . 796i 


1,455 


Julian Claim. 




.. 12i 


li 


.. 110 


130 


. . 122^ 


131i 



Yield 


Approximate 


in Ounces. 


Value. 


44 





809 



l,456i 



Say £5,700 



£519 16 



Say £524 
Say £5,704 



A very curious circumstance in connection with tlie working of the Victory Lode 
was an explosion of firedamp in a rise about 1896, whereby .Mr. Charles Curtis, the 
manager, was severely injured. Many years previously a similar explosion occurred in 
a mine called the Bonanza, which was situated .somewhat to the southward. | 

North of Blackl)all and Roa a large area of reef-bearing country liegins. Much 
of this is outside the subdivision, but on the northern boundary is a claim known as 
tlie Minerva, and owned mainly by Mr. G. Perotti, of Greymouth. Since 1890 or 
1891 work has been carried on at intervals, but early in 1910 the claim was idle. The 
workings are on a lode of some size, known as the " Minerva Reef," which outcrops in 
Blackball Creek. About 1892 a ten-stamp battery, driven by water-power, with amal- 
gamating-plates, berdan, kc, was erected. Only the following returns can be ascer- 
tained : — 

Tons 

cru-shed. 

1,610 



Year. 
1894 
1897 
Other vears 



90 



Total 



Yield 

in Ounces. 

506 


Approximate 
Value. 


U 


£48 


301 




821 


£2,947 



* AIbo recorded as 240 oz. in the Mines Report, 1898 (see pp. 96 and 97). 

t Include.? the 1898 return from the Julian Claim, quoted below. There are slight discrepancies in the 
figures given in the Mines Report, 1899 (see pp. 90 and 91). 
{ Information obtained from Mr. Curtis. 

2* — Greymouth. 



20 



(3.) COAL-MINIXG. 

General and Historical Account. 

Coal is said to have been discovered in the Greymouth Subdivision on the 16th 
July, 1817,* by Mr. Thomas Brunner, well known as a surveyor and exploier. Ihe 
discovery was made on the banks of tiie Grey River, where the Township of Brunnerton 
now stands. 

•In 1862 tests of the coal ware made at Woolwich Dockyard, with favourable results. t 

Mining on the Brunner ssam appears to have begun in August, 186-t, when 27 tons 
of coal, brought down the Grey River in boats, was exported to Nelson by steamer. J 
Mr. Matthew Batty, who is still living, held the first rights and mined the first coal, 
probably on the northern side of the river. 

In 1865 a concern known as the Ballarat Syndicate or Company acquired a lease 
of the Brunner Coal-mine, and worked it for some years. One of the conditions of 
the lease was that a railway should be made from the mine to Greymouth, but as the 
lessees continued to transport the coal in boats, causing, it is said, considerable damage 
to the banks of tlie river^ the Nelson Provincial Government cancelled the lease, and 
for some time worked the mine as a public concern. 

On the 1st January, 1874, a lease on certain conditions as to royalty and output was 
granted to Messrs. Croaker, Hughes, and McCarthy. The area held under the lease was 
1,280 acres, and the term twenty-one years. In 1875 the lease was transferred to the 
Brunner Coal Company, and in 1877 to Mr. Martin Kennedy. 

In 1876 the completion of the railway to Greymouth enabled the output of the 
Brunner Mine to be considerably increased, and for a number of years it appears to 
have been worked with a fair measure of success. A fault of some magnitude impeded 
operations for several years prior to 1885, when coal was found beyond the fault, of 
good quality, though only 8 ft. thick, or about half the thickness of the seam in the 
older workings. 

The want of a reliable harbour was, as it still is, a considerable drawback, causing 
loss both to owners and employees. 

On the 1st January, 1887, the old lease having been cancelled, a new lease for 
sixty-three years was issued. This in its turn was cancelled on the 31st December, 1894, 
and replaced by a new lease issued for fifty-six years from that date. 

In August, 1888, the Grey Valley Coal Company (Limited), in which the principal 
interests were the Westport Coal Company, Kennedy Bros., and the Union Steam- 
ship Company, was formed. This concern took over the Brunner lease, together 
"with properties then owned or controlled by the Westport Coal Company, and for some 
years mined and exported all the coal produced in the Greymouth district. 

In 1890 foreign competition seems to have been severely felt, and in consequence 
a lowering of the miners' hewing-rates was proposed. This and other cau.ses led to 
prolonged disputes between the Grey Valley Coal Company and its employees. 
A "lock-out" was in force from the 3rd July, 1890, to the 30th August, and was fol- 
lowed three Aveeks later by a strike, lasting from 20th September to 3rd November, when 
work was resumed, though for some time not on the same scale as prior to the strike. 

In 1895 the Grey Valley Coal Company's interests in the Brunner lease were 
transferred to the Greymouth - Point Elizabeth Railway and Coal Company (Limited), 

* Thi.s is the date given in " Report of Royal Commission on Grey Valley Coal-mines " (C.-3a, Sess. II, 
1891, p. 24), but on the same page an extract from Mr. Brunner's diarv describing the discovery- is dated the 
26th January, 1848. 

t Hector, James : " First General Report on the Coal-deposits of New Zealand," Rep. G.S., No. 1, 1866. 

+ " Handbook of New Zealand Mines," 1887, part I, p. 119. 



21 

which has worked the property ever since. The coal Ijcyoiid the fault already mentioned 
was about this time found to thiu to an unworkable thickn;.'ss, and, moreover, to be 
atlected by faulting, so that for many years coal-getting was contiued to pillars, and no 
new development-work undertaken. 

On the morning of the 2Gth March, 1896, a disastrous explosion took place in the 
Brunner Mine, wiiereby all who werj underground at the time — sixty-six in number — 
lost their lives. A lioyal Commission that intpiiied into the cause of this catastrophe 
found tiiat it was due to an explosion, or series of explosions, of coal-dust, started by 
a blown-out shot, aided by the ignition of coal gas evolved from the surrounding coal, 
and possibly locally intensified by the presence of small ([uaiitities of firedamp.* 

In December, 1906, work in the old Brunner Mine ceased, the pillars having been 
extracted as far as practicable. Operations are at present being conducted in a new 
section of the Brunner coal leasi, known as the St. Kilda .Mine. 

Though in many respects possessing natural advantages for prohtable working, it 
may be doubted whether the Brunner Mine has proved a remunerative investment for 
the majority of its numerous owners. Although i)ther drawbacks have had their in- 
fluence, it is probable tliat the many changes in ownership are quite suHicient to account 
for this comparative failui-e, continuity in efhcient management being pei-haps more 
essential to success in mining than in almost any other industry. 

The Coal-pit Heath Company having obtained on the 1st January, 1875, a lease 
of 777 acres on the western side of the Brunui'r lease, sank two shafts on the northern 
bank of the Grey River, and for a number of years from 1878 maintained a fair output. 
In September, 1887, tiie lease was transferred to tiie Westport Coal Company, and iri 
August, 1888, the right of working the mine was acquired by the Grey Valley Coal Com- 
pany. On tiie 1st January, 1889, the old lea.se having Ijeen cancelled, the Westport 
Coal Company took out a new lease for sixty-three yeais. This lease is now not iii 
force, having been cancelled in 189.'}. 

For some years the Coal-pit Heath .Mine was wc^rkeii in conjunction with the Brunner 
Mine, but since June, 189."i, wiit-n the mine was abandoned, nothing has Ix-en dime on 
the propsrty. 

The Wallsend .Mine In-gan witli a twenty-one years' lease for about 1, ()()() acres 
granted to the Greymouth Coal Company in 1875. This concern met with many diffi- 
culties, and its history is <lifticult to trace. At first, it seems, a shaft 98 ft. deep on 
what is now known as the Tyneside property was sunk. In or before 1879 a shaft 11 ft. 
in diameter had been sunk to a depth of about 670 ft. After Ijeing transferred to a 
private syndicate, the lease became the property of the Westport Coal Company, who in 
1886 had completed a second circular shaft, 14 ft. in diameter, near the first. In 1888 
the Grey Valley Coal Company acquired all the rights in connection with the lease. 
About this time the lease consisted of 853 acres, 150 acres of the original area having 
been converted into a freehold. During the labour troubles of 1890 the mine was closed 
down, and has remained idle ever since. Years ago the pumping, windinj,, and other 
machinery was dismantled and removed. N'o lease is in force at present, but the free- 
hold of 150 acres is held by the Greymouth - Point Elizabetli Railway and Coal Company. 

The old Tyneside Mine consisted of grounds subleased from the Westport Coal Com- 
pany by Messrs. Kilgour and Wickes about 1885 or earlier. Towards the end of 1888 
the Grey Valley Coal Company acquired the suble.ssees' interests, the mine was closed 
down, and the leasehold rights abandoned. On the 15th October, 1901, a lease of 108 
acres 2 loods 30 perches, which included the old Tyneside Mine, was issued to Mr. H. 
Jones for sixty-six years. In 1902 the lease was transferred to the Tyneside Colliery 

* Report of Royal Commission on Brunner Mine Disaster, C.-6, 1896, p.p. 5-6. 



22 

Company (Limited), who reopened the mine, but in 1903 gave place to the Tyneside 
Proprietary Company (Limited). In May, 190f^, owing to an inrush of surface and 
river water overcoming the pumps, work ceased within the mine. 

Tlie Stillwater Creek Coal Company, having acquired a lease of 640 acres near 
Stillwater for a term of twenty-one years from the 1st January, 1889, conducted pro- 
specting operations for some time. This company found a seam of coal, good in quality 
though only 2 ft. thick and dipping at an angle of i'P, but were not successful in 
finding coal workable at a profit, and the lease was ultimately cancelled. At a later 
date a lease of 232 acres 3 roods 15 perches was taken up by Mr. Malcolm Fleming 
in the same neitrhbourhood. The South Brunner Coal Company (Limited) was formed to 
acijuire Mr. Fleming's riglits, but after a prospecting adit had been driven a few 
hundred feet tlie company was dissolved. 

The Blackball Coal Company began operations by acquiring a lease of 1,914 acres 
in three nearly equal sections, dated for twenty-one years from the 1st January, 1886. 
At a later date the land was granted to the Midland Railway Company, who sold to the 
late Sir Edwin Dawes, from whose representatives the Blackball Company is understood 
to hold its present lease of the original area. Active production began in October, 1893, 
and, though for a number of years the mine was not a profitable undertaking, it has 
now entered on a period of prosperity. Until recently the coal was transported from 
the mine to the railway-line at Ngahere by means of an aerial tram nearly four miles 
in length. This aerial tram, though a very fine piece of work of its kind, was unsatis- 
factory, owing to its limited capacity' (about 50 tons an hour) and not infrequent break- 
downs. Since the end of November, 1909, the branch railway from Ngahere to Roa has 
been available for transportation purposes, and the production of the mine has been 
considerably increased. Recently a new area of about 600 acres near Smoke-Ho Creek 
has been prospected by the Blackball Company. 

At an early date leases of several areas north of Greymotith, in the valley of Coal 
Creek, near Point Elizabeth, at tlie Nine-mile Bluff, near the Ten-mile Creek, and else- 
where, were obtained by various persons and companies. In 1877 a lease of 1,036 acres 
near the head of Coal Creek was held by the Coal Creek Mining Company. The Point 
Elizabeth Coal-mining Company at this time held a lease of 3,840 acres, extending along 
the coast from a point between the mouth of the Seven-mile Creek and the Nine-mile 
Bluff to a point near the Twelve-mile Creelv, and reaching from a mile to nearly two 
miles inland. 

On the 1st January, 1889, Mr. William Simson Smith obtained 2,783 acres under 
three leases, two of which were gi anted for sixty-six years, whilst the third lease, of 223 
acres, was for sixty-five years* In 1891 this area seems to have been in the name of 
the Point Elizabetli Coal Company, which later apparently became merged in the Grey- 
mouth — Point Elizabeth Railway and Coal Comiiany. This latter concern, after acquir- 
ing the lease, did a good deal of prospecting, and partly constructed a railway from 
Greymouth to where it was proposed to open out a mine. 

In 1902 the New Zealand Government took over the Point Elizabeth property, and 
reserved a considerable area of adjoining territory, witli a view to operating a State 
mine. Active development was begun, and tiie railway completed. About June, 1904, 
the first coal was shipped away. The boundaries of the State coal reserve were subse- 
quently extended so as to include all public lands on the western slope of the Paparoa 
Range as far north as the Ten-mile Creek. The reserve includes also a small area on 
the eastern side of the Paparoa Range. For many years the country towards the head of 
the Seven-mile Creek has been steadily prospected, with very satisfactory results, and 

* " Report of Royal Commission on Grey Valley Coal-mines," C.-3a, Sess. II, 1891, p. 24. 



23 

during the past two years development- work has been actively proceeding. The new 
mine is to be known as Point Elizabeth State Coal-mine No. 2. 

In December, 190.J, the Paparoa Coal Company was formed to work a lease of 1,000 
acres (later added to by 197 acres) on the Paparoa Range, near Mount Davy. This area 
had been prospected by Messrs. H. Neilson and F. Cutten, who located a number of coal- 
seams of tine quality correctly stated by them to occur in a horizon below that of the 
other known coal-seams of tlie district. 

The Papai'oa Company, after making careful surveys, undertook extensive develop- 
ment-works, including the construction of a railway (with centre rail) on a grade of 
1 in 25 from Blackball to Iloa. In November, 1909, the first coal was sent away, and 
since then the mine has been continuously operated. Duiing 191U the total output of 
the mine was 36,596 tons. 

In 1904 Mr. D. E. Tliornton acquired a lease of 1,040 acres to the north-east of 
the Brunner lease. 'Ihis, in April, 1908, was transferred to the North Brunner Coal 
Company (Limited), which has since that date been actively developing the area. This 
concern, it is understood, has aciiuirtd mining rights also over some private property 
adjoining its lease. Duiing 1910 production began on a moderate scale, the output 
for the year being 10,922 tons. 

Brown's Prospecting License. — For the past year or two an area of 1,870 acres 
south of the Blackball Company's pio})erty lias been held under a prosj)ecting license, 
in which at the present time (August, 1910) .Mr. \V. Brown, of Blackball, is stated to 
hold tlie sole interest. 

Kane's Mine. — For a nuiiiixjr of years Mr. John Kane has been e.xtracting coal 
on a small scale from a seam that outci'ops near tlie coast about a mile north of the 
mouth of the Seven-mile Creek. 

MffJiof/s of II or/iini/. 

Throughout the Greymouth Coalfield the general iiietliod of winning coal is by bord 
and pillar workings, with subse<iuent removal of the pillars to as great an extent as 
possible. The standard width of bord is 16 ft. to 18 ft., and that of pillars may be 
from 30 ft. to 75 ft. Thus the bords may l)e set out from the headings with centres 
varying from 48 ft. to 90 ft. 

Owing to the seams hitherto worked being as a rule over 8 ft. thick, longwall work- 
ing has been little employed. This method, ho\\ever, has been used in tlie Point Eliza- 
beth State Mine No. 1 for thin portions of Nos. 1 and 2 seams. 

In breaking down coal the miner uses the time-honoured methoil of cutting and 
holing, followed by wedging, as little as possible. Holes having been bored by auger- 
drills, and the minimum amount of other i)reparation done, an explosive is employed 
to break out the coal. After cleaning and squaring up the face, the coal-<r<'tter repeats 
the various operations of cutting (if necessary), boring, and blasting. Whole the seam 
is thick he works with a rough kind of bench, keeping the upper part of his face well 
forward. 

The method of working the pillars is to remove .slices or "lifts" 14ft. to 15ft. 
wide, starting from the end or stenton furthest in and working backwards to the main 
headings. As a rule, the removal of the last part or stump is trouble.some, and it is in 
places necessary to leave a portion of the pillar on account of the danger or expense of 
removing it. 

The broken coal is filled into small trucks (tubs, bo.xes, skips, fee), containing from 
lOcwt. to 15cwt. From the working-face the coal is transported by hand-lal)our, and 
in most cases with the aid of a jig also, to the level below. Hence it is hand-trucked or 



24 

drawn by horses to tlie main haulage-road, and finally is conveyed to the surface by 
some form of rope haulage. On the surface the coal may or may not be passed over a 
picking-belt and through sizing-screens before it reaches the railway-trucks, in which 
it is transported to Greymouth. 

The above general description of exploitation methods may be supplemented by brief 
references to the conditions at each mine. 

Brujiner Mine (St. Eilda Section). — In the St. Kilda section of the Brunner Mine 
the workings on the Brunner seam aje to the rise in a somewhat narrow belt bounded 
right and left by faults. Lately, however, the workings have been extended into coal 
to the ea.st of this belt. The average thickness of the coal is lift. In one part of the 
mine tliere is apparently an upper seam a few feet above the main seam, but this is 
believed to be a portion of the latter overthrust by faulting. The method of working is 
to drive several headings between the bounding faults with cross-drives or bords that 
reach the faults. Tlje explosive generally used is blasting-powder. Firedamp being 
hardly ever detected, except at and near the faults, open lights are in use. Ventilation 
is eflected througli the medium of a Sirocco fan, driven by a water-wheel. 

The coal is filled into trucks holding from 10 cwt. to 13 cwt., and is lowered by a 
system of jigs to a point near the entrance of the mine, whence it is drawn to the 
screens by a wire rope. Here it is tippled and sorted into over-size, nuts, jjeas, and 
slack. The three classes of coal are run into railway-trucks, whilst the slack goes to 
coke-ovens of the beehive type. 

In addition to being at the present time the only mine in Xew Zealand that has 
coke-ovens,* the Brunner Mine possesses a complete plant for making firebricks and 
other fireclay goods. 

The Blackball Mine is entered by a dip drive with a double line of rails, which, 
about 8^ chains from the entrance, reaches the two coal-seams being worked. From this 
point a nearly straight main level has been driven in tlie lower seam for considerably 
over a mile. This is timbered throughout, except in a few places where the roof has 
been arched in coal. Parallel Avith the main drive, 15 yards to the dip, is a drainage 
level, which ultimately reaches Ford Creek by a stone drive. 

All the workings of the mine are to the rise of the main level. Owing to the liability 
of the coal under some circumstances to spontaneous combustion, the mine is now divided 
into panels, so arranged that a fire can be easily and quickly isolated from the rest of 
the mine by two or at most four stoppings. The panels are 200 yards in length on the 
level, and extend to the rise till the old workings are nearly reached. At "tO yards on 
either side of tlie centre-line of each panel well-timbered headings (usual grade 1 in 6 
to 1 in 8) are driven in the main or lower seam, and 18 ft. bords with 48 ft. centres are 
set oS on either side. The inside bords are driven till they meet in the centre of the 
panel, but the outer bords are stopped about half a chain from the boundary. Thus a 
66 ft. pillar is left between the panels. 

All or nearly all the bords in a panel having been driven, the pillars are drawn as 
quickly as possible. This work starts from the boundaries of the panel, and the coal 
is removed in "lifts." each about .30ft. long, this being the width of the pillars, and 
a convenient length for handling trucks. 

The upper seam, 4 ft. or 5 ft. in thickness, is not worked on any regular system, 
but in any way that may present itself, and mucli of the coal is left. 

The coal from the working-faces is hand-trucked to the main level, whence it is 
drawn to the .surface bv endless rope. After screening, if this is required, the coal is 

* In May, 1911, the Westport Coal Company was bxiilding coke-ovens at Granity. These will doubtless 
be in operation by the time this report is published. 



25 

run into riiilway-trucks, but if not to be screened it is deposited in bins, holding in all 
3,000 tons. From the bins the coal passes through bottom doors into railway-trucks. A 
picking-belt has been installed in connection with the tippling plant, but at the time 
of the writers last visit was not in use. 

When a panel has been worked out, stoppings are put in all the headings. These 
and other stoppings intended to wall off tires are built of stone with a hroclay eentie. 
As the weight of the roof conies on the stoppings they are so squeezed as to become air- 
tight, if not so before. 

The roof is bad in most parts of the w^orkings, so that nmch timber has to be used, 
and in places some coal has to be left. There are spots in the mine where the friable 
sandstone of the roof crushes to a powder, and runs almost like sand. 

When in any spot stone and coal fall so as to form a large pile, heating soon takes 
place, and finally the mass in most cases spontaneously ignites. This is especially lilvely 
to take place if the pile is covered by crushed sandstone such as that mentioned in the 
last paragraph. The passage of a large current of air over the pile of stone and coal 
has then little effect in preventing heating. Little or no firedamp is present in the 
mine, and therefore open lights are used throughout the mine. Black damp (carbon- 
dioxide), however, is reported as given off by the strata in small amount. Ventilation 
is effected by a Capell fan. Monobel is the e.xplosive commonly employed in breaking 
down coal. 

Point Elizahfth Statt Coal-mine No. /. — This mine is worked in two sections, sepa- 
rated by a fault striking north-east to south-west, and having a downthrow to the 
north-west of 480 ft. In both sections the workable coal to the rise seems to have been 
almost exhausted, and even to the dip the chief workings are in the pillars, which are 
being removed by the usual method of "' lifts." 

In Xo. 1 section two seams are being worked. The upper or No. 1 .seam is gene- 
rally 10 ft. to 12 ft. thick, but to the rise thins at first to 4 ft. or 5 ft., and ultimately 
becomes too small to work profitably untler present economic conditions. The lower or 
No. 2 scam was workable only to the rise in the north-eastern part of the mine. The 
bords, which are 16 ft. to 18 ft. wide, are for the most part set out with centres 66 ft. 
apart, so that the usual pillar is 48 ft. wide, but an inspection of the published mine- 
plan shows that many of the pillars are 40 ft. or less in width. 

Blasting-powder is the explosive used l)y the miners in breaking down coal, but 
gelignite is employed for rock-drives, itc. Firedamp, when detectable, is present in 
very small amount, and consequently open lights are used. 

The loaded tubs are trucked by hand to jigs, which lower them to the various 
levels. Along these they arc drawn by horses or trucked ijy hand to the main incline. 
A main rope then draws the loaded tubs in rakes to the top of the incline, where they 
are attached to an endless rope which takes them out of the mine by way of No. 1 
"tunnel."* 

The mine is ventilated by a Sirocco fan placed near the main entrance (No. 1 
tunnel), whicli is the intake. The fan is connected with the return air-course by a 
long corrugated-iron gallery which ends in a dip drive. 

Pumping is done by a direct-acting underground pump, worked by compressed air. 
The rising main consists of two 3 in. pipes placed in boreholes drilled from the top of 
the terrace near Coal Creek. 

In April, 1910, most parts of the mine were making very little water, but at one 
place in the lower dip workings the tapping of a fault had caused an influx of water, 
which was being excluded by means of timber dams. 

* It would be more correct to speak of this as an adit. 



26 

No. 2 section is worked in practically the same wa^' as No. 1, the main difference 
being in the emploj'ment of safety-lamps throughout the workings. There is, however, 
very little firedamp. 

A power-house situated near tlie entrance to No. 2 section contains the steam- 
engines that work the endless ropes taking the coal from the tops of the main dips to the 
surface and thence to the tippling plant and bins. Here the coal, after being, if re- 
quired, screened and passed over a picking-belt, is transferred to railway-trucks. Un- 
screened coal goes to the bins, from which railway-trucks are filled by means of bottom 
doors. 

The surface plant includes a large blacksmith's shop and a sawmill. Besides supply- 
ing the mine, the sawmill also provides timber for miners' cottages and other local 
requirements. There is no waste, the rough slabs being utilizgd in timbering within the 
mine as laths, packing, &c. 

Point Elizabeth State Goal-mine No. 2. — During the period of the geological survey 
the No. 2 State Coal-mine had not reached the producing stage. The chief works in 
progress consisted of the raihvay being constructed by the Public Works Department 
up Seven-mile Creek Valley, and of an inclined endless-rope roadway on a self-acting 
grade from the railway terminus to a site nt which opening-out operations were under 
way. 

Paparoa Coal-mine. — The Paparoa Coal-mining Company is at present working 
three seams penetrated by an inclined tunnel, with a double line of rails, which is 
53 chains in length, and has a grade of 1 in 11. The method of working is bord and 
pillar. The coal being very easily broken, explosives are little used in most of the faces. 
The coal is loaded into tubs with wooden bodies, holding ordinarily 12 cwt. to 15 cwt. 
of coal, but capable of being packed to hold 16 cwt. Jigs of the usual type are used to 
lower the loaded trucks to levels, whence they are trucked to the main incline. In 
January, 1910, the coal was being lowered by a self-acting jig to the mouth of the 
incline, but an endless-rope method has since been installed. From the mouth of the 
mine-tunnel the tubs run by gravity past the weighing-house to the head of a steep 
incline, whence they are lowered by an endless rope, the speed of which is controlled by 
a hydraulic brake. At the foot of the incline are the bins, where the arrangements for 
handling the coal are much the same as at the Blackball and State mines. 

At many of the working-faces a good deal of firedamp issues, and safety-lamps are 
therefore used throughout the mine. Ventilation is effected by means of a powerful 
Sirocco fan. 

Lahour-conditions . 

Regular mine employees may be divided into two classes — those paid by piece- 
work and those paid wages. The chief class of men paid by piecework is the coal-getters 
or hewers. The standard rates of pay are 2s. 4d. per ton of coal filled in bord work- 
ings, and 2s. per ton in pillar workings ; but where the coal is under 6 ft. in thickness 
the rates are increased according to a sliding scale. In places with less than 4 ft. of coal 
the miner obtains the standard wage of 12s. per day. In uphill drives and in narrow 
places yardage is paid. Timbering is paid for at the rate of 4s. 6d. per set and Is. 
per prop, except that props within 12ft. of the face have to be erected without pay- 
ment. The hewer may also have to truck his coal for a distance not exceeding 22 yards. 

Every three months there is a " cavil " — that is, lots are drawn in order to settle 
the working-place assigned to each man or pair of men. 

Wages-men are paid at rates in harmony with those prevailing on the west coast 
of the South Island, and therefore on a slightly higher scale than in most other parts 
of New Zealand. 



?LATE TIT. 




TnK I'ai'ahoa Coal Company's Hrakkhoi-se at Head ok Incline. Sitk i'akti.v kxcavatkd in 

BASAr. CoN(;i.OMKliATE OF Co \I.-MEASl HKS. 




(ifol. Hull. \n. I.i.] 



CoitUKN LiMKSTONE. QlAliliY So( I H SlIU: (IF (iUKV KlVKH. 



[To fare pa<jt SG 



27 



Practically all mine employees belong to a union, which carefully watches over 
the interests of its members, and succeeds in maintaining rates of remuneration for 
hewers which are, even when all idle time is taken into account, considerably higher 
than those paid in the quartz-mining districts of the North Island, or the coal-mines 
of Otago. 

Oiifptit. 

The output of tlie various coal-mines in the Greymouth Subdivision to the end of 

Tons. 



1910 is shown bv the following table : — 



Paparoa Mine . . . . . . . . . . 43,795 

Blackball Mine . . . . . . . . . . . . 1,313,125 

South Brunner (closed) . . . . . . . . . . 130 

North Brunner . . . . . . 10,922 

Brunner Mine (including St. Kilda section) . . . . . . 2,265,465 

Coal-pit Heath (closed 1893) . . . . . . . . 577,190 

Tyneside (closed 1908) . . . . . . . . . . 295,059 

Wallsend (closed 1890) . . . . . . . . .. 205 539 

Gre}Tnouth Wallsend (closed) . . . . . . 3,973 

Point Elizabeth State Coal-mine No. 1 .. .. .. 1,224,571 

Total .. .. .. .. .. 5,939,769 

To the above figures should be added tlie small amounts of coal produced at Kane's 
Mine, the Nine-mile Bluff, and one or two other places where a little coal has l)een 
mined for some local purpose. The coal sold to mine employees, and possibly some 
othei- coal sold locally, are not in all cases included in official retuiMis, nor is the very 
large amount of slack tipped into the Grey River at Brunner before coke-ovens were 
built. 

The following table shows the progress of the coal-mining industry during the past 
twenty years (1890-1910): — 

Output for Year.J 
Tons. 
... 118,847 



1890 
1895 
1900 
1905 
1906 
1907 
1908 
1909 
1910 



Total Output to Date. 
Tons. 
1,380,652 
142,124 2,133,335 

207,919 2,881,093 

275,772 4,017,176 

320,840 4,338,016 

378,926 4,716,942 

375,195 5,092,137 

3.^0,971 5,473,108 

466,661 5,939,769 



Future Prospects of Coal-mitiuig Ituhiittry. 

Owing to the development of .several new mines during the past two years, it is 
certain that the output of coal from the Greymouth Subdivision will considerably 
increase during the next few years. Probably an annual output exceeding 500,000 
tons will soon be reached, and under favourable conditions this output might be further 
increased to 1,000,000 tons per annum or more. Ihe length of time during which an 
output of, say, 500,000 tons could be maintained depends not so much on the amount 
of coal actually in the ground as on future economic conditions, the forecasting of 
which is difficult and largely in the province of the political economist rather than in 



28 

that of the geologist. At present the cost of production and transport, although the more 
easily accessible and batter blocks of coal are being mined, leaves but a small margin 
of profit to pay interest and redemption on the capital invested. If, while other 
economic factors remain the same, the cost of production should increase in proportion 
to the difficulty of winning the coal, then in a very few years the margin of profit will 
disappear in most of the mines, and consequently production will gradually decrease 
until, all the more accessible coal having been worked, coal-mining will become prac- 
tically extinct, although much more coal will remain in the ground than has been 
taken out. 

Actually there will doubtless be some decrease in the cost of production through 
working on a larger scale, by the introduction of improvements in mining suited to 
the conditions of the field, and very probably there will also be an increase in the selling- 
price, more e.specially of the fine coal or slack. Thus the life of coal-mining in the 
Greymouth district may be prolonged to an unknown extent. 

Conservation of f'oal Resources. 

Too much emphasis cannot be placed on the question of utilizing the coal resources 
of Xew Zealand to the best advantage. Already much waste has occurrad in almost every 
coalfield of the Dominion. Tha supplies of high-class coal are somewhat limited, and 
therefore their conservation is a matter of the greatest national importance. 

In Chapter VI the amount of coal in the Grey Coalfield is estimated at 636,000,000 
tons, less 6,000,000 tons already mined. Of this great tonnaga, however, a very large 
proportion can hardly be considered as workable at a profit under any economic con- 
ditions ever likely to prevail. If present conditions continue to prevail in all respects, 
the writer has little hesitation in saying that not one-tenth of the coal in the ground 
will ever be extracted. If, on the other hand, every effort possible is made to improve 
the economic conditions, then, provided the world's demand for coal increases with 
the advance of population and of civilization in the same ratio as in the past century, 
probably one-fourth, and perhaps more, of the coal will be profitably mined and utilized. 

Unfavourable Conditions. — Among the conditions tending to reduce the amount of 
coal that can be profitably mined are the following: — 

(1.) Faulting. This factor, aided by denudation in places, cuts the coal-measures 
into small blocks, some of which cannot be economically won. 

(2.) Irregular folding of the coal-measures. 

(3.) Dirt-bands and other impurities in coal. 

(4.) The general friability of the coal, especially in the Paparoa Beds. 

(5.) Crushing of coal caused by faulting, <i:c. 

(6.) High cost of labour in proportion to coal mined. 

(7.) Lack of continuity in management. 

(8.) Lack of capital. 

(9.) U.se of poor mine-equipment (may depend largely on 8) 

(10.) Cost of railway and steamer transport (latter caused largely by poor harbour), 
and of distribution to consumer. 

(11.) Working on a small scale. 

(12.) Competition with other mining districts in New Zealand and with foreign 
fields (notably Newcastle, Australia). Competition, however, is not an unmixad evil. 

One or two other unfavourable conditions may be inferred from a consideration 
of the next few paragraphs. 



29 

Improvement of Conditioiis. — The following means of improving the conditions 
for better utilization of the coal resources, and thus lessening waste, may be suggested. 
Some of these make mainly for a directly lowered cost of production ; the others tend to 
increase sales to the consumer. 

(1.) In the management of .the mines utilization of men with the highest possible 
technical training. It is now recognized that besides strong natural ability, a sound 
general and technical education is necessary for those who control important mining 
operations. Foreign experience seems almost a sine gun nan for at least one member 
of the staff in every lai-ge mine. Local experience is, of course, even more necessary. 

(2.) Continuity of management. This is necessary in order to preserve knowledge 
of local conditions. 

(3.) Better technical training for all minor ofiicials and for at least a percentage 
of the ordinary employees. This may be obtained by means of local schools of mines. 

(4.) A detailed geological and topographical survey on a l(>rge scale. The topo- 
graphical map should be accurately contoured with a 20 ft. interval. 

(5.) Employment of one or more trained geologists as permanent members of mine 
staffs controlling large areas. 

(6.) Provision for analysis of coal, mine-gases, &c. : Suitable apparatus for this 
work should be installed at every large mine, and, it is perhaps needless to add, mani- 
pulated by a trained man. 

(7.) Provision for experimental work, such as the effect of mixing, or, one might 
say, "blending," coals of different composition; investigation into new methods of 
utilizing coal, such as dust-firing, &c. Research-work of this character might well be 
undertaken by one of the University Colleges or by a Scliool of Mines, provided that 
the necessary means for building and equipping a laboratory were available. 

(8.) Use of most efficient machinery procurable. 

(9.) Among other appliances, the introduction of coal-washing machinery, together 
with briquetting machinery, coking plants, &c. See also (16). 

(10.) To some extent changes in present methods of handling men are desirable 
from an economic point of view. To prevent misconception, it is necessary to add 
that the present managements are handicapped in this respect by conditions quite 
beyond their control. 

(11.) Labour-conditions may be bettered. (Jenerally speaking, the present rates 
of pay for manual labour are high enough, but other matters are capable of improve- 
ment. Ventilation, for example, which, generally speaking, is good, may be improved 
till mine-air becomes almost as pure as surface-air. On the surface the matters of 
baths, proper housing for men and their families, and recreation may be further 
attended to. 

(12.) The workmen's unions could be conducted on better lines and with higher 
ideals than at present obtain. The wisest counsels do not always prevail in these insti- 
tutions, which, in the writer's opinion, could be so managed as further to increase the 
benefits obtained by members, without injuring in any way the interests of mine-owners 
or coal-consumers. 

(13.) Co.st of underground and surface transport at the mines may be lessened in 
various ways. 

(14.) Railway and steamer freights may be reduced, the latter especially by harbour- 
improvements. 

(15.) In order to increase consumption, and thus enable operations to be con- 
ducted on a larger scale, the price to the consumer may be lowered. Unfortunately, not 
much can be done in this direction. 



30 

(16.) It is possible to increase the value of the coal to the consumer by various 
means: (a.) He may be educated to a better use of the coal, as by careful stoking under 
steam-boilers, by mixing it with other coals, by using mechanical stokers, by using dust- 
firing (satisfactory means for this method of firing have yet to be invented), by using 
the coal for suction-gas manufacture, &c. (b.) The fine coal may be briquetted or coked, 
preferably after washing. 

(17.) The question of utilizing the slack or fine coal especially deserves much 
attention. 

(18.) Industries employing coal, coke, or gas produced by the coke-ovens may be 
established. Iron-ore smelting may be instanced. Many of the Greymouth coals, 
owing to their low ash and sulphur contents, will make coke eminently suitable for 
iron-smelting. 

(19.) Foreign markets, such as the west coast of South America and the Argen- 
tine Republic, may be sought. 

(4.) Petroleum. 

The discovery of petroleum in the Greymouth Subdivision was made in 1897, when 
Nils Mortensen, a Scandinavian, in conjunction Avith his Italian mate,* reported the 
occurrence of an oil-seepage in Petroleum Creek, near Kotuku. In 1899 various oil 
leases had been taken up in the district, and during the next ten years a considerable 
amount of prospecting by means of boi-eholes was undertaken. 

The concerns that carried out prospecting operations were the Kotuku Consoli- 
dated Oil Company, now long defunct ; the Kotuku Oil Syndicate (nine or ten bores and 
a shaft) ; and the Lake Brunner Oil Company (eleven bores). Details of the bores 
will be'found in Chapter VI. A rough estimate gives the amount of oil obtained prior 
to 1910 as 14,000 English gallons, equivalent to 400 American barrels of 35 English 
gallons each. 

Recently the properties held by the Kotuku Oil Syndicate and the Lake Brunner 
Oil Company, with additional ground, have been acquired by a London concern, the 
Kotuku Oilfields Syndicate. It is understood that this syndicate intends to begin 
vigorous prospecting operations very shortly. 

Remarks on the prospects of the oil industry are deferred to Chapter YI. 

* According to information supplied by Messrs. Charles N. Taylor and W. E. Church (StiUwater), this 
man's name was Giacomo Dentella. He and Mortensen brought a sample of the oil to Mr. Church, who 
identified it as petroleum. The latter, together with Messrs. C. and A. Curtis, thereupon acquired a one-third 
interest in the discovery for £200. A lease of 650 acres was applied for and granted, but was not issued 
until two or three years later, when the Government had completed the taking-over of the Midland Railway 
Company's properties. The late Mr. W. Cooper, of Gisborne, having become interested in the Kotuku oil, 
after some unsuccessful negotiations with Messrs. Mortensen and Dentella pegged out the Lake Brunner 
Oil Company's lease, and in a few months had small boring-plants at work. About the same time Mortensen 
and Dentella's lease was acquired by the Kotuku Consolidated Oil Company, in which the shareholders were 
mainly Greymouth people. At a later period the ground held by the Kotuku Consolidated Oil Company 
was taken up by the Kotuku Oil Syndicate, in which Mr. Joseph Taylor of Greymouth held the chief interest. 



31 



CHAPTER III. 



OUTLINES OF PHYSIOGRAPHY AND GEOLOGY. 

Page Page 

Outline of Physiography . . . . 31 Outline of Physiography — continued. 

Introductory .. .. ..31 Springs and Underground Watercourses 38 

Mountains and Hil ls . . . . 31 Lakes . . . . . . . . 39 

The Ancient Coastal Plain . . . . 33 Lagoons . . . . . . . . 40 

The Grey River Valley . . . . 34 The Shore-line . . . . . . 40 

The Modern Coastal Plain . . . . 34 Outline of Geology — 

Raised Beaches . . . . . . 34 Sequence and (Jeneral Structure of the 

River-flats (Flood-plains) and Terrace- Several Formations . . . . 40 

tops . . . . . . . . 35 Table of Geological Formations . . 41 

Rivers . . . . . . 35 Geological History . . . . 42 

OuTLiNi; OF Physiography. 

Introductory. 

The topography of the Greymouth Subdivision is of a varied character. To the east 
and north mountains rise to heights of 4,000 ft. and upwards, whilst hills and high 
terraces form much of the remaining surface. There are, however, fertile river-flats 
of some size, whilst a narrow coastal plain — a continuation of that forming the western 
margin of tlie Hokitika Subdivision — extends along the greater part of the coast-line. 
Several large streams traverse the area, which also possesses in Lake Brunner a more 
than ordinarily interesting and beautiful sheet of water. 

Mountains and Hills. 

The most elevated portion of the Greymouth Subdivision is in the south-east, where 
the rugged Hohonu liange stands out again.st the sky-line, partly hiding tlie still loftier 
Southern Alps to the east. Among the more prominent points are Mount Smart 
(4,110 ft.), Mount French (4,277 ft.), and HulxTslaw (3,834 ft.). The slopes are bush- 
clad to heights of 3,000 ft. or somewhat more, whilst the higher ground supports a 
grassy vegetation. In winter and early spring the peaks are mantled by snow. The 
Holionu Range forms one of the granitic bosses that stand like sentinels along the 
western margin of the Southern Alps. It is apparently isolated from the Alps by a 
somewhat wide valley, a continuation of tlie ancient Gregory Valley.* On the south 
side is the notably wide and anciently glaciated valley of the modern Taramakau, 
whilst on the north side is an equally wide valley, once occupied by a great glacier, and 
at a later period forming the temporary channel of the ancient Taramakau. t East 
and west the Hohonu Range is bounded by faults, practically a continuation of those 
described in a previous report, in which also the relation of the granitic outposts to the 
Southern Alps is set forth. f 

The Hohonu Range, since its elevation during the mountain-building piocesses that 
formed the Southern Alps, has suffered greatly from erosion by ice and atmospheric 
agencies. The original covering of ancient sedimentary rocks has been all but removed 
by denuding processes. During the Pleistocene glaciation the range supported small 
glaciers that excavated cirque-like valleys, in places separated only by narrow ridges, 



* Bull. No. fJ (New Series), N.Z. G.S., pp. 38, 72. 

t Bull. No. 1 (New Series), N.Z. G.S., p. 29. 

X Bull. No. 6 (New Series), N.Z. G.S., pp. 71-72. 



32 

and gouged out small rock-basins that are now occupied by mountain-tarns.* The 
larger glaciers descending from the Alps carved out deep valleys, with precipitous walls, 
east, south, and north, so that on these sides the mountain-streams now descend from 
typical hanging valleys, modern denudation having as yet but slightly afiected the 
features due to the ancient glaciation. 

In the north-west of the subdivision is a portion of the Paparoa Range, which 
begins near Brunner, and, increasing in elevation for the first ten or twelve miles of 
its course, trends east of north for many miles until it is interrupted rather than ended 
by the gorge of the Buller lliver. The part within the subdivision was formerly known 
as the Davy Mountains, a name still preserved by Mount Davy (3,410 ft.), a prominent 
elevation about four miles north of Brunner. Other peaks are Mount Watson 
(3,580 ft.) and Mount Sewell (2,732 ft.). Mount Buckley (1,145 ft.), on the south side 
of the Grey, may also be considered as belonging to the Paparoa Range. 

Owing to the poor soil derived from many of the rocks forming the Paparoa Range, 
the forest of the lower slopes does not always reach the 3,000 ft. level. In places low 
scrub and even grassy patches may be found on tlie ridges at heights of 1,000 ft. or 
little more. Near Mount Davy there are bare rock-slopes extending over many acres. 
During the winter there are heavy falls of snow on the higher levels, but these, as a rule, 
melt away in a few days or weeks. 

The Paparoa Range presents some peculiar structural features, which require de- 
scription for economic as well as strictlj' scientific reasons. The range as seen to the 
north of the subdivision is apparently a faulted block, bounded east and west by great 
faults. Near Mount Davy it appears as a block tilted to the south-west, but much 
disturbed by minor folding and intersected by a number of faults. The descent to the 
Grey Valley is marked by two great faults, but the fault along the western margin has 
either died out or more probably is to seaward of the present coast-line. Southward of 
Mount Davy the structure gradually becomes that of a broad, faulted, unsymmetrical 
anticline, with a north and south strike, and a strong downward pitch to the south. This 
pitch, of course, affects the strike of the beds, especially those on the western side of the 
anticline, which, as a rule, dip at moderate angles. The beds on the eastern side dip 
more steeply, and therefore their strike is le-ss affected. The anticlinal structure con- 
tinues on the south side of the Grey, though, principally owing to the effect of faults, 
the anticline appears to have an upward pitch from the Grey River to near Mount 
Buckley, where the downward pitch to the south isj^resumed. From Mount Buckley the 
anticlinal fold, gradually lessening in intensity, continues for a few miles to the south. 
In this part of its course the crest is marked by the Kaiata Range. The eastern limb 
of the anticline continues to have a somewhat steep dip for a mile or two, but the faults 
die out. Where the fold crosses the New River the downward pitch has disappeared. 
The last decided trace of the anticline is seen in Fireball and Tansey creeks, on the north 
side of the Taramakan, near Kumara. 

The structural appearances presented by the Paparoa Range may be explained as 
those due to an elevating force that has gradually increased in intensity from south to 
north. This agency was accompanied by a tangential push that acted from the south 
of west. 

The uplift of the Paparoa Range is comparatively modern, but deep valleys have 
already been cut in its flanks by stream-action. On the western side the Rapahoe Range 
has been separated from the main mass by a wide valley believed to I'epresent an ancient 
course of the Grey River. t Within the subdivision there is no evidence of the Paparoa 
Range having been affected by ice-erosion. 

* Bull. No. 1 (New Series), N.Z. G.S., p. 36. 

t H. N. McLeod : " Some Caves and Water-passages in the Grevmouth District," Trans., vol. xxxvi, 
1903, pp. 479-80. 



33 

llie Rapahoe oi- Twelvo Apostles Rang3 is a narrow ridge a few miles in length 
flanking the coast between Greynioutli and Point Elizabeth. The highest points reach 
about 1,100 ft. above sea-level. The range itself is composad of arenaceous limestone, 
underlain by mudstone, with nortli and south strike, and dipping at angles of 25° to 
30° to the west. The western slope practically follows the dip of tlie locks, whilst on 
the eastern side are precipitous escarpments of the cuesta type, below which come 
gentler slopes. 

The Rapalioe Range, though interi-upted by the Grey River, really continues as a 
well-marked ridge for some miles to the southward of that stream. This ridge, marked 
"Peter Ridge" on the map, encircles the head of the Omotuniotu Creek, and east of 
Kakawau Hill (1,-1:62 ft.j joins the Kaiata Range, which, as already indicated, repre- 
sents the disappearing southern continuation of the Paj)ar(ia Kange. It should be kept 
in mind that tlie western limb of tlie Pa])aroa anticline is of great width, so tliat the 
Kajiahoe Range and its southern continuation furiii only a part of this limb. The 
Kaiata flats and the Omotumotu Valley are a southward extension of tire broad valley 
between the Rapahoe Range and tha main Papama Kange. 

Some of the morainic liills in the easti'iMi part of the subdivision reach considerable 
heights. This is particularly the case westward of Lake Brunner, whore the nortliern 
branch of tlie ancient Taramakau Glacier has left an enormous pile of debris. TIio 
Three-mile Hill, south-east of Hayes Teriace (near Kumara). is formed of material 
depo>ited by the soutiiarn bianch of the same glacier. 

The elevation of the ancient coastal plain (presently to bo described), together with 
its sub.se(|uent di.s.section by water and ice, lias given rise to a number of ridges and 
hills. Among the more prominent of the.se are Molloy's Look-otit (1,2-30 ft.), near 
Kotuku. and Rig Dam Hill (1,247 ft.), soutli-east of (;oidsl)orough. 

TliK Ancient Cofisl'i/ I'Inin. 

The ancient coa.stal plain of the Greynioulh Subilivision is part of the Westland 
coastal plain, which lies at tlie western margin of the Southern Alps, and in many of 
its features is comparable to the much larger Wanganui coastal plain of the North 
Island. It is, as indicated in a former report,* a complex physical feature, the history of 
which is not always easy to decipher. 

In the main, ths Westland coastal plain consists of marine clays and sandstones 
(Upper Miocene in age) that have been considerably elevated and subjected to some 
degree of folding (see pages 64-65) Just before elevation began a coating of river-gravels 
was conformably deposited upon the marine beds. As the land rose it was deeply dis- 
sected, at first by ordinary stream-action, but before long by glaciers and glacial streams. 

During elevation there was building up .<',s well as dissection. The ancient glaciers, f 
descending from the Southern Alps, overrode a great part of the surface of the coastal 
plain, upon which they left '.;reat piles of debris. Much miterial also was deposited by 
the glacial streams beyond the edge of the ice. This, as the glacial streams changed their 
courses, was now dissected, now added to. Thus the high-level terraces of to-day have 
been formed. 

The elevatorv movement appears to have continued throughout the period of glacial 
extension, but at least one pause can be indicated. This allowed a fringe of marine 
"■ravels and sands to form along the coast-line of that time. Remnants of these now 
appear as raised beaches at the Lamplough I/ead and elsewhere at an average elevation 
of about 200 ft. above pre.sent sea-level (see page 34). 



* Bull. No. 1 (New Series), N.Z. G.S., 1906, pp. 27-28. 

t For particulars of the glacial invasion see Von Haast's " Geology of Canterbury and Westland," 
Bulls.JNos. 1 and fi, &r. 

3— frrpvinouth. 



34 

Since the retreat of the glaciers into the mountain fastnesses dissection by the 
modern streams of the Miocene strata and of the superimposed morainic and fluvio- 
ghicial giavels has continued. The present topography, however, was in the main deter- 
mined before the glacial retreat was completed. 

Seeing that the Paparoa Range gradually loses its identity in the Westland coastal 
plain, it is obvious that no well-maiked line of demarcation can lie drawn between the 
two. As a matter of fact, the Kaiata and other ridges south of the Grey, the Kapahoe 
Range, and probably the greater part of the Paparoa Range as developed within the 
Greymouth Subdivision, formed part of the ancient coastal plain. The southern part 
of the Grey River Valley, described in the next paragraph, must also l^e looked upon 
as, strictly speaking, a porticm of the Westland coastal plain. 

The Grey River Y alley. 

By this term is meant tlie broad valley of the Grey River from Stillwater north- 
wards. As a valley it is of tectonic origin, and owes little of its main outlines to 
stream erosion. The part within the subdivision represents a portion of tlie ancient 
coastal plain that was relatively less elevated than the Paparoa Range, from which it 
is separated by a great fault (see page 45). Since on tlie eastern side there is another 
great fault at the base of the Southern Alps, the valley is of the grahen type. The 
eastern fault, however, may be, and probably is, older than the western. 

The surface of the Giey Valley is coveied by Pliocene and more modern river- 
gravels, together with glacial debris in the eastern part. In these deposits the Grey 
River and its tributaries have cut terraced courses, thus exposing in places the Miocene 
strata. 

A structural extension of the Grey Valley south of Stillwater is indicated by the 
Stillwater Creek Valley. The western fault, however, as previously indicated, dies out 
in this direction, and the tectonic valley, now^ much obscured by glacial debris, becomes 
merged in the ancient coastal plain. 

The Modern Coastal Plain. 

A modern coastal plain, for the most part very narrow, lies along the coast south- 
wards from Point Elizabeth. Northward of the point there are also short lengths of 
narrow coastal plain. The main coastal plain and the minor areas have been built up 
by the sea-waves, mainly with detritus carried into the sea by the various streams. 
Mining debris in very modern times has had quite an appreciable effect, especially from 
the mouth of the Taramakau northwards, in extending the coastal plain seawards. It 
is said that at Cameron's, a mile north of the Taramakau, the strand has advanced 
several chains in the last forty years. 

Though the area of the modern coastal plain south of Point Elizabeth is small, it 
affords a livelihood to a number of settlers. Its flat surface forms an easy route for the 
greater part of the railway from Grej-mouth to Hokitika. 

Raised Beaches. 

Evidences of an ancient raised beach, formed during a pause in tlie elevatory move- 
ment that uplifted the ancient coa.stal plain, are found near the present coast-line of 
North Westland at many points: In the Greymouth Subdivision remnants of this ancient 
beach may be seen at the Lamplough Lead (Chesterfield), on the hill-slopes facing the 
sea about two miles south of Grevmouth, at Darkies and Blackboy terraces, near Point 
Elizabeth, at the Eleven-mile Creek, and probably elsewhere. The height of this raised 
beach is about 200 ft. at points south of Greynnouth, but at Point Elizabeth and north- 
ward it is somewhat greater, evidently owing to tilting in sympathy with the Paparoa 
Range uplift. 



Plate IV. 




A l{i:.\( II <iF Till-: AnNDi.i) l!ivi:n rktwkkn Kutiki' and Lakk Biuxxkk (i.ooxinc; ri»-STiii:AM). 




Thk Kxit of TDK Viixoi.ij HivK?. FiiOM Lakk Biu'nnfr. Hohonu J?axgk IX Distance. 

GkoI. Hull. Xn. 13.] [To fnrr prujr r/J^ 



85 

The modern coastal i^laiu also ixhibits on its surface a raised beach, evidenced by 
low terraces. These are well seen bi.'tween Paroa and Greyniouth, and again at Lake 
Ryan, a small sheet of water a mile and a half north of Greyniouth. 

At levels intermediate lietween the two raised beaches described there are traces of 
marine-cut terraces, but no distinct line of raised beaches indicating a decided pause 
in the elevatory movements has been observed. 

/iiuer-ft'if" f Flood- plain ■'! J and Ter race-to j)s. 

All the stream-valleys of the lowlands contain river-flats, backed by terraces of 
varying height. In tlie extreme south of the subdivision the Arahura Valley exliibits a 
river-flat merging into the coastal plain. 'JMie Taramakau IJiver below Kumara has 
only small flats along its course, but about three miles above Kumara is a large area of 
flood-plain occupied by settlers and known as tlie Teieniakau ('I'arr.nndv.uO Settlement. 
The New River lias many small flats along its course, some of whicii have been cleared. 

The largest river-flats of the area are those of the Grey River. Between Greymouth 
and Dobson are the fertile Coal Creek and Kaiata flats. North of Stillwater there are 
other extensive flats along the couise of the Giey River. 

Another flat deserving notice is "" Bruce's Paddock," or " Pakiiii," l)etween the 
HoiK)iiu Range and Mount Te Kinga. This area, oidy part of wliich is w-ithin tju' sub- 
division, represents an ancient course of the Taramakau River, and is now traversed by 
the Orangipuku Stream. Its lower portion is a delta, formed by material carried by 
the old Taramakau into Lake Brunner. 

Only a small portion of the flood-plain through which the Crooked River flows before 
entering Lake Brunner is within the subdivision. This portion may more properly Ix? 
regarded as a delta. 

There are considerable areas of flat terrace-tops within the subdivision. The most 
notable of these is the open " pakihi " near Ahaura. Southward of Ahaura arc many 
other somewhat similar areas between the various straam-valleys. In most instances the 
gravels of the teriace-tops were deposited by the ancient glacial streams (see page 75). 

Rivers. 

The chief streams of the (ireymouth Subdivision are the Arahura, Taiamakau, and 
Grey, all of which take theii- rise in the alpine region. .Minor streams with independent 
courses are Waimea Creek. New River, Seven-mile Creek, and the Ten-mile Creek. All 
of these except the Ten-mile Creek have their water.sheds wholly within the subdivision. 

The Arahura River has its source and the greater part of its watershed in the 
Hokitika Subdivision.* Durintr the last part of its caieer until neai- the sea it flows 
north-east almost at grade in a somewhat wide valley cut in the ancient coastal plain. 
It then enters the modern coastal plain, after traversing which for half a mile it reaches 
the sea. 

The Taramakau (less correctly spelt " Teremakau ") River has its headwaters partly 
in the Hokitika Subdivision (Taipo River), t partly to the north-east in the Otira and 
Taramakau survey districts. It enters the subdivision a few- miles south-ea.st of Kumara, 
and thence flows north of west through the ancient coastal plain. For such a large river 
its valley is somewdiat narrow, and in places almost gorgy, but otherwise the stream 
presents no features of note in this ]iart of its course. The last half-Tnile or less of its 
course is across the modern coastal plain. 

The Taramakau's onlv tributary of note within the subdivision is the Big Hohonu 
or Greenstone River. This river rises in the Hohonu Range, and after flowing through 
a somewhat wide ice-carved valley for a mile or two descends rapidly with one notable 



* See Bull. No. 1 (New Series), N.Z. O.S., 1906. p. 30. 
t Op. cit., p. 29. 
3'— Greymouth. 



36 

waterfall to the lowlands, through which it flows to its junction with the TaraniaUau 
opposite Kumara. 

The Grey River enters the subdivision a little north of Ahaura. Flowing south- 
west through the tectonic valley already described, it is joined from the east by the 
Ahaura River and Nelson Creek, and from the west by Moonlight, Blackball, and several 
other creeks. Near Stillwater it is joined by the Arnold River, and, turning to the 
west, penetrates the Paparoa Range by way of the Brunuer Gorge, a typical water-gap. 
After flowing through the Kaiata and Coal Creek flats it passes through a second water- 
gap, the Greymouth Gorge, into the coastal plain, whence it reaches the sea. During the 
last twenty or thirty years its course lias been artificially lengthened by lueans ot moles. 

The Arnold River, if regarded simply as the outlet to Lake Bruimer, has its course 
wholly witliin the subdivision. Leaving Lake Brunner at its north-west corner it flows 
with very gentle current to near Kotuku, where it is joined fi-om the north by MoUoy 
and Deep creeks. The latter stream, which has sometimes been called Brov.n River, is 
now well known on account of the petroleum springs in its vicinity. From Kotuku the 
Arnold flows north-westward with somewhat greater grade through a more or less ter- 
raced somewhat wide valley cut for the most part in glacial and stream gravels. This 
valley seems to have been formed when the Taramakau entered Lake Bruimer, or at an 
oven earlier date, when the Westland piedmont glacier covered much of the lowlands. 
In it the modern Arnold has cut a shallow narrow valley, almost without flood-plains, 
the Arnold Flats being not flood-plains, but a .series of low terraces cut, partly in glacial 
times, partly at a later date when the ancient Taramakau still entered Lake Brunnei . 

The Waimea Stream has its sources east and north-east of Goldsborough. In this 
locality it flows through a valley overlarge for the size of the stream. This feature is 
due to the valley having been formed by a large stream or streams from the ancient ice- 
front, which reached well into the Waimea watershed. At the head of one branch, on 
the road lietwt-en Goldsborough and Kumara, is a distinct air-gap, formed during the 
glacial extension. 

The New River has its sources in the morainic hills west of Lake Brunner. Here 
rise three main branches — Card Creek, the New River itself, and Cockeye Creek. These 
streams and their tributaries flow for the most part in deep valleys cut at first in glacial 
gravels, but towards Marsden, where they unite, in the Miocene clays known as the 
" Blue Bottom." Card Creek is noteworthy for its meanders, which in the lower part 
of its course become deeply incised in the Blue Bottom.* A fairly modern uplift seems 
thus to be indicated. From Marsden the New River flows through a valley carved in 
the Blue Bottom with small flood-plains till it reaches the modern coastal plain at 
Cameron's. Before joining the sea it enters a long narrow lagoon. 

The Seven-mile or Waimatuku Creek is a small stream which, with its tributaries, 
has deeply incised the flanks of the Paparoa Range. The last mile or more of its course 
is through flat country. 

The Ten-mile Creek, or Waianiwhaniwha River, is a lar<re mountain-stream that 
rises on the western slope of the Paparoas some miles to the nortli of the subdivision. 
It flows almost southwards at first, but on entering the subdivision flows with a general 
westward direction throi^irh a deep gorgy valley until it enters the ■^ea through a gap 
in high conglomerate cliSs. This valley is of some antiquity, and appearances are not 
against the supposition that it once extended at least some miles to the seaward of the 
present coast-line. 

Volumes of Streams. — During the course of the survey of the Greymouth Subdivi- 
sion a number of stream-measurements were made by the rough methods described in a 
former report. + The results obtained are set forth in the table on the next page: — 



* Deep Creek (Kotuku), and Fraser and Clear creeks (tributaries of Stillwater Creek) are almost equally 
TPmarkablo for their meandering nropensitie?. 

t Bull. No. 6 (New Series), N.Z. G.S., 1908, p. .56. 



37 



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38 



Springs and JJ nderij round Watercourses. 

In those parts of the Greymouth Subdivision where calcareous rocks appear on the 
suit'ace, it is a common thing for small streams to disappear, or partly disappear, at 
one place and regain the surface elsewhere in the form uf large springs. The point 
of reappearance, as might be expected, cannot always be identified. 'Ihe most notable 
instance of a disappearing stream is Cavern Creek, in the watershed of Rocky Creek, 
a tributary of the Seven-mile. There a) e also, as at Point Elizahetli, various large springs 
issuing from calcareous rocks that cannot be connected with any particular watercourse. 

In areas covered by river-gravels, morainic debris, or talus, small streams may be 
observed to lessen or increase in volume through percolation of water away from or into 
the stream-bed. 

Small surface springs are conmion throughout the subdivision. These almost always 
deposit more or less oxide of iron. They are particularly abundant in the coal-bearing 
country, and in many cases indicate the presence of a coal-seam, the coal acting as an im- 
pervious barrier either above or below the spring outlet that guides the water to the surface. 

Two cold mineral springs occur in the gorge of Deep Creek (Kotuku), above the 
upper foot-bridge, where also the Notown - Bell Hill Track crosses the stream. The 
water of the larger spring, which is on the eastern bank, deposits carbonate of lime 
and a little ferric oxide. It contains mucli free carbon-dioxide, and has therefore a 
characteristic flavour, from which it obtains the local name of " the soda spring." 
The flow from the spring is probably about a gallon per minute. The water has a 
palatable taste, but is probably not suitable for bottling as a mineral water on account 
of its tendency to deposit solid material. An analysis of a sample forwarded to the 
Dominion Laboi atory in 190.3 by Mr. William FaithfuU is as follows : — 

Grains per Gallon. 
... 1G2-20 



Sodium-cldoride 

Potassium-chloride 

Magnesium-chloride 

Calcium-bicarbonate 

Ferjous bicarbonate 

Silica 



4-80 
6-65 
20-50 
4-10 
3-00 



201-25 
Dr. Maclaurin remarks : " In addition to the above constituents, the Avater contains 
from 10 gr. to 15 gr. of free carbonic acid per gallon. It is a mild chalybeate water, 
somewhat resembling the Kronthal Springs (Nassau)." 

The water of the smaller spring on the western side of the gorge has similar pro- 
perties to those of the main " soda " spring. 

The salt water that flows more or less continuously from several of the oil bores 
may ]ye here mentioned. The following analyses show its composition : — 

Kotuku Brine-". 







A. From No. 9 Bore (1908).* 


B. From No. 2 Bore (1903). t C From No. 5 Bore (1903).t 




%Ton^." ^-^-^t- 


Grains per „ p ^ Grains per p „ . 
GaUon. i-er cent. Gallon. i'er cent. 


MgBr. 
KCl ".. 
NaCl .. 
MgCla . . 
CaCl, .. 
CaSd, 
Ca(HC03), 
FeCHCOgJa 
Iodine 




5-2 

390-0 

4,942-0 

89-2 

79-0 

426-0 

2-5 


0-007 i 

0-557 I 174-0 
7-060 5,134-0 
0-127 ' 170-0 
! 123-5 
0-113 46-0 
0-609 289-3 
0-004 

. . Tra 


0-249 180-0 0-257 
7-334 5,256-0 7-509 
0-243 128-0 0-183 
0-176 117-0 ; 0-167 
0-066 46-0 0-066 
0-413 i 216-0 0-309 

ces . . i . . 




5,933-9 


8-477 


5,936-8 


8-481 5,943-0 1 8-490 



* Dom. Lab. Rep., 1909, p. 35. 



t Dom. Lab. Eep., 1904, pp. 13, 14. 



39 

Concerning A, Dr. Maclauriu remarks: "This water contains nearly three times 
as much salts as ordinary sea-water, it diffei's from sea-water in containing a much 
larger pioportion of calcium-bicarbonate and smaller amounts of calcium-sulphate and 
magnesiuni-tliloride." 

Dr. Maclaurin makes some interesting remarks concerning B and C, which may be 
seen in liis report. He determined the carbon-dioxide in duplicate samples as follows: — 



No. 2 Bore. 


No. 5 Bore. 


Grains 


Grains 


per Gallon. 


per Gallon. 


17/ 


115 


176 


117 



First samples 
Second samples 

Lnkes . 

Ihe largest lake in Westland, Lakj Brunner or Moana, is almost wholly in the 
Greymouth Subdivision. It has a length of o"6 miles from S.S.W. to N.N.E., and a 
maximum breadth of 44 miles, with an area of 10,174 acres or 159 square miles. Ihis 
fine sheet of water lies at the foot of the Hohonu Range and Mount Te Kinga, which 
bound the greater part of its southern and south-eastern shores. The western shore, 
and portions of the northern and south-western shores, aie bordered by morainic 
deposits, wliich apparently dam the lake. It is therefor;,' a great hollow left in the 
glacial debris when the great piedmont glacier of Westland melted away. Its present 
depth may in j)ait l)e due to earth-movements. Since the retreat of the ice the lake 
hiis probably been lowered in level, and a portion has been filled up by the gravel- 
deposits of the Crooked Rivei', which is at tiie present time advancing its delta into 
the lake at an easily measurable rate. The flat land at tlie .south-east corner of the lake 
was formed by the deposits of the ancient Taramakau Hivei-. It is therefore evident 
that innnediately after the glacial retreat Lake Brunner iiad a mucii larger area than 
it now possesses. A wide arm extended south-eastward from the northern part of 
the lake, and another reached southward from the south-east corner. Possibly east of 
Mount Te Kinga these arms joined, and thus Te Kinga may have been an island in the 
midst of the ancient lake. 

The present surface of the lake when at its normal level is about 280 ft. above 
sea-Ievel. Since the formation of the lake there have been some fluctuations in its 
level. The Arnold River has lowered its outlet somewhat, but the latest movement 
seems to have been a slight raising of tlie water-surface. Tliis is evidenced by ver}' 
shallow water at the north-east coi-ner, by trees in the lake witli tlieir roots below water- 
level, and, it is said, by Maori ovens under water near tlie mouth of the Eastern Hohonu 
Stream. 

The seasonal variation of level is (5 ft. or 7 ft. In Fel)ruary and March, 1909, at 
a time wlien the lake, already low, was steadily falling, the following observations 
were made: During thirteen days from the 21st February to the 6th March the lake 
fell 10 in. ; during five days from the 6th to the 11th March the lake fell 2| in. ; during 
three days from the 11th to the 14th March the lake fell IJ in. ; during three days and 
a half from the 14th to the 18th March the lake fell If in.: total fall, 15| in. in 24^ 
days. During the time of observation there was no heavy rainfall, and the total 
precipitation was probably less than h in. In April the lake was reported as being 
even lower than during March. In November, 1910, the lake was about 5 ft. higher 
than at the time the above observations were made. 

As will be seen from inspection of the map of the Hohonu Survey District, numerous 
soundings of the lake were taken. The datum to which these soundings were reduced 
was the lake-level about the middle of March, 1909. An allowance determined by 
experiment was made for the stretching of the cord used by the plummet, and the 



40 

sarinkago through wetting. The results therefore are consistent among themselves, 
and the margin of error should not exceed ^ per cent. 

Of the 116 soundings taken, thirty-four were under 100 ft., twenty-six between 
100 ft. and 200 ft., twenty-four between 200 ft. and 300 ft., seventeen Ix^tween 300 ft. 
and 330 ft., and fifteen over 350 ft., the deepest being 357 ft. Ihe soundings show 
that the deepsst part of the lake is south-south-west of the Refuge Islets. About 122 
square miles is 3.")0 ft. to •'ioT ft. deejj, and about 237 square miles is from 300 ft. 
to 350 ft. in depth. 

The bottom of the lake, except in shallow water near the western shore and close 
to the mouths of the Crooked River and small creeks descending from the Hohonu 
Range and Mount Te Kinga, is everywhere covered with mud. 

Two or three miles east of Te Kinga Railway-station is Kangaroo Lake, a sheet of 
water about iOO acres in extent. A very small portion of the lake is in the south- 
east corner of the Brunner Survey District. 

The tiny Lake Ryan, on the coastal plain about a mile and a half north of Grey- 
mouth, is practically a lagoon remnant, now some little distance from the sea, and con- 
taining fresh water. 

Lagoons. 
Lagoons are rather prominent along the shore-line of the coastal plain. Every 
stream directly or indirectly gives rise to a lagoon of some kind. 

The Arahura Lagoon, at the mouth of the river of that name, is a muddy flat, 
only partly covered with water at ordinary- high tides. The Waimea Creek empties 
into a long lagoon channel extending northward, which is very narrow and separated 
from the sea only by a strip of loose sand, over which the sea <». a'shes at high tide. The 
lagoon at the mouth of the Taraniakau is poorly developed. The New River gives rise 
to a relatively long and narrow lagoon, running northward. This averages less than 
80 yards in width, and is separated from high-water mark by a strip of land that in 
most places is very narrow. 

The Grey River, like the other large streams of North Westland, does not directly 
form a lagoon of any size, but draining into it on the south are Erua Moana and Lake 
Karoro, which are essentially lagoon lakes, due in a measure to Sawyer's Creek and 
other small streams. 

The Seven-mile Creek enters a very small lagoon, but the Ten-mile Creek reaches 
the sea direct, there being in this case no strip of coastal plain to aid in the formation 
of a lagoon. ^ 

The Shore-line. 
The greater part of the shore-line of the Greymouth Subdivision — namely, that 
forming the front of the coastal plain — shows sandy or gravel beaches, backed in 
places by very low sandhills. At Point Elizabeth, at the Nine-mile Bluff, and again 
from a short distance south of the Ten-mile Creek to the boundary of the subdivision, 
the beach, in part sandy or gravelly, in part bare rock, is backed by cliffs. 

North of Point Elizabeth, and again near the Teti-mile Creek and northwards, are 
a few islets, together with some rocks awash at high tide. It is therefore evident that 
in these localities within a comparatively recent geological period the shore-line extended 
at least a mile to the seaward of its present position. 

Outline of Geology. 

Sequence and General Structure of the Several Formations. 

The oldest rocks found in the Greymouth Subdivision are Palaeozoic argillites and 

grauwackes that correspond in character with the Kanieri Series of Bulletin No. 1 or 

the Greenland Series of Bulletin No. 6. In this report the latter name is adopted, the 

former having a prior occupation. The Greenland rocks, wherever thev occur, are 



Plate V 




/' 




%^ 



i' 



.}■ 



\ 



\..\Ki: Jj.iL.NM l; 1 .ii..\l A I'l.l.M .\KAI( MoA.NA I! Al I, W A V-S I A I lO.N . MoLM Tk KiMiA I.N l.KKL UaCK- 
CHOIXU. 'J'hK AxCIKXT VAI.r.KY UK THI-: TAltAMAKAT T<> TlIK HKiHT (IK Tk KlXfJA. 




Till-; (Jkkvmoitii (Umr.E. — A Typkai. W \ti:i!-c;ap. 



Genl. Hull. So. IS.-] 



[To flier piKje //O 



41 

highly folded, geuerally along north-west to south-east lines, and are in many places 
much crushed and faulted. It is as yet uncertain to whicli of tiie Pahcozoic periods 
they belong. In age they may be Carboniferous, Devonian, or even Ordovician. 

Partly within the subdivision are the granitic bosses that form almost the whole of 
the Hohonu Range and Mount Te Kinga. From evidence obtained chiefly outside the 
subdivision* it is known that the Westland granite^ intrude the Greenland sedimentaries, 
and are therefore post-Greenland in age. Together with tlie almost contemporaneous 
pegmatite and aplite dykes that in places intersect them, the granites are to be included 
in the Tuhua Formation of Bulletin No. l.f 

The Tuiuia rocks are seamed by many basic dykes, tlu)Ught by tlie present writer to 
be of only slightly younger age than the acidic plutonics in which they occur. 

So far as is known, there are no Mesozoic strata in North Westland, but the Cainozoic 
periods are very well represented in the Gieyniouth Subdivision, theie having been ap- 
parently almost continuous deposition fi'om Early Eocene to tlie present day. In this bul- 
letin the Tertiary strata are subdivided into the coal-measures of supposed Eocene age, the 
Greymouth Series of Miocene age, and tlie Moutere Gravels of approximately Pliocene age. 

The Quaternary era is represented by Pleistocene gravels, chiefly glacial deposits, 
and these again are succeeded by more modern river and marine gravels and sands, the 
deposition of whicii is continuing at the present day. 

The following table shows the classification of tlie '.'eoloirical formations adopted 
in tliis bulletin, together witii that employed in Bulletin >'o. 6, for correspond- 
ing formations. The first and third columns show the classifications adopted by McKay 
and Park, but the present writer is responsible for the arrangement and one or two 
slight modifications necessary to enable the tabular form of presentation to be used. 
The tabl3 may be extended to include the classifications of Bulletin No. 1, Von Haast, 
and Cox by reference to Bulletin No. 6 (page 33). 



Table of Geological Fokmations. 



McKay, lf)93, 1894. Ucixetin No. 6 (1908) 



Park, 1910. 



This Bulletin. 



AOS ACCORDING 

TO THIS 

BtTLIiETIN. 



JUvor and littoral FJuviatile gravels, 
deposits I marine gravels 



Recinc 



Extended glacier | Moraiuic and fliivio- 
deposits, river glacial gravels, 
and marine I fluviatile gravels, 
gravels marine graveU 



Recent deposits (fluviaiile 
and marine gravels and 
sands) 



Recent. 



Pleittoctna 



Pleistocene deposits 
(Morftinic, fluvio-glacial, 
Huviatilc, and marine 
gravels, &c.) 



Pleistocene. 



Moutere Gravels 



Moutere Gravels 



Kanieri and New Blue Bo. Cum 
Rivtr Series 



Wanganui System 
(part of) 

Wanganui Sys- 
tem (?) 



P.i^c.iiO Bi.ds (sandstones, 
lignite, and gravels) 



Cretaceo-tertiary . . Koiterangi Series 



Maitai Series 



Greenland Series . . 



Oamaru Series 



Waimangaroa 
Series 

Hokonui System 
(part of) 



, (1) Blue Bottom For- 
5 mation 

a^S-j (2) Cobdi n Limestone, 
oM ; Purt Elizabeth 

Beds 
(3) Omotumotu Beds 



Pliocene. 



Upper Mio- 
cene. 



Coal measures 



Greenland Series 



[Basal I j 



..) 



1 Basic dykes . . [ ' 



I Basalt . . 
I Basic dykes 



Massive and intra- Tuhua Formation, 
sivc granites 



Tuijua Fotmation 



Middle and 
Lower Mio- 
c< nc. 



Eocene. 



Palaeozoic. 



(?) Miocene. 
Pre-Tertiary. 

Pre-Teriiary. 



* Bull. No. 1 (New Series), N.Z. G.S. 
t See Chap. VII, pp. 61-66. 



1<MI6, 1). (il • bull. No. 6, 1908, pp. 130, 131. 



42 

Geological History. 

It is soniewluit unfortunutf that the ago of tiic ljiet;iilaiid Series is uncertain, so 
that it is at present impossible to say when the geological history of the area under 
discussion began. It seems, however, to be generally agreed that during at least the 
greater part of the Palaeozoic and Mesozoic periods New Zealand was part of or adjoined 
a continental area. From this ancient continent the sediments of the Greenland Series 
had their origin. In the Jurassic, or possibly still earlier, these sediments were folded 
along north-west and south-east axes. About this time the granitic bosses of the Tuhua 
Formation may have been injected into the Greenland rocks. It is thought by the writer 
that the numerous basic dykes that penetrate the granites are due to a differentiation 
from the magma that gave rise to the acidic Tuhua rocks. 

During the latter part of the Mesozoic the history of the area is practically a blank, 
but at the end of that era it is believed by the writer that the great earth-movements 
known to have taken place in other parts of the world affected New Zealand. Uplift, 
accompanied by folding along north-east to south-west lin&s* and by mountain-forma- 
tion took place. New Zealand may then have assumed continental dimensions, extend- 
ing, as Hutton believed, far to the north. At this time, perhaps, ths Southern Alps 
rose for the first time as a mountain-chain. Probably glaciers descended from the Alps 
or other mountains that have existed near the area, for ancient deposits with glacial 
characters arc found not far from the Greymouth Subdivision.! In portions of the 
latter area thick laj-ers of coarse conglomerate were laid down at this time. Depression, 
perhaps local at first, followed, and permitted the deposition of the alternating shales 
and sandstones with accompanying coal-seams that form the main part of tlie Paparoa 
Beds. The depression, now certainly general in the north-western part of tlie South 
Island, continued, and another set of coal-bearing strata, the Brunner Beds, was laid 
down. Marine conditions supervened, so that above the Brunner Beds we find the Island 
Sandstone, calcareous in places, and the thick Kaiata Mudstone. The presence of coal- 
seams in the latter, though of no great lateral extent and, except in one locality, of 
little thickness, is of interest. 

It seems certain that after the deposition of the Kaiata Mudstone there was eleva- 
tion of the land, accompanied by some denudation of the coal-measures. At present it 
is not known whether this elevation was local, or whether it was part of some greater 
earth-movement. Subsidence of the land, however, was soon renewed, and the beds of 
the Greymouth Series, practically all marine in character, were deposited during a period 
that approximately corresponds to the European Miocene. 

About the end of the Miocene depression ceased, and rapid elevation of the land 
Ijegan. At first the fluviatile deposits referred to the Moutere Gravels were laid, pro- 
bably quite conformably, upon the Miocene rocks, but presently erosion overtook deposi- 
tion, and a noticeable unconformity between the Moutere and later gravels was one of 
the results. About this time, it is thought, land that probably existed to the westward 
and north-westward of the subdivision disappeared. J The Alps, however, rose higher 
and higher, giving rise to great glaciers that invaded the lowlands of Westland, and, 
there uniting, formed an immense piedmont glacier that south of Ross reached the coast- 
line. § Park has even advanced the view that not only was the greater part of New Zea- 

* Quite probably there was an earlier periol of north-east to south-west folding in New Zealand. 
Proof of this as regards North Westland is lacking. 

t McKay : " On the Geology of the Reefton District, Inangahua County," G.S. Rep. during 1882, vol. 15, 
1883, pp. 142^4. 

J McKay, Alex. : " Geological Explorations of the Northern Part of Westland," Mines Report, 1893, 
C.-3, p. 181. It is not thought by the writer that this land was of continental or even extensive dimensions. 

§ Von Haast, Julius : " Geology of Canterbury and Westland," 1879, p. 378. See also Bull. No. 6 
(p. 117), and various other publications. 



48 

land glaciated, but that the Antarctic ice was continuous with the Xew Zealand ice-cap.* 
There is, howevei-, in tiie Greyinouth Subdivision no evidence that supports this hypo- 
thesis, though the greater part of the area was certainly ice-coveied. In places retreats 
and advances of the ice-front })iobabIy more or less local are vaguely indicated, but, 
finally, owing to decreased altitude and extent of the parent snowfields, caused by 
denudation, together with climatic changes, the piedmont glacier melted away, leaving 
great piles of debris behind. Since then there has probaljly been a slight elevation of 
file land, the narrow modern coastal plain has formed, and the streams, more especially 
the smaller watercourses, have widened and deepened their valleys. 

* " The Great Ice Age of New Zi-aland " : Trans., vol. xlii, 1909, p. (506. 



14 



CHAPTER IV. 



FAULTS OF THE AKEA. 

Page Page 

Introduction . . . . . . 44 Detailed Descriiition . . . . 44 

Age of Faults . . . . . . 44 



Introduction. 

Portions of the Gieyiaoutii iSubdivisiuii, like many other parts uf New Zealand, are 
much faulted. There are two main areas in which faulting is prevalent. One of these 
is in the south-east of the subdivision along the western base of the Hohonu Range and 
Mount Te Kinga. The faults in this area are connected with the formation of the 
Southern Alps. Ths other faulted area is in the north-western part of the subdivision 
where fihe uplift of the Paparoa Range has been associated with several great faults and 
almost innumerable smaller dislocations. 'I'hese greatly hinder tlie economic working 
of the coal-seams. 

Age of Faults. 

Since in several places Upper Miocene and in one place Early Pliocene strata are 
involved in the faults, it may be inferred that these are of Pliocene age. It is practi- 
cally certain that all the larger faults are post-Miocene in part at least, though it 
cannot be positively stated that they did not originate at an earlier period. It is 
indeed probable that the faults connected v.ith tlie uplift of the Southern Alps did so 
originate. As regards the many faults that traverse the coal-measures, these are, of 
course, wholly post-Eocene, and probably nearly all are post-Miocene. 

Detailed Description. 

At the western base of Mount Te Kinga is a great fault wliich strikes north-east to 
an unknown distance beyond the boundary of the subdivision. There is no direct evi- 
dence for the existence of this fault, but nevertheless a practically conclusive chain of' 
reasoning in its favour could be brought forward. This will not be attempted here, 
since the matter requires consideration of the structure of the whole alpine range. All 
that will be said is that the fault in question is part of ihe great overthrust fault that 
marks the v.estern boundaiy of the Southern Alps. 

Under the waters of Lake Brunner the last-mentioned fault meets a transverse 
fault which also is of a hypothetical nature. The transverse fault runs slightly east of 
south for some miles, till, outside the Greymouth Subdivision, it meets a second great 
overthrust — that which forms, roughly speaking, the boundary between the granites of 
the Tuhua Series and the schists of the Arahura Series. 

The effect of the transverse fault is to tlirow the line of the first fault almost three 
miles to the north-west. The fault then continues at first west-south-west and then south- 
west along the western base of the Hohonu Range into the Hokitika Subdivision. At 
the point where it crosses the Taramakau Valley the fault either bends still more to the 
southward or is carried somewhat to the south-eastward b}- a transverse fault that pro- 
bablv follows the Taramakau Valley. Along the western base of the Hohonu Range 
direct evidence of faulting is given by crushed argillite a short distance eastward of the 



46 

Eastern Hohonu, and again near the Taramakau by intensely shattered grauwacke and 
granite in the watershed of Deep Creek, where also Miocene rocks are involved eitlier in 
this fault or in the transverse fault mentioned above. 

From another point of view it may be said that tlie Uolionu Range has been pushed 
several miles to the north-west by the force of which the faults are an expression — that 
is, by the tangential thrust which caused the uplift of the Southern Alps. 

Along the western side of the Grey Valley much faulting has taken place. Two 
considerable and nearly parallel faults with south-south-west to north-north-east strike 
may be distinguished. One of these is seen at Healy's Gully, on the east side of Mont- 
gomery Hill, where Early Pliocene strata are involved. \orthw;-.rd the fault passes out 
of the subdivision. Southward it passes across the valley of Blackball Creek, and is 
again in evidence near the junction of Ford and Paparoa (Soldier) creeks, wliere the 
coal-measures aie affected along a belt of some width. It continues on the east side of 
Mount Kinsella, and what is probably the same fault or a part of it is seen in Black- 
water Creek, where the strike is 221^, and tlie dip 40^ to the soutli-east. Beyond this 
point it has not been traced. 

The second fault, wliich on account of its importance has received the s])ecial name 
of tlie Roa fault, is about two miles and a half west of the last-mentioned fault. It 
crosses Smoke-Ho Creek about tliree-([uarters of a mile above the junction with Blackball 
Creek. At this point the fault has an uptlir<>w to the west of over 3,000 ft., the result 
being that upper coal-measure rocks abut against Gr(K?nland rocks (" slates "). This 
effect is seen for many miles to the southward — for example, at Roa — and in all the 
streams from here to Langdon Creek. On the north side of the Grey River the fault 
is seen between Brewery and Wall creeks. In tliis locality it has a lessened tlirow, 
and is distributed over a zone of some widtli. Tiiis zone passes to the east of Mount 
Buckley, and ultimately becomes merged in the inclined and pitching anticline wliich 
represents the southern continuation of the Paparoa Range. 

The Roa fault is probably a rever-sed fault, due to a thrust from the westward. It 
is genetically connected with the formation of the Paparoa Range. 

In Paparoa Creek, at a point a (piarter of a mile east of ths Roa fault-crossing, 
a north-and-south-striking fault, probably reversed, with upthrow to the west, may be 
di.stinguished. Its effect is to cau.«e the Kaiata Mud.stone to abut against conglomerate 
belon^'ing to the Bruiiner Beds, above which comes a coal-seam. Probably through the 
same fault coal appears on the surface in Soldier Creek some •'J? chains to the south- 
ward. This fault has not been traced far to tlie south. Xortliward it joins the Roa 
fault. 

The Dobson fault, distinguished long ago by Sir James Hector, strikes from south- 
west to north-east across the peninsula formed by the bend of the Grev River at the 
Brunner water-gap. It has an upthrow to tlie south-east of not le.ss tiian 400 ft. Near 
Dobson it is well marked by a line of Island Sandstone cliffs. East of Brunner it joins 
the Roa fault. To the south-westward the lino of fault passes to the north of the small 
sandstone island in the Grey River almost opposite the Dobson Quarry. From this 
point its course is concealed by the modern dei)osits of the Grey River. 

The KiTiibeiley fault runs from north of west to south of east across the northern 
part of Taylorville. 1+ has been proved by the workings of the Coal-pit Heath and 
Wallsend mines to have a downthrow to the south of 180 ft. Eastward the Kimberlev 
fault probably crosses a saddle on the spur running north from Mount Buckley to the 
Grey River, and ultimately joins the Dob.son fault near the Roa fault. To the west tlie 
Kimberlev fault meets the Brunner fault. 



46 

The Taylorvillo fault runs east of north under tlie township of that name. It was 
encountered many yeai's ago in the most westerly workings of the Wallsend Mine, and, 
from observations made at that time, is considered to have a downthrow of 250 ft. to the 
westward. This result i-equires confirmation by boring or otherwise. Northward 
the fault terminates against the Kimberley fault. Its southward continuation can be 
traced only by boring or underground exploration. 

The well-known Brunner fault impeded tha working of the Brunner Mine for many 
years. It has a strike from south-west to ncnth-east, and a downthrf)w to the north- 
west which, it was ultimately discovered, lessens to the north-east, so that tlie fault 
finally quite disappears. South-westward it meets the Kimberley fault, but it is (juite 
uncertain whether it continues beyond that fault or not. 

Some 30 chains or more to the north-west of the point where the Brunner fault 
dies out is a parallel fault, concerning which little information is available. The 
Brunner seam is here thin, and beyond the fault was either not discovered by pro- 
specting operations or is represented by a thin seam. 

The working of the St. Kilda section of the Brunner Mine has proved the existence 
of a pair of nearly parallel faults whicli limit the greater part of the workings to a 
narrow belt. The more easterly fault has a downthrow to the east. Near the Grey 
River it strikes east of north, but northward curves to the east-north-east. The fault 
probably continues into the valley of Stony Greek, and ultimately meets the Roa fault. 
On the south side of the Grey it has not been traced. 

The more westerly of the St. Kilda faults runs like the other, east of north at first, 
but going north curves to the eastward. In the southern part of the mine the fault 
has an upthrow of 20 ft. to the east, but northward this diminishes to nothing, and 
then becomes a downthrow. 

On the south side of the Grey River two faults are observable along the railway- 
line opposite the St. Kilda section of the Brunner Mine. The more easterly of these 
strikes 224°, and dips 45° to the north-west, in which direction it causes a downthrow 
of 15 ft. to 20 ft. This fault is apparently one that is observed in the workings of the 
Tyneside Mine (now flooded), and may therefore be called the Tyneside fault. Like the 
more westerly St. Kilda fault, it diminishes in throw both from south-west and north- 
east towards what may be called the neutral or axial point of no throw. 

The second of the faults mentioned above is some 2J chains to the westward of 
where the first is observed. It strikes 236°, and dips 85° to the south-east. The down- 
throw, to the south-east, is only 6 ft. 

A well-marked fault or fault-zone, to which the name of the Braetown fault is 
given, traver.S€s the Paparoa Coal Company's property in a general north and south 
direction. The maps show the slightly sinuous course of the fault from Jay Creek 
northward to near the boundary of the subdivision. The downthrow, which is westerly, 
cannot be exactly measured, but it appears to increase from south to north. On Tom 
]?idge it is piobably 350 ft. or move (see figure 4, page 108), although, owing to the 
strata being very steeply inclined just west of the fault, the down-faulted beds reach 
the surface again a short distance to tlie west. 

For the sake of distinction, the notable fault that separates Nos. 1 and 2 sections 
of No. 1 Point Elizabeth State Coal-mine will be called the Dunollie fault. This fault 
has a general noi'th-north-east and south-south-west strike. It dips steeply to the west- 
north-west in the State mine, and, as determined by actual survey, has a westerly down- 
throw of 480 ft. Near the entrance to No. 1 section the fault is indicated by a sand- 
stone cliff. Northward it is seen crossing the Seven-mile Creek just below Moody 
Creek junction. The observed strike is here 204°, and the dip almost vertical. 



47 

A well-marked fault appears in Tararu Creek, valley, near the point where the 
main drive of No. 2 Point Elizaljeth State Coal-mine begins. The fault strikes north- 
north-east, and has a downthrow of at least several hundred feet to the westward. 
Northward the Taiaru Creek fault crosses Bishop Creek towards its head, and is pro- 
bably responsible in part for the disturbed country south-west of Blackball Peak 
(trigonometrical station K). 

East and to some extent west of the point where the DunoUie fault crosses the 
Seven-mile Creek is a wide belt of excessively disturbed and faulted country. North- 
ward much of the valley of Spring Creek and to the south a portion of Coal Creek 
watershed must l)e included in this belt. As a consequence, a considerable area of the 
coal-measures in this locality will pi-obably prove to be oonunercially unworkable. 

Stony Creek watershed, near Brunner, is a similar but much smaller area. Here 
probably only the Bi uniier seam exists, so that the loss of coal per acre will not be 
so serious as in the Seven-mile Creek area. 

Various other faults will be mentioned in Chapter VI, when coal-occurr^nces are 
being described. The maps slio«' a number of other dislocations of more or less im- 
portance. 



48 



CHAPTER V. 



GENERAL GEOLOGY. 









Page 


Greenland Series 


, . 


4« 


Content, Correlation, and Age 


. , 


48 


Distribution 






49 


Structure 






49 


General Petrology 






50 


(1.) Grauwackes 






50 


(2.) Argillites . . 






50 


Coal-measures 






50 


Content . . 






50 


Table of Subdivisions 






51 


Conditions of Deposition 






51 


Age 






52 


Correlation 






53 


Nomenclature 






53 


Distribution 






54 


Structure 






54 


General Petrology 






56 


(1.) Paparoa Beds 






56 


(d.) Basal Conglomerate 




56 


(c.) Lower Sandstones 


and 




Shales 




56 


(6.) Midille Sandstones 


with 




Minor Shales 




57 


(a.) Upper Sandstones 


and 




Shales 




57 


(2.) Brunner Beds 




57 


(6.) Pebble -beds and 


Con- 




glomerates . . 




57 


(a.) Coarse Sandstones, 


Girits, 




and Pebble-beds 




58 


(3.) Island Sandstone 




59 


(4. ) Kaiata Mudstone 


. , 


59 


Palaeontology 




60 


Paparoa Beds . . 




60 


Brunner Beds . . 




60 


Age of Paparoa and Brunner Beds 


61 


Island Sandstone 




61 


Kaiata Mudstone 




62 


Greymouth Series 




62 


Content and Subdivision 




62 


Nomenclature 




62 


Conditions of Deposition 




63 


Age and Correlation 




63 


Distribution 


, 




63 



Greymouth Series — continued. 
Structure 

General Description 
Omotumotu Beds 

Lower Kotuku Conglomerate 
Port Elizabeth Beds 
Cobden Limestone 
Blue Bottom Formation . . 
Upper Kotuku Conglomerate 
Palaeontology 

Omotumotu Beds 
Port Elizabeth Beds 
Cobden Limestone 
Blue Bottom Formation . . 
Pliocene Beds 
Introduction 
Content . . 
Age and Correlation 
Distribution 
Structure . . 

General Account . . 
Origin 
Pleistocene Deposits 

(a.) Morainic and Fluvio - glacial 

Gravels 
(b. ) Fluviatile Gravels 
(c.) Marine Gravels and Sands 
Recent Deposits 
Igneous Rocks 
Introduction 

I. Tuhua Formation 

Content 

Distribution, and Mode of Occur 

rence 
Age and Correlation 
General and Special Petrologj- . 

(a.) Muscovite-biotite-granites 

(6.) Biotite-granite 

(c.) Pegmatite 

{d.) Aplites 

(e.) Granite-porphyries 

II. Basic Igneous Rocks 

(a.) Basic Dykes 
(6.) Basalt .". 



Page 

64 
65 
65 
67 
67 
68 
68 
68 
69 
69 
69 
69 
71 
73 
73 
73 
73 
73 
74 
74 
75 
75 

75 
76 
76 
76 
76 
76 
77 
77 

77 

77 

78 

78, 

78 

78 

78 

78 

80 

80 

81 



Greenland Series. 

Content, Correlation, and Age. 

The rocks included in tliis bulletin under the name of Greenland Series consist of strongly 
folded grauwackes and argillites that commonly have a greenish tint. From their 
field relations and tlieir lithological characters they are considered to be the equivalents 
of the rocks forming the Kanieri Series of Bulletin No. 1 and the Greenland Series of 
Bulletin No. 6. Tliere can be little or no doubt also that tliey may be correlated with 
the auriferous rocks of the Reef ton district. 

The age of the Greenland rocks is very uncertain. They contain no fossils of any 
kind,* and all that can Ix- positively ascertained bv studying the order of superposition 



* In the collection stored in the Dominion Museum is a slab of argillite from the neighbourhood of West- 
nort that shows somewhat doubtful worm-trails. 



49 

within the areas of which detailed surveys have been made is that they are Pre-Tertiary 
in age, Early Tertiary (possibly Late Cretaceous) rocks resting on them with a high 
degree of unconformity. At Keefton the corresponding rocks (auriferous series) are 
found in juxtaposition with fossiliferous rocks considered by Cox, Hector, and McKay 
to be of Devonian age. McKay is of opinion that the auriferous rocks unconfoiniably 
overlie the supposed Devonian rocks, and he therefore places them in the Maitai System 
of probable Carboniferous age.* Park, while inclining to place the Keefton fossili- 
ferous rocks in the Silurian, advocates a Permo-Jurassic age for the auriferous rocks, 
though he also doubtfully suggests that the latter are possibly conformable with the 
fossiliferous rocks, and therefore of Silurian age.f 

Since, however, the Ordovician rocks of north-we.st Nelson have been traced south- 
ward beyond Karamea, and probably occur near Westport, it seems probable that the 
lithologically similar rocks of the Paparoa Range are of Ordovician age also, and 
may be placed in the Aorere Series of Bulletin No. ."5. Much depends upon whether 
the auriferous rocks at Reefton ov<>r-lie or under-lit^ tlie fossiliferous rocks. An ex- 
amination of the evidence available shows that the point can by no means be con- 
sidered as settled. Final judgment must therefore be suspend.'d until a detailed survey 
of the critical Reefton area has been undertaken. 

Distribution. 

Three small areas of Greenland rocks occur along the western ba-se of the Hohonu 
Range. One is in the watershed of Deep Creek, near the Taramakau River: a second 
is represented by a very small outcrop in French Creek (a tributary of the Big Hohonu); 
and rhe third is found some miles to the north-east of the second, about half a mile east 
of where the Lake Brunner Road crosses the Eastern Hohonu Stream. 

Between Brunner and Stillwater another small area is found on the south bank of 
the Grey River, near Brewery Creek. The exposure extends almost to the summit of 
Mount Buckley (1 ,14.") ft.), where it becomes shiouded by debris; but, since a small 
outcrop of grauwacke occurs to the south on the west bank of Stillwater Creek, it may 
be practically continuous to this point. 

A narrow lielt of Greenland rocks begins a short distance' to the north ot tht Grey 
River, near trigonometrical station H, and .stretches along the eastern slope of the 
Paparoa Range to Roa Township. On tiie south side of Ford's Creek, and perhaps 
also to some extent in the watershed of Paparoa Creek, the belt is obscured by younger 
strata. On the north bank of Ford's Creek Greenland rocks reappear, and extend 
in a rapidly widening exposure to the boundary of the stibdivision, whence they con- 
tinue northward for many miles. 

Montgomery Hill, north of Blackball, is composed almost entirely of Greenland 
rocks. Within the subdivision this area is separated from that last described by a 
wedge of coal-measures, but connects with it beyond the northern boundary. 

The exposures of Greenland strata in the valley of Otto Creek, a tributary of 
the Ten-mile, are also continuous with the large area outside the subdivision. 

Stnirfure. 
Everywhere the rocks of the Greenland Series are strongly folded. In the areas on 
the western margin of the Hohonu Range the strike, where distinguishable, is north-east 
or ea-st-north-east to south-west or west-south-west, and the dip is at high angles to the 
south-eastward. Here the Greenland rocks are intensely crushed through involvement 
in the great fault that forms the western boundary of the alpine range (see page 44). 

* " On the Geology of the Reefton Di.°,trict, Inangahua County," Rep. G.S. during 1882, vol. 15, 1883, 
p. 130. In Bulletin No. 12 (Dun Mountain) the typical Maitai rocks are placed in a system of Jura-Trias age. 
t " The Geology of New Zealand," 1910, pp. 81, 371. 

4 — Greymomh. 



50 

111 the areas of Greenland strata found in the Paparoa Range from Mount Buckley 
northwards the strike, while varying from east and west to nearly north and soutli, is 
always in the north-west and south-east quadrants. Tlie dijj varies from 30° to 90°, 
and, though dips to the south-west perhaps predominate, several anticlines and synclines 
are to be distinguished. In many places the rocks are much shattered by faulting, 
which is especially prominent in the Mount Buckley area, near Roa, and on the south- 
east side of Montgomery Hill. 

It will be noted that on the margin of tlie Hohonu Range the distinguishable strikes 
conform to the trend of the Southern Alps, but that in the Paparoa Range the Green- 
land strata have the north-west to south-east strike characteristic of the same measures 
as developed in the Mikonui Subdivision. I.u the formei' case the primary north-west 
to south-east strike has been lost through the intensity of the earth-movements that gave 
rise to the Southern Alps, but in the latter case the original strike has been in large 
part preserved, the formation of the Paparoa Range being due to uplift unaccompanied 
by any great measure of folding. This preservation of the original folding of the 
Greenland rocks on the western side of the Alps has an important significance which has 
been pointed out on a former occasion.* 

General Petrology. 

The rocks of the Greenland Series consist of water-borne sediments that have appa- 
rently been deposited in the neighbourhood of some large land-mass. They show evidence 
of having been derived largely from a granitic or gneissic area, and are remarkably 
uniform in their iithological characters, difiering only in fineness of grain. Thus there 
are only two kinds of rock in the series as developed in the Greymouth Subdivision and 
elsewhere in North Westland — (1) grauwackes and (2) argillites. 

(1.) Grauwackes. — When unafiected by fault-shattering the grauwackes are bluish- 
or greenish-grey rocks, having a strong resemblance to the corresponding rocks in the 
Hokitika and Mikonui subdivisions. The micaceous sheen due to thermal metamorphism 
so often seen in the areas to the south is almost absent from the grauwackes of the Grey- 
mouth Subdivision, except in the outcrops on the western flank of the Hohonu Range, 
and even here it is not well marked, though granite is in close proximity.! 

In most localities the grauwackes are of medium to fine grain, but in one or two 
places a coarseness of grain approaching that of a grit is observable. They are usually 
so much jointed that the bedding-planes are not easily distinguishable. 

(2.) Argilhtes. — There is no thick stratum of argillite in the Greymouth Subdivision 
corresponding to the argillites seen on Mount Greenland near Ross. Instead, the argil- 
lites appear as comparatively narrow bands, usually of a decided greenish colour, inter- 
bedded with the grauwackes. On bedding-planes, which as a rule are well marked, a 
fine silky sheen is generally observable. 

Coal-measures. 

CONTENT. 

The coal-bearing strata of the Greymouth Subdivision exhibit a great thickness of 
conglomerates, sandstones, shales, and mudstones. The basal bed is a thick conglome- 
rate, with a little interbedded sandstone, well seen near the new township of Roa. This 
is followed by a great succession of shales and sandstones, with occasional coarser bands. 
These strata, which contain a number of valuable coal-seams, form the Paparoa Beds. 



* Bull. No. 6 (New Series), N.Z. G.S., pp. 34, 36, 97. 

t Pebbles of thermally metamorphosed grauwacke are common in the coal-measure conglomerate on the 
coast-line north of the mouth of the Ten-mile Creek. 



61 



Above the Paparoa Beds come conglomerates, grits, and sandstones, with several coal- 
seams. This group of strata follows the Paparoa Beds quite conformably, and will ba 
called the Brunner Beds. The latter beds are oveilain by a thick stratum of marine 
sandstone, in places decidedly calcareous, which, owing to its forming a small island 
in the Grey River near Dobson, was called by Sir James Hector the Island Sandstone. 
It is succeeded by a very thick, somewhat calcareous, dark mudstone, in places sandy, 
which was called dark or blue marl by Von Haast and McKay, and is still locally so 
designated. Owing to the uncertain meanings attached to the word "marl," it is con- 
sidered Ijest to abandon its use as a scienlitie term, and consequently the rock in (jues- 
tion will in this report be given tlie local name of Kaiata Mudstone. It is regarded as 
the closing member of the coal-measui-es. 

The following table sliows the vaiious subdivisions of the coal-measures adopted in 
this bulletin : — 



Main Divisions. 



Subdivisions. 



EstimatpJ Thickness. 



Bemarks. 



Kaiata Mudstone . . 




2,000 ft. to 3,000 ft. 


Contains one coal-seam locally 
workable, and minor seams. 


Island Sandstone . . 




500 ft. (ma.\imum) 


Calcaieous in many places. 




i{a.) Coarse sandstones, grits, 


300 ft. to 400 ft. . . 


Horizon of Brunner, State Mine 




' and pebble -beds 




(No. 1), and Blackball coal- 


Brunner Beds 






scam.s. 




1 (6.) Pebble-beds and conglo- 


ft. to 400 ft. 


1 At Ten-mile Creek contain coal- 




' merates 




seams. 




,(a.) Upper sandstones and 


700 ft. to 800 ft. . . 


1 Contain one or two minor coal- 




1 shales 




seams, workable in jilaces. 




(b.) ALddle sandstones with 


500 ft. to 600 ft. . . 


Contain many small coal-seams, 


Paparoa Beds 


minor shales 




some workable in jilaces. 


(c.) Lower .>iandstones and 


700 ft. to 800 ft. . . 


Contain three to six workable 




o'nales 




seams. 




(d.) Basal conglomerate with 


ft. to 1,000 ft. . . 


Lower layers verj' coarse. 




minor sandstones 







CONDITIONS OF DEPOSITION. 

At tlie time wlien deposition of tlie coal-measures iK-gan there was, as is shown by 
the coarseness of the basal conglomerate and oilier criteiia, higli land within or in the 
vicinity of tlie Greymouth Subdivision. It may 1k' tiiat this elevated country was to 
the eastward, where the Southern Alps now are, but there is also good reason for believing 
that there was high land to the west or north-west (see page 42). The reader must bear 
in mind that in those days tlie Paparoa Range was practically non-e.xistent, that there 
was no Grey Valley, and possibly no Southern Alps. There is abundant evidence that 
the surface on which deposition began was l)y no moans level. Tliis is shown In* the 
basal conglomerate, where it exists, varying in thickness fiom probably 1,000 ft. to the 
vani.shing-point, and by the irregular lap of the higher beds over the lower. 

Apparently the highlands supported glaciers, for somewhat outside the subdivision 
rocks corresponding to the basal conglomerate show glacial characters.* Von Haast has 
reported morainic material as occurring along the banks of tlie Grey River, t presumably 
within the area now being discussed ; but the writer cannot confirm this statement, for 
the large boulders which occur in the basal and also in a liigJier conglomerate may well 
have been derived from adjoining hilly country without the intervention of glaciers. 

The basal conglomerate, as hinted above, appears to have been deposited as stream- 
gravel on a land-surface, and not along a sea or lake shore. Its upper poi-tion con- 
tains in places bands of sandstone and thin irregular beds of vegetable matter. 



• McKav, .Alex. : " On the Geologv of the Reefton District, Inangahua County," O.S. Rep. during 1882, 
vol. 15, 1883, pp. 142-t4. 

t " Geology of Canterbury and Westland," 1879, p. 299. 

4* — Greymouth. 



52 

The deposition of the basal conglomerate was followed by conditions that permitted 
the formation of mud and sand layers, with occasional bands of coarser material, and 
numerous Ijeds of vegetable matter. These conditions prevailed until not less than 
2,000 ft. of strata had been laid down. So far as the writer can judge, tlie facts are 
best accounted for by supposing that a fresh-water lake or marsh w^as formed in a basin- 
like area, which may be called the Paparoa Coal Basin. While it is at present impos- 
sible, and may always be so, to state the shape or size of this hypothetical basin, it is 
apparent that Mount Buckley, near Brunner, together with some miles of the belt of 
Greenland locks that is found on the eastern slope of the present Paparoa Range, formed 
a ridge on the eastern side of the Paparoa Basin. Again, between Blackball and the 
present Montgomery Hill, there was land that for a long time formed part of the basin 
boundary. This land, furthermore, extended westward or north-westward to the present 
sea-coast. Whether it extended . eastward or not cannot be ascertained without deep 
boring, but across the present Grey Valley there was probably land along the ba^e of the 
Southern Alps. 

The Paparoa Basin and the surrounding country evidently subsided pai-i passu with 
the deposition of the Paparoa Beds, and the upper strata overlapped the lower more and 
more, until about the time when the last of the Paparoa Beds was laid down the basin 
character of the area of deposition seems practically to have disappeared. The con- 
glomerates and grits of the Brunner Beds indicate further changes. At this time, more- 
over, coal-measures were being deposited over a considerable area near Westport and 
probably in the neighbourhood of Reefton, so that deposition was now less local than 
formerly. 

After the formation of the Brunner Beds there were other changes in the conditions 
of deposition. Depression proceeding at a rate greater than that of sedimentation 
allowed the sea to invade the areas in which the coal-measures were being deposited. 
The strata oveilying the Brunner Beds — namely, the Island Sandstone and the Kaiata 
Mudstone — appear to have been laid down in slieltered water rather than along an open 
coast. 

After the deposition of the Kaiata Mudstone sedimentation was interrupted by 
elevation of at least part of the area in which coal-measures then existed. The evidence 
for this will be detailed later. In no other part of New Zealand has an unconformity 
been shown to exist at this stage of the Tertiary record.* Hence the unconformity indi- 
cated above may be due to local causes only, but it is at this point that it seems advis- 
able to close the coal-measures so far as the Greymouth Subdivision is concerned. 

AGE. 

For manv years the age of the Grey coal-measures, in common with that of the 
coal-bearing strata in other parts of New Zealand, has been more or less a matter 
of dispute. In 1861 Von Haast tentatively supposed that the Westland coal-bearing 
rocks were of Oolitic age.f About 1877 Hector placed the coal-measures in his 
Cretaceo-tertiarv System, | a classification that has been followed by McKay. In 
1879 Von Haast, apparently in deference to the views of Hector rather than through 
conviction, adopted his classification. § Hutton, who to the time of his death in 1905 
alwavs maintained that in New Zealand, as in Europe, tliere was an unconformity 
between the Cretaceous and the Eocene periods, considered the Greymouth coal-measures 



* Recent field-work by the writer shows that a similar unconformity exists in the Seddonville district. 

t " Report of a Topographical and Geological Exploration of the Western Districts of the Nelson 
Province," p. 105. 

t G.S. Rep. during 1876-77, vol. 10, 1877, p. iv of Progress Report. See Progress Reports in vols. 8 
and 9 for earlier references to the Cretaceo-tertiary System. 

§ " Geology of Canterbury and Westland," 1879, pp. 292, 298. 



58 

to be Cretaceous.* Park at one time supported Hutton's views, l)ut in 1910 assigned 
an Upper Eocene age to the beds under consideration, which he includes in his Wai- 
niangaroa Series, the lower portion of his Karaniea System. f 

The paliieontological evidence is not altogether satisfactory. The Island Sandstone 
overlying the Brunner Beds contains marine fossils that indicate a Tertiary age, but 
the fossil leaves of the Brunner l^eds were declared by Von Ettinghausen to represent a 
Cretaceous flora.; The lowest shale of the ujiderlying I'aparoa Beds affords a variety 
of leaves that have not yet been examined by a competent pahvobotanist, but are thought 
by the writer to have a somewhat Cretaceous aspect (see page 60). Considei'ing, how- 
ever, the decidedly Tertiary facies of the Island Sandstone fossils, the writer is inclined 
to agree with Park, and feels justified in tentatively assigning an Eocene age to the 
coal-measures. In all probability the Paparoa and Biiiniier Beds are Lower Eocene, 
whilst the Island Sandstone and Kaiata Mudstone are Upper Eocene. 

CORRELATION. 

So far as known, the Paparoa Beds are of an unique character, and cannot be 
correlated with any other coal-bearing strata in \ew Zealand. Tlie Brunner Beds are 
very well represented in the We-stport-Seddonville district by the grits and sandstones 
that contain, besides smaller seams, the spLndid coal-seams worked in the Dennistou, 
Millerton, Westport-Stockton, and Seddonville (State) coal-mines. The Island Sandstone 
is practically absent as a sand.stone, its place being taken l)y a dark sandy micaceous 
mudstone that corresponds in character with the Kaiata .Mudstone, l)ut nevertheless con- 
tains fossils characteristic of the Island Sandstone. As seen in tlie Upper Ngakawau 
and Seddonville districts, the upper layers of the mudstone in question closely resemble 
the characteristic Kaiata Mudstone, and may therefore be correlated with it. 

The coal-bearing beds near Reefton are possibly to Ix; correlated with tho Brunner 
Beds of this bidktin. What is apparently the Islanil Sand.stone is well .seen at Boat- 
man's. Park, however, considers that the Reefton coal-measures belong to a higher hori- 
zon, the position of which is at the base of the Oamaru Series. § 

The Koiterangi Series of Bulletins Nos. 1 and 6|] is now correlated by the writer 
with the Brunner Beds, plus the Island Sandstone. The basal conglomerate is probably 
a thickened equivalent of the Brunner conglomerate. The overlying sand-stone and shale 
with coal-seams correspond witli the Brunner coal liorizon, and the Koiterangi Lime- 
stone is with considerable probability a calcareous e(iuivalent of the Island Sandstone, 
and not of the Cobden Limestone, as formerly supposed before the detailed examination 
of the Grevmouth Subdivision was undertaken. The limestone of Hodson Creek,, near 
Ross, which in 1908 was doubtfully placed in the Koiterangi Series by the writer, must 
now be rejected from that series. The correlation with the Cobden Limestone, however, 
remains good. 

N0MENCI,.4TCRE. 

The coal-measures as defined in this bulletin are the e.xact e(|uivalent of Park's Wai- 
mangaroa Series, but this latter term has not been adopted, for two reasons. One is 
that it is felt that the time has arrived when new names for geological formations other 
than temporarv local names ought as a rule to receive the sanction of the whole body of 
geological workers in New Zealand before being generally used : the other is that a 



* " On the Relative Ages of the New Zealand Coalfield.s," Trans., vol. xxii, 1889, pp. 377-87. 
t " The Geolofjy of New Zealand," 1910, pp. 101, 107, &c. 

I " Contributions to the Knowledge of the Fos.sil Flora of New Zealand." Trans., vol. xxiii, 1890, p. 241. 
See also the German original (1887). 

§ " The Geologv of New Zealand," 1910, p. 103. 

II Bull. No. 1 (New Series), N.Z. G.S., pp. 78-81 ; Bull. No. 6 (New Series), N.Z. G.S., pp. 102-6. 



64 

place-name fioiu the Greyinouth .Subdivision, where the coal-measures have the fullest 
development known in New Zealand, would be more suitable than tliat proposed by 
Professor Park. The writer, in this connection, suggests the name of Mawhsrauui Series 
for the coal-measures, since it is in the Mawlieranui Survej" District, traversed by the 
Mawheranui or Grey River, that typical sections from the lowest to the highest beds 
imxy be observid. It may be pointed out that in the Waimangaroa district, on the other 
hand, the Paparoa Beds, so far as known, are wholly absent, whilst the strata overlying 
the Brunner Beds are poorly represented by actual exposures. 

DISTRIBUTION. 

Coal-measure rocks appear at the surface over an area of about G,840 acres south 
of the Grey River, near Brunner, Dobson, and Kaiata. North of the Grey the whole 
of that part of the Paparoa Range, which is included within the subdivison, with the 
exoaption of the areas occupied by Greenland rocks and of a small portion of the 
south-eastsrn slopes, exhibits coal-bearing strata. Coal-measure beds are exposed on 
the road between Greymouth and Runanga, and from there reach to the ooast-Iine 
north of the Seven-mile Creek. Thence they appear almost continuously along the 
coast-line to a point a mile and a quarter north of the mouth of the Ten-mile Creek, 
where conglomerate is seen resting on Greenland rocks. Thus coal-bearing strata 
outcrop in one part of the subdivision only — namel}', the part afiected by the Paparoa 
Range uplift. Seaward, south-west, south, and east of this area the coal-measures are 
shrouded by Miocene strata. There seems little reason why they should not underlie 
the whole remaining part of the subdivision, except in the south-east, where granite 
and small patches of Greenland rocks appear on the surface. The Grey Valley, in 
particular, is almost certainly underlain by the coal-measures from the Brunner 
horizon upwards, but the presence of Paparoa Beds is a mere matter of conjecture. 
It has to be noted; howevsr, that if a decided unconformity, as appears probable, sepa- 
rates the coal-measures from the overlying Greymouth Series, the occurrence of coal- 
bearing strata in any specified portion of the Grey Valley becomes more doubtful than 
is indicated by the preceding sentence. 

STRUCTURE. 

Wherever exposed the coal-measures are strongly afiected by folding, tilting, and 
faulting, the rssult of all whicli is that the business of economical exploitation of the 
coal-seams becomes a very diflticult matter. The great Roa fault and the Greenland 
rocks that it brings to the surface on its western side divide the coal-lx.'aring strata 
into two blocks, which in respect to structure will be described separately. All through 
this discussion, however, the reader ought to bear in mind the structure of the Paparoa 
Range, which, as stated on page 32, is that of a block range passing .southwards into 
a much disturbed unsymmetrical anticline, which is both inclined to the east and has a 
strong downward pitch to the south. 

The western and larger block of coal-measures, if viewed broadly, is seen to be 
structurally tilted to the west-south-west, so that the general dip is in that direction, 
and the general strike is about north-north-west. West of the crest of the Paparoa 
Range the land-slope, being approximately to the west, is nearly but not quite coin- 
cident with the average direction of dip. East of the Paparoa Range crest the land 
slope is opposed to the direction of dip. 

The structure of the block under notice is much complicated by numerous faults 
and by a crumpling that has produced many minor folds. The axes of the minor 
anticlines and synclines almost always possess a strong pitch, so that the outcrop of 



b5 

aii3^ particular stratum, if plotttd to a flat surface, would be a V. The terms V 
anticline and V syncline will therefore be occasionally used in the pages that follow 
to denote this feature. A V anticline in conjunction with a Y syncline produces a 
zigzag or S-shaped line of outcrop. 

It may be suggested that the nortli-west to south-east folding of the comparatively 
hard and unyielding Greenland rocks, by causing resistance to the earth-forces that 
seemingly endeavoured to produce an anticlinal fold along the course of the Paparoa 
Range, has been the main cause of the erratic structure of the overlying coal- 
measures. 

From the irregular nature of the structure, when viewed in detail, it follows that 
the strike of the coal-bearing strata is in many parts of the western block extremely 
variable. In the headwater valleys of Ford and Otto creeks there are places where the 
strike may be seen to change in a few yards, or at most a couple of chains, from north 
and south to east and west. Even in those areas where excessive minor folding is 
absent, slight crumplings or " rolls " of the strata are common, thus causing temporary 
changes in strike. 

In many places dip, b8eides being variable in direction, varies rapidly and irre- 
gularly in amount. In some of the V anticlines and synclines it is ob.servable that 
while one side or limb has a moderate dip, the other exhibits a steep dip. The folds 
thus have inclination, as well as pitch. 

Figures 3 and 4 will give some idea of the structure of small areas' in the valleys 
of upper Ford Creek and its tributary, Waterfall Creek. These areas are described in 
detail in Chapter VI, pages 106-108. 

When it is remembered tiiat upon tlie crumpled structure just descril)ed there is 
superimposed tiie efiect of numerous faults, many of which curve in strike and vary 
in throw, it will be realized that the mine-manager has a heavy burden thrown upon 
him wlien lie endeavours to exploit the coal-seams on conunercial lines. 

Further details of structure will l)e found in that part of Chapter A"l whicii 
describes the coal-occurrences. 

The eastern block of the coal-measures is somewhat more regular in its structure 
than the western area. The northern part, that near Blackball, has for the most part 
a nearly regular strike of uorth-north-west to south-south-east, with a gentle dip to 
the west-south-west of from 6° to 12°. East and west are the Healy Gully and Koa 
faults, the former of which cau.ses considerable disturbance near the junction of Papa- 
roa (Soldier) and Ford creeks ; but over a comparatively large area, the greater part 
of which is held by the Blackball Coal Company, there is no other serious fault. 

In the watershed of Soldier Creek (tributary of Paparoa Creek) the coal-measures 
have a very slight inclination. Southward, in Blackwater Creek, the dip is for the 
most part south of east, but near the Roa fault there is a small aTiHcline, the 
formation of which seems to be connected with the fault-movement. In Bray Creek, 
the coal-measures of the eastern block, which are apparently confined to a belt about 
half a mile wide, have, as a rule, a north-west to south-east strike, and dip to the 
south-west. Near the Roa fault the dip is west or north of west. In Ruby, Woolly, 
and Rocky creeks the strike is usually a little east of north, and the dip is from 45° 
to 75° towards south of east. This part of the eastern block may be said to form 
the down-faulted eastern wing of the Paparoa anticline. 

South of the Grey River the strong easterly dip is seen in the prospecting-workings 
of the old South Brunner Coal-mining Company (Fleming's Mine), and continues until 
the coal-measures, through the downward jiitch of the Paparoa anticline, disappear 
beneath Miocene strata. 



56 

GflNEHAL rETHOI.OGY. 

The coal-measure I'ocks, as shown in the table on page 51, have been divided 
into four groups: (1) Paparoa Beds, (2) Brunner Beds, (3) Island Sandstone, and 
(4) Kaiata Mudstone. Each of these groups will be separately described. 

(1.) Paparoa Beds;. 

The Paparoa Beds, as stated on page 50, consist of a thick basal conglomerate, 
followed by a long succession of shales, sandstones, and coal-seams, Avith local layers 
of grit and even conglomerate. They have been subdivided, as shown in the table 
on page 51 into: (a) Upper sandstones and shales; (6) middle sandstones with mino)' 
shales; (c) lower sandstones and shalss ; and (d) basal conglomerate with minor sand- 
stones. These subdivisions will ha discussed in upward order. 

(d.) Basal Conglomei-ate. — Ihe basal conglomerate consists almost wholly of boulders 
and pebbles of grauwacke, with some argillite and a few pieces of quartz. These 
constituents, evidently derived from an area of Greenland rocks, are imbedded in 
a fine paste of a reddish or greenish colour, owing to contained oxide or silicate of 
iron. The conglomerate is well seen at Roa, where it is quite 1,000 ft. thick, and 
exhibits a red colour, owing to the practically complete oxidation of the iron both in 
the cementing paste and in the pebl)les. It has been considerably disturbed by fault- 
movements, and many of the pebbles therefore show polished slickensided surfaces coated 
by iron-oxide. 

South of Roa the basal conglomerate is seen in Paparoa Creek and some of 
its branches, but it is doubtful whether outcrops extend into the valley of Dublin 
Creek, the soutliern branch of Bray Crsek, the conglomerate here seen at the base of 
such coal-bearing strata as are exposed being probably a local conglomerate at 
a higher liorizon than the true basal conglomerate . Northward from Roa the basal 
conglomerate has a thick exposure in Ford Creek, and can be traced to near the sum- 
mit of Mount Watson. At the point on the crest of the Paparoa Range where the 
coal-msasures are seen in unconformable contact with Greenland rocks, the basal rock 
is represented only by a foot or two of fine conglomerate. Westward, in the valleys 
of Otto Creek, Bishop Creek, and in the Ten-mile Creek, the basal conglomerate is 
again of great thickness. It n.iust he carefully noted that the conglomerates in the 
lower part of the Ten-mile Creek are not basal with respect to the coal-measures as a 
whole (see page 58). 

In its upper horizon tlie basal conglomerate contains local bands of saridstone, 
and even thin impure coaly layers. 

It is probably worthy of note that no granite was detected among the pebbles of 
the basal conglomerate, although this rock was frequently searched for. 

(c.) Lower Sanditones and SJwles. — There is no hard-and-fast line between the basal 
conglomerate and the overlying finer-grained rocks. Above the last considerable layer 
of ctmglomerate the succeeding sandstone quickly becomes fine-grained, and passes into 
a thick layer of dark shale. This shale, with numerous leaf-remains towards its 
upper limit, contains the coal-seams described in Chapter VI as the sub-A and A seams. 
In one place- there is a thin layer of conglomerate interbedded with the shale between 
the two seams. Above the A seam sandstone, shale, and coal-seams alternate for several 
hundred feet, the sandstones, on the whole, predominating. Locally bands of grit 
and even fine conglomerate may be ob.served. In the conglomerate quai-tzose pebbles 
predominate. These alternating sandstones and shales contain several workable coal- 
seams, the highest of which — that called the F seam in Chapter VI — may be considered 
to mark the topmost horizon. The lower shales and sandstones may be studied in the 



67 

Paparoa Mine, Paparoa Creek and ils branches, upper Ford Creek, Otto Creek, Bishop 
Creek, and the upper Seven-mile Creek and its branches. On the crest of the Paparoa 
liange, north of Mount Watson, the shale jKisses into tine-grained sandstone for the 
most part, but there is a band of remarkably fissile shale about G chains from the 
summit of the mountain. From this band slabs showing ripple-niarks and rain-pits 
may be obtained. 

(6.) Middle Sandstones with Minor Shales. — The beds of this subdivision consist 
principally of light-coloured sandstones separated by smaller bands of somewhat light- 
coloured shale. They are estimated to have a total thickness of 500 ft. to GOO ft. Asso- 
ciated with the shaly bands are numerous coal-seams ranging in thickness from a few 
inche.5 to 6 ft. These are described in Chapter VI. Ihe middle sandstones and their 
associated coal-seams are well seen on the crest of the Paparoa Range, north of Audax 
Knob, on Will llidge to the west, at the cliffs near Garvey Creek, and near the junction 
uf -Moody Creek with the Seven-mile. 

(a.) Upper Sandstones and Shales. — Ihe lowest bed of this subdivision is a thick 
bed of moderately dark shale, perhaps ."iUO ft. to 400 ft. thick, which is well exposed 
in Upper Bray Creek and its tributary Duijlin Creek. A still better and much more 
accessible j.xposure is tliat given by the railway-cuttings about 30 chains east of the 
No. L Point Elizabetli State Coal-mine bins. Tliis shale is also visible in many places 
along the tram-line to the No. 2 State Coal-mine. The writer identifies it with the 
thick stratum of dark shale seen in the Ten-mile Creek about a mile and three-quarters 
(air-line) above its mouth, wliere it is faulted against the basal conglomerate. It con- 
tains, so far as known, only thin seams of coal on the eastern side of the Paparoa 
Range, but in Upper Garvey Creek encloses two workable seams, one almost 6 ft. and 
the other 3 ft 8 in. thick (see Cliapter VI). A workable seam is exposed also in tlie 
Seven-mile Creek, below Moody Creek junction. In some places the shale exhibits bands 
and nodules of carbonate of iron (spathic iron, siderite). 

Above the shale ju.st described come about 400 ft. of sand.stones, separated by 
minor bands of shale, with one or two very small seams of coal. These sandstones are 
light-coloured, and in many places coarse-grained. They are most characteristically 
developed at the head of Bray Creek, and on the northern slopes of Mount Davy at 
and above the slip on the track that follows the main ridge. Again, the upper sand- 
stones form, with the underlying shale, a considerable part of the ridge between Coal 
Creek and Seven-mile Creek, and are apparently fairly well developed near the junc- 
tion of Coal and Coulthard creeks and in the upper part of the Nine-mile Creak. 
In the Ten-mile Creek Valley they are probably interbedded with conglomerate in their 
upper layers. 

(2.) Brunner Beds. 

In the table on page 51 the Brunner Beds have been sul)dividcd into — (a) Coarse 
sandstones, grits, and pebble-beds (with coah-seams) ; (6) pebble-beds and conglomerates. 
Shales and fireclays occur to a minor extent. In accordance with the plan of this 
chapter these will be discussed in upward order, as far as possible. 

(6.) Febble-beds and Conglomerates. — Near Brunner the lowest bed of the Brunner 
Series is seen to be a tliick conglomerate typically exposed in Wall Creek by the opera- 
tions of an old sluicing claim. The conglomerate here consists mainly of boulders 
and large pebbles of grauwacke, with some argillite and quartz, firmly imbedded in a 
more or less sandy matrix. It rests on Greenland rocks, and without further investi- 
gation would be taken for th© basal bed of the coal-measures. The thickness of con- 
glomerate shown by the section is 200 ft., but the original thickness may have been 



58 

more, for a portion appears to \>g clownfaulted. On the north side of tlie Grey a con- 
siderable thickness of conglomerate, with pebbles of medium size, appears on the ridge 
of Mount Sewell. Here also it rests on Greenland rock. Northward Paparoa Beds 
gradually appear beneath the Brunner conglomerate, which thins rapidly, and in 
places is more or less inteibedded with sandstone. The pebbles become smaller and 
those of quaitz more numerous till near Mount Davy the conglomerate consists mainly 
of small quartz-pebbles, and has a thickness of a few feet only. 

In the Blackball district conglomerate is not seen at most parts of the northern 
contact of the coal-measures and the Greenland rocks in Blackball, Coal, and Smoke-Ho 
creek valleys. At one place near Coal Creek a few inches of quartz conglomerate is 
visible at the junction. Elsewhere some coarse grit appears where the contact is 
visible. 

In Paparoa, Soldier, and Blackwater creeks conglomerate of some thickness is 
visible below the coal horizon. This conglomerate is distinguished from that in other 
parts of the district by containing pebbles of basic or semi-basic igneous rocks. One 
band in Paparoa Creek has all tlxe appearance of a tuff. The presence of volcanic 
rock has been set beyond doubt by the microscopic examination of thin sections. In 
one instance the rock is an altered lamprophyre, which probably was originally a horn- 
blende-camptonite; in another it is a feldspathic rock, too altered for determination 
of the original character. There is also a section that shows a fresh olivine basalt, 
but in this case an error in labelling has almost certainly been made, and the rock 
probably has another source. 

In many places to the westward of the crest of the Paparoa Range the Bi'unner 
conglomerate is represented by a thin pebble-band, consisting mainly of quartz pebbles, 
but, as there are similar bands at a somewhat higher horizon, it is not easily dis- 
tinguished. In Coal Creek, for example, a pebble-band only 1 ft. thick appears. In 
the Seven-mile Creek, however, a considerably thicker pebble-band is seen. North- 
ward, in the upper watershed of Rocky Creek, in the Nine-mile Creek watershed, and 
particularly along Hall Ridge, the bed in question again assumes the character of a 
conglomerate, and may be 80 ft. to 100 ft. thick in places. In this area the pebbles consist 
mainly of grauwacke and quartz. Still further north, in the Ten-mile Creek valley, 
and along the coast-line, the Brunner conglomerate has a great development, and smct; 
the other beds of the Brunner horizon are here mainly conglomerates also, its upper 
limit is not definable. Westward of a line drawn from Brunner to DunoUie the horizon 
of the Brunner conglomerate has been penetrated by various bores. In the Greymouth 
Harbour Board's No. 3 bore at Dobson the conglomerate as such was not proved, but 
is evidently represented by one of the layers of " coarse granite grit " between 1,500 ft. 
and 1,700 ft., probably that at 1,504 ft. to 1,536 ft. The bores of the No. 1 State 
Coal-mine show the existence of a pebble-band about 85 ft. below the No. 1 seam, and 
this is taken by the writer to represent the Brunner conglomerate. 

(a.) Coarse Sandstones, Grits, and Pebble-beds. — Sandstones are the chief rocks of 
the coal-bearing horizons of the Brunner, Blackball, and No. 1 Point Elizabeth State 
coal-mines. At Brunner they are micaceous, coarse, and in places gritty, but else- 
where are generally less micaceous and finer-grained. A few feet above the small coal- 
seam known as the Brunner Rider is a pebbly layer, which may be considered to repre- 
sent the upper limit of the Brunner Beds. This pebble-layer near Mount Davy con- 
sists mainly of quartz, and has a thickness of perhaps 20 ft. It is well seen as a 
very coarse grit on the track to the Croesus and other mines (Paparoa Track), not 
far from the trigonometrical station marked M on the map. It is also distinguish- 
able in upper Coal Creek (Cobden Survey District), in various places near the Seven- 



59 

mile Creek, and in various bores put down near No. 1 Point Elizabeth State Coal- 
mine. At the Nine-mile Bluff the conglomerate beneatli tlie coal-seam is referable to 
the bed under discussion. Near the mouth of the Ten-mile Creek it has a great 
development, and in downward extension largely takes the place of the sandstones 
seen at Brunner and elsewhere. The shales of the Brunner Beds are of minor im- 
portanoa, and do not require special discussion. In places a shale-horizon is observ- 
able in the lower conglomerate — for in.stance, near ike's Peak and in the Seven-mile 
Valley. How far the thin shales that occur beneath the various coal-seams correspond 
to fireclays is not well known. Apparently only at Biunner is a true fireclay developed 
to a notable extent. 

(3.) Island Sandstone. 

This member of the coal-measures is usually easily recognizable. Near Brunner 
it is a light-coloured, hard, slightly calcareous sandstone, with a thickness of about 
500 ft., which contains shaly bands in places, and gives rise to high cliSs on both sides 
of the Grey River. As previously mentioned, it forms the island in the Grey River 
almost opposite the Dobson Quarry, and hence Hector's name of Island Sandstone. 

Near Blackball the Island Sandstone has much the same characters as at Brunner. 
It is exposed in Smoke-Ho Creek, along the Paparoa Track (to Cra-sus Mine, tt^c), in 
Ford Creek, at Blackball Railway-station, in lower Paparoa Creek, and in Black- 
water Creek. 

There are good exposures of the Island Sandstone in Batty and Coulthard creeks. 
In the latter locality it contains large spheroidal nodules. 

At DunoUie the Island Sandstone forms high clifis near the entrance to No. 1 
section of tiie Point Elizabeth State Mine, and is seen in the railway-cutting somewhat 
to the east of the coal-bins. Its thickness in this locality is probably under 400 ft., or 
considerably less than at Brunner. 

In Kocky Creek (tributary of Seven-mile) and Cavern Creek tlie Island Sandstone 
is highly calcareous, thus approaching limestone in composition. It shows a notice- 
ably calcareous character ahso at and near the Nine-mile Bluff in the Nine-mile Creek 
and in the 'len-mile Creek valley above the coal-seam near the horse-track. North 
of the Ten-mile denudation has lemoved the Island Sandstone except from ths higher 
part of the ridge between this stream and the Eleven-mile Creek. It here forms lofty 
precipices near trigonometrical station H (.Mount George). 

(4.) Kaiata Mudslone. 

The Kaiata Mud.stone is everywhere a dark-coloured tine-grained rock, more or less 
calcareous. It is not always strictly a mudstone, for in places it passes into a dark 
fine-grained sandstone, with, however, a considerable amount of argillaceous material. 
Near Brunner and in the Kaiata Valley it is usually micaceous, especially in the lower 
layers. Elsewhere this feature is not very noticeable. It rarely shows clear stratifica- 
tion, and can hardly ever be called a shale. North of the Seven-mile Creek there is a 
workable coal-seam in the Kaiata Mudstone, and elsewhere .small coal-seams are locally 
developed. In some places concretionary calcareous nodules and bands, a common feature 
in marine mudstones, are visible. 

The thickness of the Kaiata Mudstone is very great. In Rocky Creek it is at least 
3,000 ft. (by calculation 3,0.'^0ft.), but here lateral compression and possibly faulting 
have probably increased the natural thickness. A bore near No. 1 Point Elizabeth State 
Coal-mine passed through 1,100 ft. of Kaiata Mudstone, equivalent to over 1,000 ft. 
measured at right angles to the dip At the site of this bore, however, quite half the 
Kaiata Mudstone has been removed by denudation. It is therefore evident that wherever 
the Kaiata Mudstone remains unaffected by denudation its total thickness may be ex- 
pected to exceed 2,000 ft. 



60 

PALi;ONTOLOGT. 

Papnroa Beds. 

The fossil remains of the Paparoa Beds are wholly of vegetable origin. In the lowest 
shales impressions of dicotyledonous, monocotyleduiious, and fern leaves are numerous, 
but in other horizons few such remains are found. In identifying this material prac- 
tically only Von Ettinghausen's descriptions published in 1887,* together with the trans- 
lation of the latter paper printed in vol. xxiii (1890) of the '" Transactions of the New 
Zealand Institute," and a few drawings by Hector, are available as guides. 

A considerable number of leaf-impressions were obtained during the course of the 
geological survey from the lowest shale horizon in Otto Creek, from the Paparoa Mine 
(specimens presented by Mr. J. T. Watson, general manager), and from various locali- 
ties in the State Coal-mine Keserve. The following leaves have been provisionally identi- 
fied by a comparison of these with Von Ettinghausen's drawings and with publications 
of the United States Geological Survey: — - 

(1.) Podocarpus parkeri? Von Ett. ; cp. also Taxites maitai Hector. 

(2.) Podocarpus hochstetteri Von Ett. 

(3.) Dacrydium prcE-cupressinum? Von Ett. 

(4.) Quercus lonchitoides? Von Ett. 

(5.) Quercus, sp. cp. elliptica Newberry. 

(6.) Fagus ninnisiana Unger. 

(7.) Cinnamoinum intermedium? of Von Ettinghausen, not C. intermediuni ot 
Newberry (U.S. G.S. Mon. 26, pi. 29). 

(8.) Cinnamomum sp. cp. C. heerii Lesquereux. 

(9.) Aralia tasmanil Von Ett. 
(10.) Dacrydijiium cupressinum Von Ett. 
(11.) Ulmophylon lati folium Von Ett. 

In addition to the above species, most of which are only doubtfully named, there 
are other species of Quercus, Fagus, and Cinnamomum, with possibly representatives of 
Grtwiopsis, Laurus, Paliurus, and other genera. 

Of the eleven species listed above, Xos. 1-4, 6, 7, and 9 are found in the Shag Point 
coal-measures; Nos. 10 and 11 occur at Pakawau ; but none has been identified as 
occurring at Brunner. Quercus elliptica is found in the Puget Sound Group of Cre- 
taceous age. Cinncmomum heerii is also a Cretaceous plant that occurs in the Dakota 
Group and in New England (Gay Head, Martha's Vineyard). Comparisons with pub- 
lished figures of North American Cretaceous and Early Tertiary leaves show that the 
Paparoa leaves, as a whole, have an Early Tertiary if not, indeed, a Cretaceous aspect. 

Brunner Beds. 

Abundant leaf-remains are found in the fireclay underlying the Brunner seam, and 
also in a shaly band in a horizon above the Brunner seam. Von Ettinghausen has 
named the following plants from Grey River and Brunner Mine, all of which probably 
are from the horizons indicated : — 

(1.) Podocarpium cupressin/u/m . 

(2.) Bamhusitcs australit. 

(3.) Flabellaria sublongirachis . 

(4.) Casuarinites cretaceus. 

(5.) Quercus pachyphylla. 

f6.) Quercus calliprinoides . 



* See list of literature, page 3. 



61 

(7.) E?iightiophylhim primcevum (locality uncertain). 

(8.) Ceratopetalutn rivulare. 

(9.) Cupanites novct-zealnndia. 
(10.) Celastrophyllum australe. 
(11.) Dalbergiophyllum rivulare. 
(12.) Falctocassia phaseolitoides. 

To the above list may be added Vypentts sp. (Hector) and a species of Cinnamo- 
mum noted by the writer in the Brunner fireclay. 

Of the twelve named species (1), (2), and (9) are found also at Pakawau, (4) at 
Reefton, and (6) at Wungapeka. 

Age of Paparoa and Brunner Beds. 

On collating the data we obtain the curious fact that while Von Ettinghausen con- 
sidered the flora of the Brunner Beds Cretaceous, and that of Shag Point Tertiary, 
nevertheless the flora of the Paparoa Beds, which underlie tlie Brunner Beds, is appar- 
ently nuich more closely allied than that of the Brunner Bed.s to the flora of Shag 
Point. It is to be noted, however, that Hutton* and Parkf consider the Shag Point 
coal-measures to be of Cretaceous age, a view for which there is some palaontological 
evidence. 

Xo decided opinion as to age will be expressed by tlie writer, but since the evidence 
given by plant-remains is decidedly uncertain, and the identifications of the preceding 
paragraphs are in great pai-t doubtful, more weight nuiy he given to a consideration of 
the stratigraphical relation of the Paparoa and Brunner Beds to the overlying Island 
Sandstone. 

The fo.ssils of the Island Sandstone are decidedly of Tertiary facies, and since it is 
conformably underlain by the Brunner and Paparoa Beds, the latter are probably Tertiary 
also. Paik has assigned an Upper Eocene age to the whole of the coal-measures: the 
writer would suggest Lower Eocene for the Paparoa and perhaps also the Brunner 
Beds. The reader may note that the Cretaceo-Tertiary hypothesis, so stoutly upheld by 
Hector and McKay, has not yet been dispo.sed of. In order to settle the ve.ved contro- 
versy that has raged for so many years concerning the age of the New Z<^aland coal- 
fields, much careful field-work and patient palaeontological research are still required. 

/.4a lit/ Sandstone. 
In most localities the Island Sandstone is moderately fossiliferous. The following 
list gives the name of all species or genera identified with a fair degree of certainty by 
previous observers or by the writer, localities, and otlier particulars : — 

Cvcvllaea aftennafa Hutton. — Reported by Hector " ten miles north of Cobden." 

Cardium hrunneri Hector. — Brunner, Mount Sewell, Ac. A small species of Car- 
dium, possibly the young or a dwarfed variety of C. hrunneri, is common in some of 
the cores of Island Sandstone obtained from boreholes near Runanga, and in the rock 
directly overlying the burnt-out coal-seam in the Ton-mile Creek. 

Pecten. — A species of Pecten like P. plenronectes occurs near Dunollie, and in the 
Nine-mile Bluff. Pseudamusium Jiuttoni (Park) is possibly present al.so. 

Ostren. — Perhaps two species occur at the Nine-mile Bluff. One is probably 0. car- 
bonacea (Hector). Osfrea occurs also in the Island Sandstone near Brunner. 
Vennsf?) sp. — Reported by Hector "ten miles north of Cobden." 



* " On the Relative Ages of the New Zealand Coalfield.s," Trans, for 1889, vol. xxii, issued 1890. p. 387 
t " Geology of New Zealand," 1910, p. 89. 



62 

Dentalium. — A small species occurs near Brunner, and is plentiful at the Nine- 
mile Bluff. 

Aturia australis (ziczac). — Probably collected by McKay at the Ten-mile Creek. It 
was at first reported as an ammonite. A probable Aturia was observed by the writer 
near the Brunner Mine in almost the lowest horizon of the Island Sandstone. 

Kleinia conjuncta Hutton. — Casts of this echinoderm are fairly common near 
Brunner. It may be a Toxobrissus (Tate). 

Schizaster exoletus Hutton. — Brunner, Paparoa Range. According to Tate this is 
probably the same as his S. ahductus. 

In addition to the two Echinoids mentioned above, a third species (smallj occurs at 
the Nine-mile Bluff. 

Carcharodon angiistidens Agassiz. — A single tooth was collected in the course of the 
present survey at the Nine-mile Bluff. 

In the more calcareous portions of the Island Sandstone Foraminifera are well 
represented. Fucoid stems are abundant in some localities, including Brunner, and the 
occurrence of resin (retinite) in the sandstone of the Nine-mile Bluff is worthy of note. 

The list given above is not very long, but the presence of Aturia australis and par- 
ticularly of Carcharodon anguHtidens indicates an age not older than Upper Eocene. 

Kaiata Mudstone. 

The Kaiata Mudstone, except where foraminiferal, contains few^ fossils, and hardly 
any of these are specifically recognizable. The writer observed a cast of a much-crushed 
large echinoderm (near Taylorville), a small Dentalium (Sulky Gully, Runanga), per- 
haps the same as that in the Island Sandstone, and several small lamellibranchs (Sulky 
Gully). North of the Seven-mile Creek, near Kane's coal-seam, and in various other 
localities, the Kaiata Mudstone is highly foraminiferal. 

A leaf-impression shown to the writer by Mr. F. Wills, of Taylorville, and stated 
to be from the Kaiata Mudstone near Sulky Gully, is probably Daphnopliyllum australe 
(Von Ett.), which occurs at Weka Pass. A poorer leaf-impression collected in Rocky 
Creek (east side of Paparoa Range) may belong to the same species. 

Careful search niight add considerably to the above scanty list. The best fossil 
locality observed by the writer is along the old water-race in Sulky Gully. 

Greymouth Series. 
Content and Subdivision . 

The beds classed as the Greymouth Series in this bulletin include all the Tertiary 
strata above the coal-measures that are regarded as being of Miocene age. They con- 
sist of mudstones, sandstones, limestones, and local conglomerates, with an estimated 
total thickness of 3,600 ft., and may be subdivided as follows: — 

(1.) Upper: Blue Bottom Formation, including Notown, New River, and Cal- 
laghan Hill Beds, together with Upper Kotuku Conglomerate. 

(2.) Middle: Cobden Limestone ; Port Elizabeth Beds. 

(3.) Lower : Omotumotu Beds, and probably Lower Kotuku Conglomerate. 

NOMENCLATURE. 

Of the various local names used above. New River (in New River and Kanieri 
Series) and Cobden Limestone were employed by the New Zealand Geological Survey 
many years ago.* The others, as explained on page 53, are temporary terms that will 

* The term " Omotumotu Beds " also appears in one of the old classifications. See G.S. Rep. during' 
1883-84, vol. 16, 1884, p. xiv. 



63 

be superseded when a complete classification of New Zealand strata on a palaeonto- 
logical basis has been decided upon. 

CONDITIONS OF DEPOSITION. 

Some of the lowei strata of the Greyinouth Series are estuarine or possibly fresh- 
water deposits, but otherwise the whole of the beds are of marine origin. They appear 
to be, in the main, shallow-water deposits, though the Cobdeu Limestone may be to 
some extent an exception. It is probable that the Greymuuth Series was deposited in 
a sheltered aim of the sea, having land to the east (Southern Alps), to the north, and 
to the west. This arm of the sea extended up the present Grey Valley beyond Heefton. 

Since tlie beds of the Greymouth Series have an estimated total thickness of over 
3,600 ft., it is evident that depression of the land in the Greymouth Subdivision must 
have continued during the Miocene as in other parts of New Zealand. Towards tlie end 
of the Miocene depression was checked, or was overtaken by deposition. This is shown 
by the occurrence of sandstone with interbedded layers of conglomerate in the upper- 
most horizon of the Greymouth Series. 

AGE .AND CORRELATION. 

The Middle and Lower Greymouth beds may be correlated with the well-known 
Oamaru Formation of Button, the Miocene age of which is now firmly established. The 
OiiKJtuniotu Beds may possibly correspond to the coal-bearing liorizou of the Oamaru 
Formation, and the Port Klizabeth Beds to the Middle Oamaru. The Cobden Lime- 
stone by general agreement is the equivalent of the Ototara Stone, which again corre- 
sponds to the Waitaki Stone, Caversliam Sandstone, &c. 

The Notown, New River, and Callaghan Hill beds are equivalent to the Blue Bottom 
clays of Bulletins No. 1 and No. 6. 'Ihe Blue Bottom of Westland (Kanieri Series 
of Cox, Kanieri and New River Series of McKay) was correlated by Von Haast with his 
Pareora Formation. If Park is correct in stating that the Pareora Beds are below 
the Ototara Stone, Von Haast's correlation must fail. The Blue Bottom would then 
be correlated with the Wanganui Series. Evidence of correlation with strata in other 
parts of New Zealand is hardly necessary in order to establish the Miocene age of the 
Greymouth Series, for the middle and upper portions contain an abundance of fossils, 
so that satisfactory palaeontological data, establishing a Miocene age, are given by the 
beds themselves. 

Regarding the stratigraphical position of the Omotumotu Beds some special remarks 
are necessary. In 1873 McKay placed them Ix-tween the marls (mudstone) underlying 
the Cobden Limestone and the marls (Kaiata Mudstone) overlying the Island Sand- 
stone.* That this is their true position the field-work of the present Geological Survey 
has proved beyond the shadow of a doubt. Unfortunately, McKay, in 1901, though 
apparently on theoretical grounds, asserted that the characteristic Ijeds of the Omotu- 
motu Series (coaly grits) occur in a horizon above the Cobden Limestone,! so that some 
hesitation may hs felt by those who have not examined the field evidence in accepting 
the statements of the present writer. 

DISTRIBUTION. 

Rocks of the Greymouth Series occur over the whole of the lowland and hilly country 
south of the Grey and Arnold rivers, except for the small areas near Brunner occupied 
by rocks belonging to the coal-measures and to the Greenland Series. They also 
occupy the Grey Valley and the lower eastern slopes of the Paparoa Range, where they 
are seen in Rocky, Woolly, Ruby, Bray, and Blackwater creeks, and form the greater 



♦ " Reports relative to Collections of Fossils made on the West Coast of the South Island," Rep. 
G.S. during 1873-74, vol. 8, p. 79. 

t " Report on Supposed Coal-seams in Kaiata Range, Greymouth," Mines Report, 1901, C.-IO, p, 8. 



64 

part of Mount Kinsella (1,344 ft.). On the western side of the Paparoas they form 
the whole of the Rapahoe Range. It is to be noted that over much of the area thus 
indicated fluviatile and niorainic gravels wholly or partly conceal the rocks of the Grey- 
mouth Series. This is more especially the case towards the base of the Southern Alps. 

The Omotumotu Beds, as typically developed, are found in the Omotumotu and 
Upper Kaiata watersheds and along a portion of the Kaiata Range. On the east side 
of the Paparoa Range they appear in the lower courses of Woolly, Rocky, Ruby, Bray, 
and Blackwater creeks, and at Mount Kinsella. Omotumotu Beds may be expected to 
occur along the eastern base of the Rapahoe Range, but, owing to the dense bush and 
the absence of streams larger than mere rills, no outcrops were observed. 

The Port Elizabeth Beds are visible at Port Elizabeth, along the northern 
and eastern slopes of the Rapahoe Range, and on both sides of the Grey River near the 
Greymouth Gorge. Good exposures occur south of the racecourse and along the western 
side of the Omotumotu Valley. 

The well-known Cobden Limestone forms the western slope of the Rapahoe Range 
and the higher portions of its continuation, Peter Ridge. The typical exposure is in 
the quarries at Greymouth. It has a considerable development towards the south end of 
the Kaiata Range, where Peter Ridge junctions, and is seen in Sylvester and other small 
creeks joining the Omotumotu from the westward. Outcrops continue southward to 
Limestone Diggings and the head of Saltwater Creek. The Cobden Limestone appears 
in the New River bed half a mile below Marsden, and is last seen in Fireball and Tansev 
creeks, on the north bank of the Taramakau River. 

Ihe calcareous rocks seen as narrow bands in Clear and Deep creeks near the Tara- 
makau Settlement (Hohonu) may for the present be referred to the Cobden Limestone. 
Knoll Point, at the south end of Lake Brunner, exhibits an isolated outcrop of much 
altered calcareous rock, which may be of Miocene age, but appears older. 

The Blue Bottom Formation appears over the lowland country wherever the modern 
streams have been able to cut through the fluviatile and morainic gravels. Good ex- 
posures are seen at Goldsborough, Kumara, Greenstone, New River, near Cameron's, 
Marsden, Deep Creek Gorga (Kotuku), XotoMn, Red Jack's, Nelson Creek, and many 
other localities. A small outcrop in a railway-cutting about half a mile east of Moana 
(Lake Brunner) requires special mention. 

STRUCTURE. 

In the southern part of the area the beds of the Greymouth Series exhibit little or 
no folding, and the dip where distinguishable is very slight. At Fireball Creek, a 
gentle but somewhat irregular anticline, the southern part of the unsymmetrical fold 
that has on former pages been called the Paparoa anticline, is noticeable. As this anti- 
cline is traced northward its effects become more pronounced. Thus, somewhat to the 
west of the Kaiata Range the Omotumotu Beds dip at angles of 10° to 15° to the south 
of west, Avhilst in the upper part of Kaiata Creek the same strata dip eastward at angles 
of 60° to 70°. Farther to the eastward the dip flattens as the foot of the limb appears, 
but in Sylvester Creek the dip shown by the Cobden Limestone is still as much as 45°. 
From the neighbourhood of Mount Buckley northwards the Greymouth rocks have been 
removed by denudation along the central axis of the anticline, but still appear on its 
flanks as far north as Port Elizabeth on the west, and Lower Ford Creek on the east. 
On Peter Ridge the dip is at moderate angles to south of west, but from Greymouth 
to Port Elizabeth the strike is nearly north and south, and the dip 25° to 30° to the 
west. This dip, noticeably steeper than that of the coal-measures to the east, may indi- 
cate a plunge towards a fault not far to seaward of the present coast-line. The beds 



65 

on the eastern wing uf the anticline, as seen in Langdon, Woolly, and Rocky cxeeks, 
strike, on the whole, north and south, and dip eastward at angles reaching 60°. North 
of Ruby Crpek the eastern wing of the anticline is haidly traceable, its place being 
taken by a complicated structure dependent on faidting and local crumpling. In Bray 
Creek the strike is mainly north-west to .south-east, and tiie dip from 15° to 30° to the 
south-west. In the lower part of the stream a south-easterly dip is seen. In Blackwater 
Creek an unsynnaetrical anticline, with its westein limb dipping 1."j° and its eastern 
limb from 1<^° to o5°, may be observed. 'J'o the north this anticline is apparently- de- 
stroyed by faulting. On tiie east side of M(junt Kinsella and in the railway-cuttings 
near Ford Creek the structure is determined chiefly by fault-movements, and high dips 
are the rule. 

A fairly well-marked syncline of the inclined or unsymmetrical type, with its 
western limb dipping mudi moj'e steeply than its eastern limb, may be observed in Blue 
Bottom Beds along a north-north-east line from CocabuUa Crt>ek to the junction of 
Maori (lully No. 2 ^and Waimea Creek (Arnold Valley). Tiie western limb has a maxi- 
mum dip of 4.")° to tiie east in Cocabulla Creek, of 70° in tlie Eight-mile Creek, of 55° 
in the New River nortli of Dunganville, of 50° in Italian (luUy, of 75° in Riley Creek, 
and of "50° in Maori (JuUy. Tlie westerly dip of the eastern limb was nowhere observed 
to exceed 10°. For some miles noithward of Maori Cully iiKjdern gravels prevent 
the structure of the Blue Bottom from Ix'ing observed. When the beds of this formation 
reappear near Notown tiie .synclinal fold is not' detectable. Soutii from CocabuUa 
Creek almost the same thing happens. On the south side of the Big Hohonu River the 
Blue Bottom lx;ds strike a little north of east, and dip 15° to 20° to the southward, so 
that po.ssiblv the Cocabulla syncline reaches this locality, but if so the axis has turned 
to the west. 

Near tlie foot of the Hohonu Hange tiie Blue Bottom, as seen in the Big Ilolionu and 
other streams, has a westerly dip of 12° to 15°. 

North of the Arnold, in the Kotuku, Notown, and Nelson Creek districts, the Blue 
Bottom Beds, here mainly sandstones, show very gentle dips, that in few places exceed 
10°. Tiie strike is somewhat variable, and tlie general structure appears to be undu- 
latory, with no very definite anticlines or synclines. The structure axhibited in the 
Kotuku district will Ije more fully discussed in Chapter VI. 

The isolated outcrop of Blue Bottom sandstone and conglomerate half a mile east 
of Moana has a strike of 201°, and is somewhat exceptional in showing a comparatively 
steep (lip of 45° to the north of west. 

GENEH.M, UEsiCRIPTION. 

Omotumotu Beds. 

Tlie Omoluiiiotu Beds, as typically developed in the upper Omotumotu and Kaiata 
vallevs, consist of grits, sandstones, and mudstones. The lowe-st beds are probably Ix'st 
seen in the upper part of Kaiata Creek, which is just to the east of the axis of the 
Paparoa anticline. The stream-channel for over a mile is cut through coarse sand- 
stones, in places rather to be called grits, which include minfir bands of mudstone. 
The remarkable feature of the sandstones and grits is that they contain innumerable 
fragments of coal, most of which are small, but water-worn pieces several inches in 
length and 1 in. to 2 in. in thickness are not tincommon. In places dark bands several 
inches thick are found to contain, roughly speaking, from a (|uartcr to one-third their 
volume of coal. Westward, on the ridge that encircles the headwaters of Racecourse 
Creek, and in Leah, Marian, and Ethel Creeks, the three headwater branches of Omotu- 
motu Creek, similar coaly rocks are seen. Mudstones are perhaps more prevalent than 

5— Graymouth. 



GC 

sandstones in the Omotumotu waterslied, but these also contain scattered water-worn 
pebbles of coal. Hill Creek, a right-hand tributary that enters the Omotumotu about a 
mile from the Grey River, also shows mudstones with coal pebbles, coaly sandstones, and 
coaly grits. 

On the eastern side of the Kaiata Range coaly sandstones were observed near the 
liead of Lisbon Creek, a small stream joining Stillwater Creek a little below Sylvester 
Creek. In the old sluicing claims near Sylvester Creek pieces of coal 2 in. or o in. in 
diameter, without doubt derived from Omotumotu Beds, are not uncommon. According 
to report, lumps the size of a man's head have been found. The.se burned well, with a 
long smoky flame. 

The following is an analysis of a water-worn piece of coal extracted from a grit- 
band in the upper part of Kaiata Creek : — 

Fixed carbon ... ... ... ... ... ... 39-33 

Volatile hydrocarbons ... ... ... ... ... 49'00 

Water ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 8-15 

Ash ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 3-52 

10000 



Total sulphur ... ... ... ... ... ... 0-96 

On heating in a closed vessel the coal does not cake, but frits to a fairly hard 
mass. It burns to a dark-brown ash. 

On comparing this analysis with the coal analyses of Chapter YI it will be seen 
that the coal agrees well in composition with some of the coals from the north-western 
part of the Greymouth Subdivision, except that it contains less sulpliur tlian most of 
these.* 

On comparing the description here given witli the map of the Arnold Survey Dis- 
trict it will be oliserved that laeds with coal-fragments occur over an area about six miles 
long and a mile wide. The amount of fragmentary coal in tlie Omotumotu Beds must 
therefore be enormous. To the question, "Whence was this water-borne coal derived? " 
the answer must be, " From a horizon of the known coal-measures either in or more 
probably below the Kaiata Mudstone." From what locality the coal came cannot be 
ascertained, but it was certainly not more than a few miles from the Omotumotu water- 
shed. The occurrence of the larger lumps of coal in the eastern part of the area occupied 
by coaly rocks causes a suspicion that the coal came from the north-east or east. 

Of greater importance than the question of the exact locality of the source is the 
significance of water-worn coal occurring in such large amount. The obvious inference 
is that the coal-measures soon after deposition were elevated and subjected to consider- 
able denudation. Consequently, there must be an unconformity between the Omotu- 
motu Beds and the coal-measures. 

On the south-eastern slopes of the Paparoa Range a considerable development of 
mudstones, calcareous sandstones, and grits, with thin bands of fine conglomerate, 
appears referable to the Omotumotu horizon. Fragments of coal, however, have not 
been found. The rocks in question are observable near the mouth of Woolly Creek ; in 
Rocky Creek, at half a mile to three-quarters of a mile above its movith ; in Ruby Creek 
(exposures poor); in Bray Creek, from half a mile to over a mile and a half above its 
mouth ; and in Blackwater Creek, from, say, .50 chains to a mile and a half above its 

* In the Tenth Annual Report of the Colonial Museum'and Laboratory (1875) are two analyses by Skey 
of coal pebbles from conglomerate, Omotumotu Ridge. The samples, which were collected by McKay in 
J873, agree closely in composition with the Kaiata sample. 



67 

mouth. In these two hist exposures calcareous rocks are strongly developed, and in 
places a nearly puz'e though coarse-grained limestone occurs in bands several feet in 
thickness. (See analysis, page 9i.) Mount Kin.sella is apparently mainly formed of 
sandstone, grit, and mudstone Ijehmging to tlie Om(»tuni>itu Beds. In this area (from 
Woolly Creek to Mount Kinselhi) the boundary between Omotumotu Beds and coal-mea- 
sures is considered to be indicated by the stratigraphically lowest grit horizon. The 
upper boundary, however, is very indefinite, the Oiiiotuiiuitu Beds simply graduall}- 
passing into mudstone or Mne sandstone Wlonging to tlie Port Elizabetli Beds without 
any marked line of separation. 

Lower Kohtku Conyloinerate. 

The logs of the Lake Brunner Oil Company's Nos. 2 and i) bores show that a con- 
glomerate of considerable thickness comes almost immediately below the Cobden Lime- 
stone, from which it is stated to be separated by only a foot or so of " drift sand." 
According to the logs the conglomerate contains pebbles of granite and "slate," which 
in the deeper portions of No. 9 bore are said to be of great size. In places there are 
thin layers of " drift sand." Fragments of boi'ings from No. 9 well and of cores from 
No. 2 well consist of argillite and grauwacke, but no fragment of granite lias been pre- 
served. In No. 2 bore the conglomerate was penetrated for 209 ft., and in No. 9 for 
289 ft., below which 16 ft. of " clay with gravel " is reported. 

Two explanations of this conglomerate may Ije advanced. One is that it is a basal 
conglomerate, probably of Pre-Miocene age, resting on an old land-surface of Green- 
land rocks; the other is tliat it rests on coal-measure strata, and was formed during 
or just after the land-elevation that preceded the deposition of the coaly grits of the 
Omotumotu Beds. In this latter case the conglomerate in question is of Miocene age, 
and may be correlated with the lowest hoi izon of the Omotumotu Beds. It will be 
ob.served that the existence or otherwise of an unconformity at the base of the Omotu- 
motu Beds (discussed on page 66) is a matter of considerable importance in estimating 
the probability of this second explanation being correct. The reported occurrence of 
small quantities of oil and gas in the Kotuku conglomerate also favours the second 
hypothesis. Further remarks concerning this conglomerate will be found in Chapter VI. 

I'm/ Kli-.nhtth Beth. 

The Port Elizabeth Beds consist mainly of calcareous (marly) mudstones, which 
in their upper horizon near Greymoiith are light-coloured, but elsewhere are remarkably 
like the Blue Bottom mudstone, and in the absence of field evidence might well be taken 
for the latter rock. In places hard l)ands and concretions, consi.sting mainly of tlie 
remains of Foraminifera and calcareous altrse, may Ix; observed. In the Omi^itumotu 
Valley the mudstone.s appeal' to jiass downwards into a fine-grained bluish sandstone. 
Upwards they become interstratified with luird calcareous layers, which finally pre- 
dominate at the somewhat indefinite horizon where the boundary between Port Eliza- 
beth Beds and Cobden Limestone is drawn. 

Typical exposures of the Port Elizabeth Beds arc to be found at Port Elizabeth and 
east of the Greymouth Gorge. They are Ix'lieved to he represented by blue mudstones 
and fine bluish sandstones in a belt extending from Rocky Creek (east side of Paparoa 
Range) to Ford Creek. Outcrops may be ob.served in the lower courses of Rocky, Ruby, 
and Blackwater creeks, and along the Blackball railway at 20 to 60 chains south of 
the bridge over Paparoa (Soldier) Creek. Tliere is, however, considerable doubt about 
the correlation of the strata in the belt to which reference is made, and it is possible 
that in places the Blue Bottom Formation is represented. 

5*— Greymouth. 



68 

Cobden Limestone. 

In the typical locality, the quarries near Greymouth, the Cobden Limestone is in 
the main a yellowish-white moderately soft rock of a somewhat arenaceous nature. In 
its lower horizon it shows hard calcareous bands alternating with softer argillaceous 
layers, and thus, as explained in the last paragraph, passes into the Port Elizabeth 
Beds. The upper boundary is better marked, there being a fairly sharp passage from 
a soft yello^\ish sandy limestone to blue mudstone of the overlying horizon. 200 ft. or 
perhaps more below the upper limit 40 ft. or 50 ft. of alternating hard (calcareous) 
and soft (argillaceous) bands are observable on both sides of the Grey River. 

The Cobden Limestone is largely composed of foraminiferal remains, and calcareous 
algae are probably also well represented. In some portions there is a noticeable amount 
of glauconite. Analyses showing its chemical composition in various localities will be 
found in Chapter YI. 

The total thickness of the limestone near Greymouth is about 700 ft., but in the 
northern part of the Rapahoe Range and at Point Elizabeth the thickness, in part owing 
to denudation, is much less. South-eastward, near Kakawau Hill, Limestone Dig- 
gings, <!kc., the thickness is probably not much over 200 ft., and, as proved by the bores, 
at Kotuku it is only 110 ft. to 123 ft. 

Blue Bottom Formation. 

In most localities the Blue Bottom Formation consists almost wholly of blue marine 
clays, which are always more or less calcareous. In the northward of the subdivision 
sandstone predominates. A band of foraminiferal limestone 15 ft. to 20 ft. tliick 
occurs near Greymouth in a horizon about 200 ft. above the Cobden Limestone. In 
higher horizons calcareous bands and concretions are common. The total thickness 
of the formation is well over 1,000 ft., and probably exceeds 1,200 ft. 

The blue mudstones to which the formation owes its name are typically developed 
in the New River watershed, at Kumara, near Goldsborough, at Big Dam Hill, and 
elsewhere. In Maori Gully, near Goldsborough, a bed of greensand, probably at a 
low liorizon, occurs. At Callaghan's Creek a highly calcareous layer, of dark colour, 
with numerous fossils, may be seen. This layer contains much glauconite, and may 
correspond to the greensand-bed of Maori Gully. In the vicinity of Greenstone and 
Maori Point the beds exposed are yellowish or, in places, bluish sandstones, which in 
the upper horizon are interstratified with conglomerate. Of practically the same 
character are the Blue Bottom Beds of Deep Creek (near Kotuku), Molloy's Look-out, 
Notown district. Nelson Creek, Blackball district, and, in fact, everywhere north of the 
Arnold River. The sandstones, where subjected to weathering, are yellow in colour, 
elsewhere bluish. They are fine-grained and argillaceous in the Kotuku district, where, 
in the lower horizon also, they are noticeably calcareous, and contain Foraminifera. 

Upper Kotuku Conglomerate. 
In No. 6 bore of the Lake Brunner Oil Company a hard conglomerate was en- 
countered at 66 ft., and this continued to 322 ft., when the hole was abandoned. The 
diamond-drill cores show that this conglomerate consists of fairly small pebbles of grau- 
wacke, argillite, granite, and quartz firmly imbedded in a matrix of fine sand, in which 
a very little calcite is present. Large pebbles appear to have been present towards the 
bottom of the bore. The horizon of this conglomerate is apparently Miocene, for sand- 
stone of that age outcrops a little over a chain away from the bore-site. It is difficult, 
however, to explain the presence of so thick a band (256 ft. or more) in the Miocene 
rocks, but since abundant carbon-dioxide issues from the bore, it seems altogether pro- 
bable that the Cobden Limestone underlies the conglomerate, as would be expected from 
the data supplied by the boreholes to the south. 



60 

PAL.tONTOLOCT. 

Omotumoiu Beds. 

The OiJiotuiiiutu Beds, tLougli nowhere highly fossilifcrous, in most localities con- 
tain a few marine fossils. These are usually broken and otherwise imperfect, but a 
thorough search would probably result in (|uite a number of identifiable organisms being 
collected. A noticeable feature of such fossils as were obtained during the present geo- 
logical survey in the Oniotumotu and the overlying Port Elizabeth Beds is their appa- 
rently dwarfed character. 

In the Oniotumotu watershed the fossils collected include a small I'erleii like P. 
williamsoiii with about thirty ribs on the shell, and several other small but hardly recog- 
nizable lamellibrauchs. McKay, in 1873, recorded '"one or two echinoderms, a dicoty- 
ledonous tree-leaf, some Pectens, and othi?r shells as found along the railway-cuttings." 
In Kocky Creek (east side of Paparoa Range) a small I'ecfeii, probably young P. fischeri, 
or possibly P. icilliamsorii, a larger specifically unrecognizable Pecteii, and two small 
gasteropods, one perliaps a Pleurotomaria, were obtained ; whilst in Bray Creek an 
unrecognizable echinoid and an Ostrea formed the whole collection. The calcareous 
bands in Bray and Blackwater Creeks probably contain numerous Foraminifera. 

Port Eli-dhcth Be(U. 

In 1."^7.'5 .McKay apparently collected from tlie Puit Klizalx'th Beds, on the banks of 
the (irey Hiver and near Oniotumotu Crei-k, but no list of tlie fossils obtained was ever 
published. Doubtless tlie collection is still stored at tiie Dominion Museum. At Port 
Elizabeth the present survey obtained a sin;t]l I'ecten, probaljly Antuiiiiini littilU, a 
Dentnlium of some size with alternating Ijioad and narrow ribs, and a species of 
Flahelliim, perhaps /'. luittoinanum (Tenison-Woods). 

Calcareous bands seen in the miidstone outcropping on the Omotumotu Valley track 
exhibit remains of Foraminifera and a calcareous alga, perhaps lAthothaniiiion . In 
other localities the Poi-t Klizabeth Beds appeal- to contain similar bands. 

('oh<hn Liiiiestotie. 

At Greymouth and near Point Elizabeth the Cobden Limestone contains a large 
number of fossils, and very e.vhaustive collections have been made by McKay and others. 

The following lists contain all tiie authentic fossils that the writer has been able to 
find on record or per.sonally colhct. With respect to localities, many fossils repoited as 
from Cobden are presumably from the southern or Greymouth side of the Grey River. 
Elsewhere than near Greymouth and Point Elizabeth ninlluscoidean or molluscan remains 
are scanty. 

Plants. 

Good seaweed-impressions are abundant at Point Elizabeth. 

Foraminifera. 
As previously mentioned, Foraminifera are abundant in most if not all localities. 

A nthozoa. 
Flabellum circulnre Tenison-Woods. — Repoited in Greymouth <iuarries by Hutton. 
The same or a closely allied Fl'ihellum was collected by McKay in 187.3 at Darkies' 
Terrace, near Point Elizabeth. The specimens are stored in the Dominion Museum, and 
have been seen by the writer. 

Echinoidea. 
Echinoid remains, not always well preserved, are abundant at Greymouth, and still 
more so at Point Elizabeth. Most of the identifications of the following list were made by 
Hutton (Catalogue, 1873; Trans., 1887). The names and remarks in brackets are taken 



70 

from Tate's "Critical l.ist," 1894. The locality " Cobden " includes the outcrops of 
Cobden Limestone on the south side of the Grey Hiver near Gre^^niouth. 

Mficropneiistes (Holaster) spcit(iii(jifornii>i Hutton. Occurs at "Cobden," Point 
Elizabeth. In 1887 Hutton adopted tlie generic name of lluhiytcr for this and the fol- 
lowing species. 

Macroptteastes (llolnxttr) cordatiis Hutton. "" Cobden." 

Macro pneustea au-stralis Hutton. (Type a fragment. Name shovdd not be re- 
tained.) " Cobden." 

Mco/tia crawfurdi Hutton {Pcncosiinis coinpressiis McCoj'). Grej^raouth. 

Meoma brevipetala Hutton. (Probably Fer/cositins compres^us.) "Cobden." 

Pericosmus tuhercvhifns Hutton. Gre\"mouth Quarries. 

Schizaster lyoni Hutton (not Schnaster, but may be a Pericosinus). "Cobden." 

Brachiopoda. 
Ttrtjratiiliiiu (TerehrateUa ) siiessi Hutton (Treymoutli (^)uarries (Huttim). 
Terehratella (Magellania, U'dh/Itenn/d j paiagomva Sowerby. Connnon at Grey- 
mouth and Point Elizabeth. 

Terehratella gualteri Morris. Greymouth Quarries (Hutton). 
Terehratella aldingce Tate. Greymouth Quarries (Hutton). 
Waldheimia (? Terehratella) tapirina Hutton. "Cobden." 

Pehcypoda. 

Pin //a lata Hutton. " Cobden." 

Ostrea subdentata. Cobden Limestone. 

Ostrea suhdeii,tata( ? ). Point Elizabeth. 

Gryphcea tarda( ? ) Greymouth Quarries (Hutton). 

Pecten sp. cp. P. pulgmorphioides. Point Elizabeth. 

Pecten sp. cp. P. scandula. Greymouth. 

Pseudamusium huttonv Park. Point Elizabeth. Recorded in Hutton's 1873 Cata- 
logue as Pecten hochstetteri. 

Amusium (Pecten) zittelli. Cobden. May possibly be from tlie liorizon of the Point 
Elizabeth Beds. 

Lima (Plagiostoma) Icevigata Hutton. Originally supposed to be an Inoceramus. 
Good specimens collected by McKay from tlie neighbourhood of Greymouth are in the 
collection at the Dominion Museum. 

Gastropoda. 
Pleurotomaria tertiaria McCoy. Greymouth Quarries. 
Scalaria (Cirsotrema) rotundata Hutton. Greymouth Quariies. 
Cassidaria senex Hutton. Gi-eymouth Quarries. 
Scaphella (Vohita) atteniiata Hutton. Greymouth Quarries. 

Cephalopoda 
Aturia australis (ziczac). Greymouth Quarries. 

Pisces. 
Carcharodon angustidens Agassiz. Reported by Hutton in 1887. 

A slab from the Greymouth Limekiln Quarry showing several teeth of another 
species of Carcharodon is now in the Greymouth Musuem (Town Hall). 

Maynmalia. 
Vertebra and ribs probably belonging to a species of ziphioid whale ai-e repoi-ted by 
Hutton from the Greymouth Quarries. He states that the specimens were presented to 
the Grevmouth School of Mines, an institution which is now non-existent. 



71 

Blue Bottom Formation . 

The Blue Bottom clays almost everywhere contain recognizable molluscan fossils, 
lliese are especially abundant at Callaghan's, where also a large number of species occurs 
in a very narrow horizon. Elsewhere, though individuals may I)e numerous, only a few 
species are found, as a rule, in any one locality. 

The following lists, for the sake of obtaining completeness as far as possible, not 
only give every fossil recorded as occurring in the subdivision as collected by tlie present 
geological survey, but also those found in the Hokitika and Mikonui subdivisions, which, 
with hardly an exception, have also hoen noted by the writei' within the Greymouth Sub- 
division. Though the list is fairly long, there are many species yet to be identified. 

Plantn. 
Fucoid casts (seaweeds) are found in many localities, and pieces of poorly car- 
bonized wood are not uncommon in the upper horizons. The lignite-seams in Deep 
Creek (Kotuku district) and at Ilealy's Gully nuiy be mentioned here, though belonging 
rather to the conformably overlying Pliocene Beds. 

Foraminifera. 

Foraminifera we"e not specially searched for. One or more species of Amphinteyina 
(cp. A. aiirkhiiul ten and A. camiiheUi Karrer) form the greatei' part of the foramini- 
fera! limestone near GreynKuith. Am/ifiistcanui is also very common in the over- and 
under-lying clays, and may be collected in abundance at Easson's Hill, near Murray 
Street, Greymouth. A species of Amphixtefji't-j (cp. A. aitrkUindlca) occurs in the argil- 
laceous mudstone from the Kotuku oil-bores. 

In Bulletin No. 6 the following species and genera ai'e noted in calcareous Miocene 
mudstones and arkoses inland from Ross: Glohnjerina cotitjlotnerata (probably), Lagena, 
Diiicorbiiia, Nodosaria, Rotalia, Lingidina( f ), Vaginulina recta(f), and Dentalina or 
allied genus. 

A nthozoa. 

A species of FlnhfUum, perhaps F. rugitlosum Tenison-Woods, was collected at a 
sluicing claim (Chinese) near Westbrook, on the north side of the Taramakau River. 

Erhinoidea. 
Two small specimens of generically unrecognizable sea-uichins were obtained from 
the highly fossiliferous horizon of Callaghan's Creek. 

Brachiopod 
Magellania( f ) sp. n. d. Maoi i Gully near Goldsborough. 

Pelecypoda. 

Limopsis insoltfa Sowerby. Kanieri. AVas not seen in Greymouth Subdivision. 

Ciicul/fFa ponderoxa Hutton. Callaghan's Creek. May Ix; a variety of C. alta. 

CucuJJfFn (dta Sowerby, varieties A and B of Hutton. Callaghan's Creek. 

Ghjcimeris (I'crtunculu!^) laticostfifiis Quoy. Callaghan's. 

Glycimeria globosns Hutton. Callaghan's, Kanieri. 

Glycimeris sp. n. d. In greensand, Maori Gully, near Goldsborough. 

Pinna xp., rp. P. zealandica Gray. Fox's, We.stbrook (near Kumara). 

Pecten scnndida Hutton. Kanieri. 

Pecten xecfux Hutton. Abundant in Callaghan's Creek. Occurs also at Greek's Gully 
(Big Dam Hill), near Fo.x's, and "Hatter's Creek," Kanieri. At Callaghan's two or 
more varieties, each differing somewhat -from the specimen in the Dominion Museum, 
may be found. 



7.2 

I'tcltn andtr^oin Aniokl. M;iori Gully, near Goldsborough, in altered greensand. 
The two specimens collected are incomplete casts, but agree in all ascertainable particu- 
lars with /''. andtraoni, a fossil of the Californian Miocene.* 

Dosinia sp. n. d. Rough and Tumble Creek, Fox's. 

Venus zeaJaiulica. Kanieri. 

Chione vellicdta Hutton. Callaghan's Creek. 

.\Iacfra sp. cp. M. elegans. Occurs in many localities. 

Lutraria soli/hi Hutton. Kanieri (Von Ilaast). 

Corbula dubia Hutton. New River and other localities. 

Panopea zealandica Quoy. Humphrey's Cully Range, Kanieri, Ross. 

Callista elegans Hutton. Kanieri. 

Teredo sp. Represented by borings iu fossil wood. Westbrook (collection of Mr. 
Richards, Kumara). 

Scaphopoda. 

Dentalium irregulare Hutton. Callaghan's, Kanieri. 

Dentalium laeve Hutton. Callaghan's, Kanieri. 

Denfalium solidum Hutton. Kanieri. 

Dentalium yiyanteum Sowerby. Callaghan's, Big Holionu River near Maori Point. 

Gastropoda. 

Trochus circinatus Hutton. New River. 

Trorhas granosus Lamarck. Kanieri (V(ui Haast). 

C'repidiila (Cryiita) sp. cp. V. incurva, Zittel, and C. profunda, Hutton. 

Natica darwini Hutton, —- N. solida Sowerby; Xafica ovatu Hutton. These two 
Naticas occur in many localities, among which niay he mentioned Red Jack's, Maori 
Creek near Dunganville, Westbrook, and Callaghan's, in the Greymouth Subdivision: 
Humphrey's Gully Range, Bhiespur, and Kanieri, in the Hokitika Subdivision. There 
appear to be gradations between the two species. 

TurrifeJla sp. cp. T. rosea Quoy. Callaghan's 

Turritella tricincta Hutton. Kanieri. 

Turritella hicincta Hutton. Kanieri. 

Struthiolnria c/«c<«. Hutton. Callaghan's. 

Cassidaria sulcata Hutton. Kanieri. 

Buccinum robinsoni Zittel. Callaghan's. 

Buccinum infiatum Hutton. Kanieri. 

Buccinum sp. n. d. Maori Creek (near Dunganville). 

Comiiiellaf? ) sp. n. d. Callaghan's. 

Cominellaf? ) sp.' n. d. Chinese claim, near Westbrook 

Fusus zealandiciis Quoy var. B Hutton. Callaghan's. 

Fusvs nodosus Quoy. Var. B Hutton occurs at Callaghan's Cioek; var. D Hutton 
at Kanieri and New River. 

Scaphella (Valuta) corrugata Hutton. Kanieri. 

Scaphella sp. cp. S. corrugata. Callaghan's Creek. 

Scaphella S2)., probably young .S'. kirkii Hutton. Callaghan's Creek. 

Scaphella sp. n. d. Westbrook; in collection of Mr. Richards, Kumara. 

Ancilla (Ancillaria) hebera Hutton. Hohonu River, Kanieri. 

Ancilla (Ancillaria) pomahaka Hutton. Kanieri (Von Haast). 

Pleurotorna sp. n. d. Chinese Claim, Westbrook. 

Ranella{1) sp. n. d. Westbrook; in collection of Mr. Richards. 

* Ralph Arnold : " The Tertiarj' and Quaternary Pectens of California," Prof. Paper No. 47, U.S. Geol. 
Surv., 1906, pp. 82-83, pi. xxvi. 



Bdlniiiis sp. 11. d. Callaghan's. 



73 

Cirripedia. 



Pisces. 
L(ii)in(i{l) sp. II. (1. A single very sk'iitler tootli with tiuoly seiratod edges; length 
about 24 ni.ni. Callaghan's Creek. 

JJammalia. 

A single tooth, slightly curved and roughly tour-sided (rhomboidal) in cross-section ; 
length, about 38 mm Callaghan's Creek. 

The writer was informed by Mr. H. Linklater, of Stafford, that a tail-race tunnel 
near Goldsborough io cut through the remains of a large whale. The spot is still 
accessible. 

Pliocene Beds. 

Introdnction. 

The appeaiance of pebbly and conglomerate layers in the uppermost beds of the 
Greymoutii Series intlicates that towards the end of the Miocene period depression 
of the land had ceased, or, at any rate, that deposition had overtaken subsidence. 
Soon general eL^vation of the laml was in progress. At the horizon where marine 
conditions disa])peared and purely Huviatile deposition began the line between Miocene 
and Pliocene deposits may be drawn. Tlie e.xact lioiizon, however, is in many places 
not easily distinguished, and as a matter of fact it nmst vary, since the retreat of the 
sea or tlie emergence of the land could not have been instantaneous. 

Content. 
The beds that succeed the Miocene tieposits consist of .stift sand.stones, lignite of 
poor (jiiality, and somewhat consolidated gravels, wiiich are, as a rule, hardly com- 
pact enougii to be called eonglomeiates. In many localities the gravels contain much 
clayey material produced Ijv the decomposition of both the tine and coarse material. 

Affe and Correlation . 
The deposits that it is intended to discuss in this section are regarded as being of 
Pliocene age. They correspond with the Old Man Hottom or Old Man Gravels of the 
miners, a name that lias been adopted by McKay. The upper horizon of the Pliocene 
beds may possil)ly be correlated witli tlie Humphrey's Gully Beds of McKay and 
Bulletin \o. 1, but it is probable that these latter deposits are of Pleistocene age — 
that is, come above the unconformity that marks the upper limit of the Old Man 
Bottom. Finally, the PIi<3cene beds are doubtless eijuivalent to similar deposits near 
Reefton, and to the Moutere Gravels of northein Nelson. 

Distrihution. 
The Pliocene beds were largely destroyed by denudation during the Pleistocene or 
glacial period. They are, however, fairly well developed on the western side of the 
Grey Valley at Healy's Gully and southward to Blackball Creek. Outcrops appear also 
at various points on the eastern side of the Grey Hiver beneatii tlie younger gravels, 
and in Deep Creek (Kotuku district) good exposures are seen above the gorge. Plio- 
cene gravels cap most, if not all, of the hills and ridges in the New River watershed 
and in the districts to the northward, except where these were overwhelmed bv ice 
during the glacial advance. Tlie gravels on the top of Big Dam Hill (1,247 ft.) and on 
the ridges west of Goldsborough are probably of Pliocene age also. 



74 

Structure. 
The Pliocene beds are usually disposed almost horizoutallj. In Deep Creek they 
show in one locality a very gentle dip to the north-eastward, and near Healy's Gully, 
owing to being involved in tlie fault described in the last chapter (page 4.j), show- 
easterly dips of from 60° to 70°. 

General Account. 
About half a mile up Moonlight Creek, at a point somewhat outside the northern 
boundary of the subdivision, a cliff on the north side shows f^O ft. of interbedded 
brown sandstone, brown gravel, and mudstone or shale. The bads are horizontal, 
and are separated by an obvious unconformity from overlying gravel. Similar beds 
are seen in Roaring Meg Creek. Near the mouth of Moonlight Creek the Pliocene 
beds again appear, and are more or less exposed along the western bank of the Grey 
River for some miles southward. In this locality they consist mainly of horizontally 
bedded brown or yellow gravel. Generally speaking, the Pliocene beds underlie a large 
area on both sides of the Grey River, but are seen only where stream-erosion has cut 
through the overlying younger gravels, or where, as at Healy's Gully and Montgomery's 
Terrace Sluicing Claim, alluvial-mining operations have removed the gravel-cover. Near 
Healy's Gully, where very good sections have been exposed in the sluicing claims, the 
Pliocene beds consists of alternating layers of sandstone, carbonaceous shale with altered 
wood, and gravel. The lowest bed seen in this locality is a fine yellow gravel with 
sandstone lenses, which is probably 500 ft. or more in thickness. It strikes nearly 
north and south, and has a dip of 70° or more to the east. Above this gravel, as ob- 
served in one section, come 30 ft. of sandstone with thin gravel layers, 40 ft. of fine 
yellow gravel, 10 ft. of rather light-coloured shale, nearly 40 ft. of dark carbonaceous 
shale with layers of bluish sand and fine gravel, 40 ft. of medium to fine gravel, 3 ft. 
of light purplish mudstone, and finally 100 ft. or more of yellow gravel. Figure 1 
(not to scale) illustrates the section. It will be noticed that the Pliocene beds are un- 
cocformablv overlain bv auriferous gravels. 












;m>\°,o\° 



FINE r£UOW GRAVELS YELLOW FINEYELLOW \ DARK SHALE GRAVEL \ .YELLOW GRAVEL 

fV/TH SANDSTONE LENSES. SAN OSTONE GRAVELS l| 40 Fh 40 Ft. 1 00 Ft. 

WITH6RAVEL 40 Ft. LIGHTSHALE llGHT PURPLE 

LAYERS 30Fh^ 10 Fh 



■LIGHT PURPLE . 
M(/DST0NE3Fi- 



Fig. 1. — Section n'ear Healy's Gully, showing Pliocene Beds (Moutere Gravels) 

UXCOXFORMABLY OVERLAIN BY AURIFEROUS GrAVELS. 

In Deep Creek (Kotuku), some distance above the gorge, a cliff face on the north 
side of the stream shows 10 ft. of gravel, followed in upward order by 30 ft. of soft 
sandstone, with two layers of impure lignite. Up-stream this layer thickens to about 
50 ft. It is capped by 25 ft. or more of yellow gravel, above which is 30 ft. of current- 



75 

bedded gravel and sand. For the next mile up-stream outcrops of compact gravel 
appear here and there. Finally, a higii clift' of hnc gravel and sand may Ix' seen on 
the north side of the river. 

In various places besides those mentioned there are outcrops of Pliocene strata. 
As a rule, the>e occur at the foot of terrace cliffs, and show yellow decomposed gravels 
unconformably overlain b\' Pleistocene or Recent beds. A layer of coarse gravel in 
places marks the contact. The gravels on the top of Kapitea Hill, Big Dam Hill, &c., 
have been referred to the Old Man Bottom by McKay, probably rightly, but may 
possibly be of Pleistoceue age. 

Origin. 

McKay considers that the various occurrences oi Mouterc Gravels from Nelson to 
Boss are due to the action of an ancient river that ran from Boss to Nelson (or in 
the opposite direction). This view was supported by the writer in Bulletin No. 6, but 
further study, and e.specially a consideration of tlie tectonic nature of tlie supposed 
ancient river-valley, have led to doubt. The existence of the ancient " Moutere 
River " must therefore remain a very open question until tha tectonic valley and its 
contained deposits have been closely studied from end to end. 

It is, however, very apparent that the Moutere Gravels, as developed in North West- 
land, Iiave been derived nniinly from areas of Greenland nxiks. This is important 
to note in viesv of the fact that the denudation of the Old Man Bottom Gravels has sup- 
plied much alluvial gold to jounger gravels. 

Pleistocexk Detosits. 

Tiie Pleistocene deposits of North Westland consist mainly of inorainic and liuvio- 
glacial gravels. There are in places fluviatile gravels that can be distinguished from 
the tiuvio-glacial deposits, and towards the present coast-line are small patches of littoral 
deposits forming a raised beach. Tlie Pleistocene gravels are eveiywhere auriferous, 
and, with the exception of tlie purely morainic debris, may at any place prove payably 
workable for gold. 

The Pleistocene gravels have in great measure Ijeen derived fiom tiie Southern Alps 
and the outlying granitic mountains. Tliey thus consist largely of pebbles and boulders 
of grauwacke, granite, and schi.st, the last, owing to its comparatively soft and fi.ssile 
nature, l)eing in smaller amount than the others! Pebbles of quartz are not common, 
neither are those of argillite. In smaller quantity also are jitbbles of basic igneous 
i-()cks such as caniptonite and porphyrite, oi' of acidic locks otiier than ordinary biotite 
granite such as granite porphyr}'. 

There can be no doubt that, as mentioned on page 87, the Pliocene gravels, by 
their destruction, liave notably contributed to tiie Pleistocene deposits, and particularly 
to their auriferous content. 

(a.) Morainic and Fluvio-glacial Gravrh. 
Deposits of morainic material aie spread over a considerable portion of the Grey- 
mouth Subdivision. Seaward of the purely morainic material come coaise gravels that, 
in the absence of a .strict definition of the term, may be considered fluvio-glacial gravels. 
For the purpo.se of this report fluvio-glacial gravels are those which were obviously laid 
down by the streams issuing from the ice-tront, and contain large boulders that have 
not been transported any great distance by water. The western boundary of the 
morainic and fluvio-glacial gravels is formed by an irregular line drawn from a point 
west of Big Dam Hill through Stafford, Goldsborough, Kumara, Dunganville, the upper 
part of Stillwater Creek Valley, Notown, Red Jack's, and Nelson Creek (Hatter's Ter- 



76 

race). Between one and two miles east of this line purely niorainic material predomi- 
nates on the surface, and thence extends to the base uf the mountains, except where 
destroyed or masked by modern stieam-action. It is especially prominent at Dilhnans- 
town, in the Three-mile Hill (on the east bank of the Taramakau), and in the area 
west and noith of l^ake Brunner. Doubtless a certain amount of niorainic material is 
masked by fluvio-glacial gravels even to the westward of the apparent boundary. On 
the other hand, tlie earlier fluvio-glacial gravels deposited during the ice-advance un 
doubtedly extend under the niorainic gravels. The thickness of the niorainic and fluvio 
glacial gravels can haj-dly be estimated. It is in many places very great. 

(h.) Fluviatile Gravels. 

Tlie fluvio - glacial gravels may be considered to grade westward into fluviatile 
gravels, which are not so coarse as the former, and contain no large boulders. Such 
gravels occur on both sides of the Grey liiver north of Stillwater, where they cap Plio- 
cene gravels, and have some develoi^ment west of Brunner in Sulky Gully and Bridge 
Creek. In the Marsden and Dunganville districts they form a coating of from a few 
inches to perhaps 200 ft. on the Blue Bottom. Westward and south-westward of Kumara 
they attain a great thickness, and almost completely mask the Blue Bottom on which 
they rest. Everywhere they have been terraced by stream-action. Seaward the fluviatile 
deposits pass into the fluvio-marine gravels that form the terraces facing the sea from 
Hokitika to Paroa. 

(c.) Marine GraceJs and Sands. 

The chief deposits coining under this heading are the fluvio-marine terraces men- 
tioned in the last paragraph, which are probably more fluviatile than marine, and a 
raised beach which, though largely destroyed, may be traced through the subdivision 
from its southern to its northern boundary. It is best seen at the Lamplough Lead, 
east of Chesterfield, where it has been Avorked largely for its gold-content. Here the 
ancient beach consists of sand and fine gravel containing much ironsand. Beach deposits 
are again seen two miles south of Greymouth, near Point Elizabeth (Darkies' Terrace), 
north of the Seven-mile Creek, near the Nine-mile Creek, and in the Eleven-mile Creek 
water. shed. 

Recent Deposits. 

Under this heading may be included the gravels and sands forming the various 
river-flats and flood-plains of the subdivision, and the coastal plain with its low raised 
beach. The lower terraces in the stieam-valleys may also Ije brought under this caption, 
but it is obviously impossible to make a sharp distinction between Beceiit and Pleisto- 
cene. The small deltas of tlie Crooked River and other streams entering Lake Brunner, 
together with stream fans and talus along the base of the Hohonu Range and Mount Te 
Kinga, have to be mentioned. 

Finally, it may be noted that the alluvial-mining operations of the subdivision 
have given rise to some very recent deposits, which are by no means negligible. Mining 
debris has raised the bed of the Taramakau River near Kumara 1.5 ft. or more, and 
has aided very considerably in the outward growth of the shore-line from the mouth of 
that river for some miles northwards (see also page 34). 

Igneous Rocks. 

introdl'ction. 

The igneous rocks of the Greymouth Subdivision are of plutonic, hypabyssal, and 

volcanic types. Plutonic rocks, represented by granite and allied acidic species, have 

the greatest development. The hypabyssal rocks, which fall into two groups — one 



77 

acidic, tlie other basic — occur as dykes in the granitic masses and as hiose pebbles, the 
source of which is not certainly known. Volcanic rocks are represented by an olivine 
basalt, which so far has not been found in sifii. Tiie acidic iiypabyssal rocks, and 
probably the basic Iiypabyssal rocks also, have been formed by ilifferentiation from the 
granitic magma. No suggsstion can be made as to the origin of the basalt, which, 
however, is probably not of the same age as any of the basic hypabyssals that have been 
obtained in place. 

By taking chemical composition as a criterion, the igneous rocks may be divided 
into an acid and a basic group. The former group corresponds to the Tuhua Forma- 
tion of Bulletin No. 1, whilst the latter corresponds to the Basic Dykes of the same 
publication. 

I. TUHUA FORMATION. 
Content. 
The Tuhua Formation, as defined in Bulletin No. 1, includes the granites and allied 
rocks of North Westland, together with some gneissic rocks of doubtful age. In the 
Greymouth Subdivision it consists of muscovite-biotite-granitcs (true granites of many 
autliors) and biotite-granite, with minor amounts of pegmatite, aplite, and some very 
peculiar and inter3sting varieties of granite-porphyry. The most remarkable of these 
latter, a riebeckite-granite-porphyry, has not been found in gitii, but of its connection 
with the Tuhua Formation there can be little doubt. 

Distribution and Mode of Occurrence. 

The Tuhua rocks occur in two large bosses, neither of which is wholly within the 
subdivision. The larger and more southern of these bos8?s Torms the Hohonu Range, 
part of which lies in the Hokitika Subdivision, while still another portion is to the 
east of the Greymouth Subdivisirui. Only a small portion of the second boss, that of 
Mount Te Kinga, lies within the area. The two bosses are separated by Lake Brunner 
and the flat known as Bruce's Pakihi, but are doubtless connected at their roots, if not 
immediately below the water and gravels th'.t obscure all intervening solid rock. 

The aplites and probably the other acidic rocks mentioned above occur as dykes 
within the main granitic masses. 

Age and Correlation . 
Since the Tuhua granites intrude rocks of the Greenland Series in all parts of 
North Westland, it is evident that they are Post-Greenland in age. Many i)el)bles of 
granite occur in the coal-measure conglomerate near the mouth of the Ten-mile Creek, 
and therefore it may be supposed that the Tuhua rocks aie not only Pre-Tertiary, but 
date back to at least th(> middle of the Meso7,f)ic period, for a long time must have been 
required to expose the parent granite by the processes of denudation. It may, however, 
be pointed out that the granite from wliich the pebbles in fpiestion were derived pro- 
bably occurreil to the we.st of the pre.sent coast-line, and may not have Ix^n of the same 
age as the Hohonu and Te Kinga bos.ses. Indeed, it is not quite certain that even the 
Tuhua granites are all of approximately the same age, as will, however, be assumed in 
this bulletin, and therefore, in the absence of definite age-evidence, they cannot cer- 
tainly be correlated with those of Nelson or other parts of New Zealand. The writer in 
another place* has suggested a connection between tlie Westland granites and the for- 
mation of the Southern Alps, so that if this could be established, and the age of the 
Alps ascertained, more definite statements would liecome possible. 



* Bull. No. 6, pp.43, 131. 



78 



General and Special Petrology . 

(a.) Miiscovite-biotite-granites. — The muscovite-biotite-granites of the Hohonu and 
Te Kinga. bosses do not differ in any niateiial respect from those described in Bulletin 
No. 1. They are greyish or pinkish rocks with the ordinary granitic structure, the 
porphyritic variety being developed in slight degree only. The prevailing type is a 
grey granite in which biotite predominates over muscovite, in jjlaces probably to the 
exclusion of the latter. Along the western side of the Hohonu Range is a granite that 
contains pink feldspar crystals. Being, moreover, somewhat decomposed, it is more or 
less stained by iron-oxide, and shows a general reddish colour. This red granite corre- 
sponds in position with the similarly coloured granites of Mount Turiwhate and Island 
Hill. In some places there are dark bands of fine-grained granite more basic than the 
ordinary type. These contain much mica, both biotite and muscovite. Slight schis- 
tosity or a fine banding is occasionally noticeable. 

(b.) Biotite-yranite . — As mentioned above, the muscovite-biotite-granites tend to 
pass into biotite-granite in places, but this latter rock does not appear to be predomi- 
nant in any locality. This is also tlie case in the Hokitika Subdivision, but farther 
south biotite-granites are common. 

Of the following analyses, I is that of a granite from Strauchon Creek (Mount Te 
Kinga), whilst II represents a fine-grained granite from Uncle's Bay, south-east shore of 
Lake Brunner : — 

Silica (SiOa) . . 
Alumina (AI2O3) 
Ferric oxide (FejOg) . . 
Ferrous oxide (FeO) . . 
Manganous oxide (MnO) 
Lime (CaO) . . 
Magnesia (MgO) 
Potash (K2O) 
Soda (Na^O) 
Titanium-dioxide (TiOj) 
Phosphoric anhydride (P2O5) 
Carbonic anhydride (CO^) 
Loss on ignition 

10042 100-31 

(c.) Pegmatite. — Pegmatite dykes are so rare that none was actually observed in 
situ. On the western slope of Mount Te Kinga the streams bring down blocks of 
pegmatite. These consist mainly of coarse-grained quartz and feldspar, with a little 
muscovite. Tourmaline in large black crystals is fairly connnon. 

(d.) Aplites. — A few large dykes of aplitic character occur on the Hohonu Range. 
They exhibit fine-grained, light-coloured rocks, having much the appearance of 
quartzite. Microscopic examination of a specimen from a point south-east of Mount 
French shows that it consists almost entirely of a fine mosaic of quartz and feldspars 
(an acid soda-lime plagioclase, microcline and orthoclase), with a little green hornblende 
in small rods and masses. Through the presence of porphyritic feldspar and other 
minerals the aplites grade into the rocks of the next section. 

(e.) Granite-porphyries. — Rocks coming under this head have been noted in situ 
at various points on the Hohonu Range. These are almost varieties of aplite, since 
they consist essentially of a fine-grained ground-mass of quartz and feldspar, in some 



I. 


II. 


71-05 


74-10 


12-36 


11-53 


1-10 


0-24 


3-50 


3-53 


0-15 


0-10 


1-52 


1-95 


2-45 


215 


4-65 


4-25 


0-80 


0-45 


0-86 


0-67 


0-31 


0-36 


Nil 


Nil 


1-67 


0-98 



79 

cases in graiiophyric intergrowth, witli a few phenocrysts of feldspar and quartz. 
Loose pebbles from the stream-beds are in many instances spherulitic and at the same 
time notably porphyritic. Tlie most remarkable of these rocks is the riebeckite-granite- 
porphyry, which was described by J. P. Smitli* a few years ago. Of this rock two dis- 
tinct varieties were found as pebbles in the Taramakau River bed. The variety 
described by Smith occurs, but very rarely, in other streams — for example, the New 
River and Stillwater Creek. 

The following is a list of sections made from granite-porphyries or allied rocks, 
with brief notes on the more prominent characters: — 

(1.) From wide band near.Hohonu Peaks: A fine-grained almost white rock, with 
a few tjhick specks. Phenocrysts -of ([uartz visible on close examination. Under the 
microscope shows phenocrysts of quartz and feldspar (orthoclase probably), chlorite 
pseudomorplious after biotite, witli iron-ore in small rods and masses. The ground- 
mass forms nuich tlie greater part of the section, and consists of a granophyric inter- 
growth of (juartz and feldspar, inclining in places to lie spherulitic. It is difficult to 
indicate the nature of this and other rocks of the series by a simple name. It might 
be called granophyric quartz-porphyry or quartz-feldspar granophyre. The name 
granophyric aplito-i)orphyry may l>e proposed, since this suggests its close resemblance 
to aplite. 

(2.) From an outcrop in the Eastern Ilolionu: A light-coloured fairly fine-grained 
rock. Fnder the micro.scope it exhibits phenocrysts of microperthitic orthoclase set in 
a fine-grained base of feldspar and (|Uait/, with rods and small masses of iron-ore. The 
rock may be called aplite- porphyry. 

(3.) Loose pebble in Little Hohoiiu River (near base of Holionu Range): A fine- 
grained nearly white rock with evident plicnocrysts of glassy (piartz. Under the 
microscope the section shows a few phenocrysts of quartz and feldspar (microperthitic 
orthoclase) set in a grountl-niass of (|nartz and ftldspar (pri>l)ably oligoclase) to some 
extent in separate grains, but mainly in Ix-aiitifidly gianoj)iiyric and spherulitic inter- 
growth. There are also a little iron-ore and chlorite in rods and small ma.sses, which 
may represent an altered anq>hil)ole. The rock may be called granophyric spherulitic 
aplite (granite) porphyry 

(4.) From loose boulder, Taramakau River, about two miles below Kumara: This 
is the riebeckite-granite-porphyry described by Smith. An analysis is as follows: — 

Silica (SiO,) .. .. .. .. .. .. 76-15 

Alumina (Al.Oa) .. .. .. .. .. .. 11-78 

Ferric oxide (FC2O3) . . . . . . . . . . 0-94 

Ferrous oxide (FeO) .. .. .. .. .. 1-59 

Manganous oxide (MnO) • . . . . . . . . . . 0-08 

Lime (CaO) . . . . . . . . . . . . 0-30 

Magnesia (MgO) . . . . . . . . . . . . 0-42 

Potash (KjO) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-23 

Soda (Na,,0) . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-99 

Titanium-dioxide (TiOj) . . . . . . . . . . 0-15 

Phosphoric anhydride (P2O5) . . . . . . . . 0-19 

Carbonic anhydride (CO2) .. .. .. .. .. Nil 

Loss on ignition . . . . . . . . . . . . 0-46 



100-28 



* " Some Alkaline and Nepheline Rocks from Weatland," Trans, vol. xl, 1907, pp. 133-36. 



80 

(5.) From loose pebble, Taramakau Rivsr, below Kumara : A ligfit-colourud rock 
with many large phenocrysts of feldspar. Under the microscope numerous large 
crystals of alkali feldspar (orthoclase, microperrliite, and microcline) are seen, imbedded 
in a fine-grained giound-mass of quartz, feldspar, and riebeckite. The quartz and 
feldspar are in almost shapeless grains. The rielx,'ckite occurs in very numerous rods 
or laths, a few of which are enclosed in the porphyritic feldspars. A few flakes of 
muscovite are also present. The rock may be called riebeekite-granite-i)orphyiy, but is 
of a difierent type fioni that described by Smith. It differs from riebeckite-microgranite 
(Rosenbuscli) in not having porphyritic quartz. 

(6.) From loose pebble, Ongionui Creek (near Xotown) : The hand-specimen is a light- 
coloured rock that shows phenocrysts of quartz (one or two bi-pyramids) and possibly 
feldspar, with numerous indistinct glassy-looking spherulites imbedded in a light- 
coloured ground-mass. Under the microscope the section made happens to show no 
quartz phenocrysts. The feldspar phenocrysts are few in number and somewhat altered. 
They are perhaps oligoclase. A little druse cavity is almost filled with small fresh 
plagioclase crystals. Spherulites, apparently consisting almost wholly of feldspar, are 
very plentiful. The remainder of the section seems to be mainly quartzose mosaic. A 
little iron-ore is present. The rock may be called spherulitic quartz porphyry. 

(7.; From loose pebble, Callaghan's Creek (north of Ongionui Creek) : Is a light- 
coloured rock containing scattered spherulites up to ^ in. diameter, or somewhat more. 
These aie darker than the ground-mass in which they are imbedded. Under the micro- 
scope the section shows a large bi-pyramid of quartz, with slightly rounded outlines, 
and portions of large cloudy feldspathic spherulites imbedded in a ground-mass of 
small spherulites and mosaic of quartz and feldspar, often in granophyric intergrowth. 
There is, in fact, every gradation between the various structures, and under a high 
power many beautiful combinations are sseu. A little iron-ore (principally limonite) 
is present. 

(8.) From lo<jse pebble, Gow's Creek : Is a light-coloured i-ock with greasy pheno- 
crysts of feldspar. Under the microscope the feldspar appears to be mainly orthoclase 
(or anorthoclase) and microperthite. One crystal ( 1 oligoclase) shows albite twinning. 
The ground-mass is nearly all feldspar ( ? oligoclase). A little quartz is doubtfully present. 
There are some iron-ore and a grain or two of epidote. This feldspathic rock may be 
compared with the ceratophyres. It is not like bostonite in general appearance or 
structure. It is described in this section because it apparently contains a high per- 
centage of silica, but its connection with the Ttxhua Formation is, of course, doubtful. 

II. BASIC IGNEOUS ROCKS. 

(r/.) Basic Dykes. 

Numerous dykes of basic or semi-basic character cut the granites of Mount Te 
Kinga and the Hohonu Range. In width these vary from a few inches to many feet, 
but are usually from 2 ft. to 5 ft. They tend to follow the master joints of the enclosing 
granite, and thus many have a north-ea.st to south-west strike. There is, however, no 
great regularity in width or, so far as could be o1)served, persistency in strike. The 
dip is usually near 90°. 

The basic-dyke rocks actually seen in situ belong to three main types — lainpro- 
phyres, diabases, and porphyrites, of which the first is much the most common. The 
lamprophyric species represented in the sections made are hornblende camptonites, 
augite camptonites with or without some original hornblende, a doubtful vogesite, and 
kersantite (one example only). The diabasic dykes show characters that indicate a close 
alliance to the lamprophyric dykes. Dykes belonging to the porphyrite type occur on 
the summit of the Hohonu Range near Mount French, and doubtless elsewhere. 



81 

Not only are the various rock-species mentioned above and those described in 
Bulletin No. 1 found as loose pebbles in tlie Taraniakau, New, and Grey river-beds, but 
others, characterized by containing purely alkali feldspars, and in some cases nepheline, 
also occur. These have been carefully collected and described by J. P. Smith,* who 
enumerates, among others, the following species : Tinguaite of several varieties, 
tinguaite-i>orpliyry, vogesite (with anorthoclase), and tlieralite."f During the present 
survey no evidence that these rocks occur in situ as dykes in tlie Tuhua Formation or 
elsewhere was obtained. llieir source is therefore a matter of speculation. 

Their mode of occurrence naturally suggests the view that th? basic dyke rocks found 
in situ have been formed through a dififerentiation of the granitic magma tli.nt gave 
rise to the Tujiua rocks. Wliether tliis is the case also witli the alkaline nx-ks collected 
by Mr. Smith may Ix; doubted, but no alternative hypothesis of greater acceptableness can 
be suggested. If the differentiation hypothesis be correct, then the basic dykes are only 
slightly younger in age than the Tuliua granites. The occurrence of lamprophyric 
pebbles in the coal conglomerates neai- Blackball (.see page 58) supports the view that 
the basic dykes are of Pre- Tertiary age. 

(6.) Rdsdlt. 

Pebbles of olivine basalt are of common occurrence near Blackball. They are 
found in the auriferous gravels of Montgomery's Terrace and other sluicing claims on 
the west bank of the Grey, and in Soldier, Paparoa, Blackwater, and Bray creeks. 
Though considerable search for an outcrop was made, none was found. Tiie distri- 
bution of the pebbles in thv3 streams south of Blackball points to the probability of an 
outcrop of basalt not far from the head of Blackwater (Backwater) Creek. | 

The olivine-basalt is probably to lie correlated with the similar Koiterangi and 
Humbug Creek ba-;alt, wliich are of post-coal-measure age, but since an olivine-basalt 
pebble was (uiiless an error in labelling was made) collected from the coal-measure con- 
glomerate in Paparoa Creek some doubt remains. 

• " Some Alkalino and Nephelino Rock.s from Westland," Trans., vol. xl, 1907, pp. 122-137. 

t Dr. P. Marshall inform.s tlic writer that Mr. Smith ha.i also found a ditroite near tho Lake Brunner 
District. 

X Since thi.s was written Mr. W. H. Koll.s, of Dob.son, ha.s informed the writer that a very solid outcrop 
of basalt occurs in the localitv mentione<l on the eastern side of Blackwater Creek. 



6— Gteymouth. 



82 



CHAPTER VI. 



ECONOMIC GEOLOGY.* 







Page 






Page 


Metalliferous Quartz Veins 


83 


Coal— continued. 




Special Area — Langdon Creek 




84 


Detailed Descriptions — continued. 




General Observations 




86 


II. Coal-seams of the Brunner 




Auriferous Alluvial Deposits . . 




86 


Beds, &c. — continued. 




I. Early Tertiary Conglomerates 




86 


Brunner District . . 


116 


II. Pliocene River-gravels 




87 


The Brunner Seam 


116 


III. Pleistocene Deposits . . 




87 


The Brunner Rider 


118 


(a.) Morainic, Fluvio - glacial, 




The Blackball :\Iine Seams . . 


118 


and FluviatUe Gravels 


87 


Brown's Coal - prospecting 




(6.) Marine Gravels and Sands 




Lease . . 


120 


(Raised Beaches) 


88 


Northern Part of Cobden Sur- 




IV. Recent Deposits 


88 


vey District and Southern 




(a.) Fluviatile Gravels 


88 


Part of Temiko Survey 




(6.) Marine Gravels and Sands 




District 


121 


(Blaeksand Leads) 


88 


Cavern Creek 


121 


Character and Quality of Alluvial Gold 


89 


Rocky Creek (Tributary of 




Origin of Auriferous Alluvial Deposits 


89 


Seven-mile Creek) 


121 


Unworked Auriferous Gravels on or 




Nine-mile Bluff Seam 


121 


near the Surface 


90 


Nine-mile Ci'eek 


122 


Deeper Ground and possible Deep 




Ten-mile Creek . . 


122 


Leads . . 


90 


Southern Part of Temiko 




Minor Alluvial Deposits other than Gold 


91 


Surve}- District 


123 


Stream-tin 


91 


Analyses 


123 


Platinum 


91 


III. Coal-seams of the Kaiata Mud- 




Monazite and Chromite 


91 


stone . . 


124 


Ironsand 


92 


Kane's Seam 


124 


Iron-ore 


92 


Minor Seams 


124 


Building and Ornamental Stones 


93 


Origin of Coal . . 


12.5 


Road-making Material 


94 


Estimates of Coal in Ground and of 




Limestones for Manufacture of Lime and 




Coal available for Extraction . . 


126 


Cement 


94 


Summary 


127 


Analyses of Limestones 


94 


" RoUs " 




127 


Clays for Brick and Cement Manufac- 




Bore Logs 




128 


ture 


95 


OU and Gas Shale 




131 


Fireclay and Shale . . 


95 


Petroleum . . 




132 


Coal 


96 


Introduction 




132 


Detailed Description of the Various 




Mode of Occurrence 




132 


Coal-seams 


96 


Mode of Accumulation 




133 


I. Coal-seams of the Paparoa Beds 


97 


Anticlinal Theory 




133 


(a.) Lower Series . . 


97 


Mode of Origin 




133 


(6.) fpper Series (Moody's 




Physical and Chemical Properties 


134 


Creek Seams) 


101 


Special Area— The Kotuku Oilfield . . 


136 


Summary . . 


103 


Situation and Topography 


136 


Detailed Description of Coal- 




Resumt' of Geology 


137 


outcrops in the Paparoa 




Oil-indications . . 


138 


Beds 


103 


Petroleum Seepages 


138 


Upper Rocky Creek 


103 


Gas-escapes . . 


139 


Upper Bray Creek 


103 


Rock smelling of Oil 


139 


Upper Paparoa Creek and 




Mineral Springs 


139 


Tributaries 


104 


Exploitation 


139 


Upper Ford Creek and Tri- 




Kotuku Consolidated Oil Company 


140 


butaries 


106 


Kotuku Oil Association or Sj-ndi- 




Tom Ridge 


108 


cate 


140 


Main Divide and Subsi- 




Lake Brunner Oil Company 


143 


diary Ridges . . 


108 


Kotuku Oilfields Sj-ndicate 


148 


Upper Seven-mUe Creek 




Possible OU-bearing Strata. — Source of 




and Tributaries 


109 


Oil 


148 


Spring Creek 


111 


Possible Oil-bearing Anticlines, Domes, 




IVEscellaneous Anal3'ses . . 


112 


and Terraces 


148 


II. Coal-seams of the Brunner Beds 


113 


Recommendations regarding Boring . . 


149 


No. 1 Point Elizabeth State 




General Recommendations . . 


149 


Coal-mine 


113 


Summary of Economic Geology 


150 



* Some information relating to the subject-matter of this chapter may also be found in Chapter II, 
■' Mining Industry." 



83 

Metalliferous Quartz Veins. 

The rocks of tlie Gieenland Series as developed in the Pai);u(ia l>ange contain numerous 
quartz veins, the majority of which, however, are of no great thickness, and appear, 
as a rule, to be of a lenticular rather than continuous character. The only metals 
known to be present in cornniercial quantity are gold and antimony, tlie former as the 
native metal, the latter as sulphide and oxide. 

In the area of Greenland rocks on the northern slope of Mount Buckley (near 
Brunner) the quartz veins are small and of no economic value, the only metallic minerals 
observable being pyrite or iron-pyrites and it.< usual oxidation-i)r()(luct, limonite. 

North of the Grey Kiver the long strip of tlie Palaeozoic rocks that begins somewhat 
south of Laugdon Creek contains a number of (juaitz veins, wliieli, as mentioned in 
Ciiapter II, were being prospected over thirty years ago for gold and antimony. The 
discovery of richly auriferous stone in the Victory Claim in 189-4 led to vigorous pro- 
specting in the vicinity, but no other strike of importance was made. 

North of Uoa tliere aie (juartz veins on the .slopes of .Mount A\'atson and towards 
the head of Smoke-Ho Creek. The only metallic minerals observed in these were pyrite 
and sphalerite (zinc blende) witli a little liydrous oxide of iron, but proba))ly a little gold 
is present also. 

On the western side of Mount Watson several cjuartz veins ranging from a few 
inches to 2 ft. in widtli were seen in Otto Creek and its tributary, Walter Creek. Large 
blocks of quartz seen in the bed of Walter Creek indicate a lode 5 ft. or 6 ft. in widtli, 
but this was not fouml. In all cases the (juaitz had a mean hungry appearance. No 
alluvial gold could Ix' fouml Ijy examination of tlie creek-gravels or the moss-entangled 
sand .scraped from boulders in the creek-beds. This area is therefore a very unpro- 
mising one. 

Montgomery's Hill (near Blackball) contains a numljer of small quartz lodes, some 
of wliich may be seen towards the liead of German (hdly, and otiiers near Healy's 
Gully. Samples of (|uartz from two veins in German Gully when assayed yielded no 
return of gold or silver. Near Healy's Gully, on the hillside above the Roaring Meg 
Water-race, a lode-formation of some width is exposed by a slip. It consists of several 
more or less parallel quartz veins from -Jin. to l.oin. in width, separated by crushed 
country. The veins appear to .strike north-east to south-west, and to have a dip ap- 
proaching 90°. Tiiough some of the vein-material has a moderate-ly promising appear- 
ance, a sample taken for assay proved valuele.ss. A small piece of quartz stated to have 
been obtained in the immediate neighbourhood was handed to the writei- by tlic finder, 
Mr. W. Brown. It showed visible gold, and assayed as follow.s : — 

Per Ton. 
Gold ... ... ... ... ... 1 oz. lOdwt. 21 gr. 

Silver . ... ... ... ... Ooz. 1 dwt. 21 gr. 

Value ... ... ... ... ... £6 .3s. 8d. 

A piece of quartz showing gold freely is said to have I)een taken from an outcrop 
on the Blackball side of Montgomery's Hill some years ago. The finder, however, did 
not note either the character of the specimen or the exact locality at the time. Though 
the hillside has since been carefully searched, the outcrop has not been relocated. To 
the writer it seems likely that the specimen was broken from a loose boulder rather than 
a solid outcrop. That a gold-bearing quartz vein exists in the locality, may, however, 
be considered probable. 

The Minerva Lode, mentioned in Chapter II as having been worked at intervals 
since 1891, crosses Blackball Creek about a quarter of a mile north of the subdivision 

6* — Greymouth. 



Thickness. 


Ft. 


in. 


2 





. 2 





. 3 





. 


4 


. 1 


8 



84 

boundary. The vein, as seen in the stream-bed, consists of milky-white (juartz, and 
has a width of about 3 ft. It strikes ahiiost with the bedding of the country, which is 
a fine-grained grauwacke, and has a dip approaching 90°. Up-stream one or two small 
irregular veins may be seen. On the eastern side of the stream is the entrance to tlie 
old workings. Of these, only a steeply dipping drive — practically an inclined sliaft — 
could be seen. 

Specml Area — Langdon Creek. 

In the watershed of Langdon Creek tliere are three metalliferous veins that have 
jeen worked to some e.xteut. These are Langdon's Antimony-lode, Langdon's Reef, and 
the Victory Reef. 

Langdon's ^Nntimony-lode is a gold-stibnite vein, similar in its main features to 
some of the Reefton lodes — for example, the lode in the Bonanza Claim formerly known 
as Bayfeild and Anderson's Lode.* It outcrops at a height of 1,440 ft. f above sea-level 
in a small rill gully joining Langdon Creek near its head. In 1879 the lode was re- 
ported by Sir James Hector| as consisting of five distinct bands, as follows : — 

No. 1, next the footwall was quartz, containing stibnite dis 

posed in irregular masses 
No. 2, compact stibnite ... ... ... ... 

No. 3, stibnite, including quartz in the form of nodules 
No. 4, fine-grained mixture of quartz and stibnite ... 
No. 5, breccia of slate [argillite] ... 

Total thicknef5s ... ... ... ... ... 9 

Hector states that the fiist specimens forwarded from this lode assayed at the rate of 
84 oz. of gold and 36 oz. of silver per ton, the value thus being £330 per ton. A 
sample collected by Hector himself from No. 2 band yielded gold at the rate of 32 oz. 
per ton. Other samples assayed from nil to 5 oz. 16 dwt. 16 gr. gold per ton. The 
ratio of silver to gold in three of these analyses is approximately 1 in 28 to 1 in 30. § 
This does not agree with the ratio in the analysis first quoted. 

Some years later, when Mr. Alexander McKay visited and reported on the lode, 
the prospects were less promising. The 9 ft. portion of the lode had apparently been 
worked out, and the excavation allowed to fill with debris from a slip. ]\IcKay states 
that the lode in the workings, so far as he could learn, had nearly pinched out. An 
outcrop on the western side of the slip was less than 3 ft. in width, and to the dip 
rapidly thinned. 

In March, 1909, when the locality was examined by the writer, a lode about 2 ft. 
wide was visible on the western side of the slip, as reported by McKay in 1882. It 
appeared to be a bedded vein enclosed in argillite and grauwacke, the former rock being 
the foot-wall and the latter the hanging-wall. The strike of the country was about 322°, 
and its dip 7.5° to the south-west Both country and lode were disturbed, so that the 
strike and dip vai ied as stated by Mr. McKay. A few yards above the lode outcrop 
some broken quartz, showing a little stibnite, was observed, but no definite vein could 

* McKay, Alex. : " On an Antimony-lode at Reefton, Inangahua County," Rep. G.S. during 1882, 
vol. 15, 1883, pp. 88-90. 

t Barometric height. 

X Progress Report in Rep. G.S. durmg 1878-79, vol. 12, 1879, p. 20. 

5 For details of the.se analyses, which were made by the late Mr. William Skey, see 14th Ann. Rep. of 
the Colonial Museum and Laboratory, 1879, pp. 34, 35. Other analyses will be foimd in the 17th Ann. Rep., 
1882, p. 39. 



85 

be seen owing to the debris from the slip alieady mentioned. The worlvings visible 
consisted of an irregular winze or shaft, and two old drives, one about 12 yards and 
the other about 22 yards below the outcrop. These could not be entered for any dis- 
tance, but are probably the same as those described by McKay. Evidences of ore 
having been removed were visible at the outcrop, and, moreover, in the creek-bed there 
were numerous fragments of lode matter showing abundant stibnite (sulphide of anti- 
mony) and cervantite (oxide of antimony). A sample of ore taken from the outcrop 
yielded on assay the following results : — 

Gold ... ... ... . ... 5 dwt. IGgr. per ton. 

Silver ... ... .. ... 1 dwt. 21 gr. ,, 

Antimony sulphide (SbjSj) -.. 14:"07 per cent.* 

Bismuth and tin ... ... ... Nil. 

It is probable that the 10 tons of ore shipped away some time prior to 1882 (see page 18) 
had a higli assay value in gold and antimony, although, so far as can be learned, the 
returns were unsatisfactory. 

The lode, as mentioned above, is in disturbed country, and either follows a fault 
parallel to the bedding of the enclosing argillite and grauwacke or is crossed by a fault 
making an acute angle with the strike. The apparent pinching-out is also a dis- 
couraging feature. Nevertlieless, it seems advisable that the locality should be thoroughly 
reprospected by trenches along the line of strike of the lode, and by driving an adit 
to catch the lode from 100 ft. to 200 ft. below the outcrop. 

Langdon's Reef was described by Hectort in 1879 as outcropping 400 ft. below the 
antimony-lode, and as showing a solid ledge of white cpiartz from 3 ft. to 11 ft. wide, 
encased in compact slate [argillite]. A sample stated to contain leucopyrite (FsjAs^) 
was analysed by Skey.J with the following re.sults : — 

Per Ton. 
Gobi ... ... ... ... ... G9oz. 3 dwt. 12 gr. 

Silver ... ... ... ... ... 2 oz. 9 dwt. 19 gr. 

In 1883 McKay reportedg that samples of the quartz from Langdon s Reef assayed 
at the rate of 19 dwt. 12 gr. [of gold] per ton. The strike of the reef was apparently 
east and west, the dip 80° to the south. The enclosing rock had a strike of N. 50° W. 
[? by compass], and dipped 60° to the south-west. 

There is no record of Langdon's Reef having eVer yielded any appreciable cjuantity 
of payable ore. 

The history of the third lode in Langdon's Creek, the Victory Reef, was given in 
Chapter II (page 19). The old workings on this lode are a short distance northward 
of the point where the two main branches of Langdon Creek junction. From the Mines 
Report of 1895ii it appears that the lode was 18 in. to 3 ft. in width, and was joined 
by a number of small, leaders, most of which sliowed gold. At the point where rich ore 
was found two of these leaders junctioned with the lode, and gave it a width of nearly 
4 ft. The quartz near the junction was fissured, and contained dabs of stibnite (sul- 
phide of antimony) together with bands of dark-coloured carbonate of lime about ^ in. 
in width. Free gold showed both in the white quartz and in the stibnite. Upon close 
inspection gold could also be seen in the pyrite (iron-pyrites), which was a constituent 
of the ore. 



* Equivalent to lO-OS per cent, of metallic antimony. 

t Op. cit, p. 19. 

X 14th Ann. Rep. of the Colonial Museum and Laboratory, 1879, p. 35. 

§ Op. cit., p. 84. 

II C.-3, p. 84. 



86 

A battery of five light stamps still stands besides the creek, at a point about 18 chains 
below the junction of the two main branches. Some blanketings on the floor were 
roughly concentrated, and found to contain perhaps 10 to 15 per cent, of pyrite. The 

concentrate was assayed, with tlie following result : — 

Per Ton. 
Gold ... ... ... ... ... 42 oz. 6dwt. 21 gr. 

Silver . . .. ... ... ... oz. 15 dwt. 2 gr. 

Value .. ... . . ... £169 8s. 9d. 

A bedded quartz vein 3 in. to 5 in. wide was seen in Langdou Creek not far belov»" 
the antimony-lode. It was enclosed in a coarse rusty-coloured grauwacke, and did not 
appear to contain any mineral of economic value. 

In his report of 1883* McKay mentions the occurrence of reefs in the Albion Claim, 
south of Langdon's Extended, and in Wilson's Lease, to the north. A sample of quartz 
from a 2 ft. vein in the latter property yielded gold at the rate of 3 dwt. 6 gr. per ton. 

The lodes in the Langdon Creek area are evidently liable to pinch in extension, 
and are patchy in gold-content. The profitable returns obtained for some years from 
the Victory Claim (Chapter II, page 19) show that the discovery of payable ore-bodies 
by patient prospecting of the area is by no means unlikely. 

General Observations. 

It may be suggested that the prospecting of the Greenland rocks hidden by the 
coal-measures on the crest of the Paparoa Range may be worth considering, especially 
if new discoveries are made in the neighbourhood of Langdon Creek. WTierever the 
Greenland rocks have been identified they are found to contain quartz lodes, which in 
the majority of cases are more or less auriferous. There is much reason for believing 
that the greater part of the alluvial gold of Westland has been derived from Greenland 
rocks. Thus the latter deserve attention wherever thev occur. 



Auriferous Allttvial Deposits. 

If classified primarily according to age and secondarily according to character, the 
auriferous deposits of the Greymouth Subdivision come under the following headings : — 

I. Early Tertiary conglomerates.. 
II. Pliocene river-gravels. 

III. Pleistocene deposits — 

(a.) ilorainic, fiuvio-glacial, and fluviatile gravels, 
(fe.) Marine gravels and sands (raised beaches). 

IV. Recent deposits — 

(a.) Fluviatile gravels. 

(6.) Marine gravels and sands (black-sand leads). 

The deposits coming under the two first heads are not known to be payably auriferous 
anwhere within the subdivision, but are mentioned becau.se they form the immediate 
sources of probably the greater part of the gold in the richer deposits of younger age. 

J. EARLY TERTIARY CONGLOMERATES. 

There is reliable evidence to show that the basal conglomerates of the coal-measures 
contain some alluvial gold, but tlie material forming these conglomerates as developed 

* Op. cif., p. 85. 



87 

in the Greyiuoutli Subdivision has never been h;ul)jecte(l t<> the concenti-ation and recon- 
centration necessary to form profitable alluvial deposits, so that there is no likelihood 
of any such being found in the rocks under consideration.* The same remark applies 
to the con<rlomerates of tiie Brunner Beds. 



If. PLIOCENE lUVEIt-GKAVELS. 

The gold-bearing chai-acter of the Old Man or .Moutere gravels is undoubted. The} 
have been tested at vai ious points within the subdivision, but never with profitable 
results. It is just possible that the Old Man Gravels may in places l>e of payal)le 
character, and therefore their prospecting ought not to be altogether neglected. Tiie 
chief importance of tiiese gravels, however, arises from their l>eing a source of gold for 
younger gravels. 

III. ri.EISTOCENE DEPOSITS. 

(n.) Morainic, Fhicio-yhirial, aid Fl it ridtde Gravels. 

During the great Pleistocene advance and retreat of the glaciers, morainic, fluvio- 
glacial, fluviatile, and marine gravels were being simultaneously deposited in Nortli 
Westland. Almost all the alluvial gold of the area was at this time transported either 
by ioe or by glacial streams or by both, and therefore there is a most important con- 
nection between the ancient glaciation and the distribution of the rick alluvial deposits 
of the region. 

The i)urily morainic deposits, not having undergone any appreciable concentra- 
tion, connot Ix- expected to contain payable gold. The case, however, is different with 
those fluvio-glacial deposits known as "eskars," " kames," <S:c., whicli formed under the 
ice-sheet through the agency of running water. At Kumara an eskar-like ridge that 
runs along the ea.stern side of Larrikin's Flat to the neighbourhood of the State school 
has been in great part sluiced away for its gold-contents. At Hayes Terrace some of 
the auriferous fluvio-glacial gravels also appear to be of subglacial origin. 

The fluvio-glacial gravels deposited by the glacial rivers innnediately in front of 
the ancient ice-sheet are of great importance from an economic point of view. Such 
gravels have besn extensively worked at Stafford, Goldsborough, Callaghan's, Kumara, 
Cape Terrace, Greenstone, Dunganville (Eight-mile Creek), Maori Gully No. 2 (Still- 
water Valley), Notown, Red Jack's, and elsewhere. It is, unfortunately, the rule that 
as the distance of a fluvio-glacial deposit from the ancient ice-edge increases its gold- 
contents deciease.t Such, a result is (|uite in accordance with the natural laws that 
regulate the concentration of heavy minerals in alluvial deposits. The greater part 
of the gold tran.sported by tlie ice was deposited near the ice-fioiit. Had tliis latter 
feature always remained in one position, and the glacial streams always held to one 
course, verv rich alluvial deposits would have resulted in some localities, and, in point 
of fact, this seems to liave been approximately the case at Kumara. 

Under some conditions rich alluvial deposits formed at oonsidciable distances from 
the ice-front during the glacial period. Such deposits, of which those at Cameron's 
(two to three miles up the New River) and Rutherglen are the best instances, were 
generally formed on the surface of Blue Bottom. 

The auriferous gravels near Taylorville, such as those of Sulky Gully, are to be 
considered as fluviatile. Strictly fluviatile, also, are the older gravels of Upper Black- 
ball and Ford creeks, and of King's Terrace (Ten-mile Creek). 



* Kxceplioualiy, payabk- alluvial depo.'-its raay be formed without any decided degree of concentration — 
for instance, close to the outcrop of a rich lode. 

t It must be noted that the ice-front at the period of maximum advance is not always indicated by 
surface moraine. 



88 

(b.) Marine Gravels and Sands {^Raised Beaches). 

The remnants of the raised beach extending through the subdivision at an elevation 
oi about 200 ft. (see page 3i) have everywhere been worked for gold. At the Lamp- 
lough Lead (Chesterfield) the gold is associated witli black- or iron-sand (magnetite), 
now more or less ru.sty through further oxidation of the iron. The deposit is thus 
a beach lead exactly similar to the Auckland lead on the modern coastal plain. The 
Lamplough lead has yielded a considerable amount of gold, but is now considered to 
be worked out. 

In the remnants of the ancient beach lead observed north of Chesterfield sea-worn 
gravel rather than sand predominates. Near Greymouth, at Darkie's and Blackboy 
Terraces neai- Point Elizabeth, and near tlie Seven-mile, Nine-mile, and Eleven-mile 
creeks the lead lias been more or less Avorked for gold. In a small claim (Schulz's) within 
the Eleven-mile Creek watershed the gold is associated with a rusty beach-sand con- 
taining mucli black sand. 

IV. RECENT DEPOSITS. 

(a.) Fluviattle Gravels. 

The older auriferous gravels have in many places been reasserted and reconcen- 
trated by the modern streams, with the result that richly auriferous deposits have been 
produced. Concentration of gold has taken place to a much greater extent in tlie smaller 
stream-channels or gullies than in the major valleys. The chief reason for the com- 
parative poverty of the latter is that in the larger streams the abundant supply of 
practically non-auriferous material from the Southern Alps has diluted tlie more auri- 
ferous gravels of the lowlands to such an extent that concentration of the gold to a 
payable point is the exception rather than the rule. On the other hand, the constant 
though slow removal of material from small valleys and gullies in the course of time 
has given rise to many highly payable deposits. Concentration is observable on many 
terrace-slopes, owing to some proportion of gold being left behind while the gravel 
forming the ten-ace is washed away. Thus a little payable ground may be found along 
the edges of terraces, and good prospects obtained in such localities have sometimes led 
to unrealized hopes of a rich claim. 

The areas in which the modern stream-gravels are or have been payably auriferous 
include the greater part of the lowlands in advance of the ancient ice-sheet, and in- 
clude also those portions of the Paparoa Range in which Greenland rocks or the basal 
conglomerate of the coal-measures are exposed. 

The richer of the modern stream-deposits are practically worked out, but a con- 
siderable amount of gold is still being obtained, mainly by means of dredging, in 
various localities. 

(h.) Murine Grarels and Sands (Black-sand Leads). 

As the modern coastal plain was built outwards from the Pleistocene coast, the 
waves of the sea caused gold to concentrate in layers tliat are composed largely of 
magnetite (black- or iron-sand). These auriferous layers probably occur more or less 
under the whole of the coastal plain, but have not been everywhere worked, either owing 
to their essentially unprofitable character or to the presence of water. From their mode 
of formation the black-sand layers are necessarily narrow, and cannot well extend in 
length for any gieat distance, although by the overlapping of really distinct layers a 
more or less continuous stratum or lead may ultimately be formed. Such a lead, fairly 
well defined except where broken by the rivers, extends along the whole coast of the 
subdivision from the southern boundary to Point Elizabeth. It generally shows more 



89 

than one layer of black sand. About a mile north of the Waimea Creek it is known as 
the Auckland lead, and was found to be very rich in gold. Between the laramakau 
and New rivers it has of late years been named the Golconda lead. Here, owing to the 
presence of water, portions luive jemained iinwoiked. From Paroa northwards to- 
wards Greymouth marine gravels and sands in much the same horizon as the Auckland 
and Golconda leads have been extensively worked by paddocking and to some extent by 
dredging. North of the Grey the ground, after being partly exploited by the eaily 
miners, has been successfully worked by dredging for many years. The material 
lifted by the dredge-buckets is marine gravel, mixed with a considerable but varying 
proportion of sand. 

The sea-lx-ach in the early mining days was rich in auriferous black sand, and even 
in recent times has given profitable returns for a short time. Not many years ago a 
rich patch of black sand formed north of tlie Taramakau liiver mouth, and doubtless 
similar patches will occasionally occur in the future. 

CHARACTER AND yUAMTY OF AM.UVIAI, LiOI.D. 

In most of the claims where auriferous giavels are being worked the bulk of the 
gold is of a moderately coarse character, or what is commonly known as a "good 
sample," and is easily saved by water-concentration alone. Nuggets, however, are not 
at all plentiful. The largest of which the writer has heard was one said to weigh 57 oz., 
which was discovered in Big Nugget Gully, a tributary of Deadman's Creek (north of 
Notown). A 15 oz. nugget was once found at Kumara in a tailings-channel, and in 
1908 a 6 oz. nugget made its way by a lucky chance to tlie tables of a dredge working 
in the Greenstone Kiver. 

The gold of the black-sand leads, whether ancient or modern, is, as miglit be ex- 
pected, fine in character, and therefore not easily saved. 

The alluvial gold of the subdivision, except at Ford's Creek, near Blackball, is of 
almost uniforndy high (|uality, worth at the banks from £3 16s. to £4 per ounce, the 
ordinary price being £3 18s. per ounce. The Ford's Creek gold contains a notable 
but varying amount of copper, and, according to statements made to the writer, some 
of it is worth as little as £2 lOs. per ounce. Gordon and McKay, however, give its 
miniiiiuui value as £',i 9s. per ounce.* 

ORIGIN OF AURIFEROUS ALLUVIAL DEPOSITS. 

The source of the auriferous gold of North Westland has been fully discussed by 
McKay. t With his conclusions the writer, as stated in another place, J in the main 
agrees, and what now follows is largely a recapitulation of former statements. 

The intimate connection in North Westland between the chief deposits of alluvial 
gold and the ancient glaciers is so obvious that one would naturally suppose that the 
Southern Alps, which gave rise to the glaciers, also supplied the gold that has bien ice- 
transported. Especially at Kumara the evidence in favour of this view is so strong 
that McKay reluctantly grants its probable correctness. If, however, the bulk of the 
Kumara gold has been derived from the Southern Alps it almost necessarily follows that 
the other rich deposits of the Greymouth Subdivision, from Stafford in the south to Red 
Jack's and Callaghan's Cre-ek in the north, have had a similar origin. On the other 
hand, the amount of gold found in tha Southern Alps, whether in quartz veins or as 
alluvial in the stream-valleys, is so small that an alternative hypothesis seems to be 
required. 

* "Mining Reserves, Westland and Nelson," Mines Report, 1896, C.-9, p. 21. 

t " Geological Ejtplorations of the Northom Part of Westland," Mines Report, 1893, C'.-3, pp. 173-182. 

t BuIL No. 6 (New Series), X.Z. G.S., 1908, pp. 155-136. 



90 

In the first place, the Moutere or Old Man gravels, as shown by McKay, may ix- 
considered the immediate source of much alluvial gold in the Pleistocene and Kecent 
deposits. The Moutere Gravels are largely formed of decomposed grauwacke pebV^les, 
supposed by tlie writer to be derived mainly from the coal-measure conglomerates. 
The material forming the latter, and many of the harder pebbles of the Moutere Gravels 
have been derived directly from exposures of the Greenland rocks, which, as stated on 
page 86, nearly everywhere contain more or less auriferous quartz lodes. In the 
writer's opinion, therefore, the Greenland rocks, and not those of the Arahura Series, 
are the main primary source of Westland's alluvial gold. It must be noted, how- 
ever, rhat some alluvial gold, more especially at Kumara, has certainly been derived 
from tha Southern Alps. 

Until many apparently purely geological problems (such as the relative ages of 
the Arahura and Gi-eenland series, the age of the auriferous lodes, the age of the 
Southern Alps, and the existence or non-existence of land to the west of the present 
coast-line in Tertiary times) have been solved further discussion regarding the primary 
source of the alluvial gold in North Westland appears to be of little utility. 

CXWORKED AURIFEROUS GRAVELS OX OR NEAR THE SURFACE. 

Probably all the extremely rich auriferous deposits on or near the surface, with 
a few comparatively unimportant exceptions, have been discovered and worked out. 
Poorer deposits have also been extensively worked by means of hydraulic sluicing and 
dredging, forms of alluvial mining which are .still in active operation. There are, 
however, great quantities of such material that remain un attacked for various reasons 
other than their essential poverty in gold. As stated in Chapter II, the chief reasons 
for not working such ground are want of water, want of fall for tailings, and the 
expense of long tail-races and tunnels. In the case of dredging-ground large boulders 
or buried timber may be the obstacles in the way of success. 

It is agreed by all that if cheap water under a good pressure were available much 
gold might yet be profitably obtained by means of hydraulic sluicing. Among the 
localities thus believed to be potentially payable are Hayes Terrace, on the eastern 
bank of the Taramakau, and portions of an extensive area stretching from Notown 
to Kangaroo Creek. 

The Government water-race is now being extended from Kumara across the Tara- 
makau River. On the completion of this work* the active exploitation of Hayes Terrace 
will become possible. Ihe auriferous gravels of Cape Terrace, somewhat to the north, 
will also be worked on a larger scale than at present, and probably with profitable results. 

In order to work the aurifeious gravels between Xotown and Kangaroo Creek, it 
has bsen proposed to construct a large water-race from Lake Hochstetter. The line 
of race was partly surveyed some years ago, but the work was then abandoned. Whether 
the expenditure of the large sum required to construct the race would be justifiable is 
a matter necsssitating not only detailed prospecting but also careful consideration 
of the various conditions that would govern the cost of working on a given scale, for 
in all probability the margin between loss and profit will be somewhat small. 

DEEPER GROUND AND POSSIBLE DEEP LEADS. 

In most parts of the Greymouth Subdivision the deeper layers of auriferous 
gravels, if rich enough, have been worked by driving out. In such ground the goTO 
is nearly always patchy, for in Westland there is nothing closely corresponding to the 
deep leads of Victoria and some other parts of Australia, which follow well-defined 
channels. The reason for this is clearly seen wh?n it is recollected that the gold has 

* The undertaking was practically completed in June, 1911. 



I'l.ATK VI. 










;4. ^^ Ti.^ 



^aa!g*?r:j 



k»»- 



- I.I |( i.iJ !■ .', I I. Ill I' I I \ II 1-1. 1, \t I \ I. < 1 i \ \ 1. 1.>. \ I. \ i; 1 1 \ \ I. s I 1,1, i: \ I I.. 




I in I HIM. 
'In j(ic( piirjC 90 



91 

in most cases been deposited by glacial tonents, often clianyiiig their courses, on a 
lowland composed of easily eroded rocks. In Victoria, on tlie otlier hand, the deep 
Isads were formed by a gradual concentration of gold in stream-valleys cut out of 
the auriferous rocks themselves. 

It is entirely probable that in many places small areas of rich gri)und exist, but 
these can be found only by chance, or by a systematic exploration of the territory 
that in most cases can hardly prove profitable. The geuv^ral lule can be laid down that 
wherever the Upper Miocene rocks, such as the Blue Bottom, are coveted by Pleisto- 
cene or modern gravels, rich aurifeious patches are lil^ely to occur on the bed-rock. 
Under the glacial gravels there are without mucli doubt auriferous deposits formed 
by the streams that burst from the ice as it advanced. Some of those, if located, miglit hs 
payable, but the expense of prospecting by a process of blind stabbing is evidently 
prohibitive. 

In at least one locality, however, the cas2 is somewliat different. At Kunuira the 
lowest portion of the ancient river-channel (see page 87) in the Blue Bottom has never 
been prospected, tliougli attempts have Ikku made to do so, and portions of the rim 
have been tested. It is practically certain that this channel, scof)ped out while the 
ancient ice-sheet was advancing, by a stream which may l)e called tlu' ancient Tara- 
makau, contains a considerable amount of gold. Probably the liche-it layer is that 
resting on the Blue Bottom in the deepest part of the channel, l)ut only trial can show 
whether its exploitation will hi piofitable or not. 

A second locality probably containing deej) auriferous ground is the valley of 
Notown oi- Ongionui Creek, a mile and a half to thiee miles above Notown. 

Minor Ai-luvi.m, Dkposits otheh than Gold. 
St ream -tin. 

Oxide of tin or cassiterite occurs as stream-tin in the auriferous gravels of Mont- 
gomery's Terraofc Sluicing Claim, and doul)tIess also in the gravels worked by neigli- 
bouring claims in the Blackball-Healy's Gully district. In the non-magnetic portion 
(91 '2 per cent.) of a sample of concentrate from the sluice-boxes of the former claim 
which had been reconcentrated in streaming off no less than .'53'3 per cent, of metallic 
tin, equal to 42".'^ per cent, of cassiterite, was found. Stream-tin is also known to 
occur with the auiiforous gravels near the coast-line north of the Ten-mile Creek. 

The source of the cassiterite in the Blackball district cannot Ije definitely stated, 
but it is probably the granitic or gneissic country that forms much of the Paparoa 
Range farther north. The mineral is in fairly c )arse grains, and cannot linve travelled 
many miles. 

The immediate source of the stream-tin north of the Ten-mile may be the coal- 
measure conglomerates, which again may have derived the mineral from the granitic 
mass that the writer believes once existed .seaward of the present coast-line. 

Plat i num. 
Mr. P. Wilson, of the Seven-mile, states that a little platinum occurs witli tlie 
auriferous gravels north of the Ten-mile Creek. 

Monazite and Chromite. 
The non-magnetic portion of the concentrate from Montgomery's Terrace Sluicing 
Claim mentioned above contained TSS per cent, of rare earths, the principal oxide 
present being ceria. Microscopic examination of the original concentrate showed the 
presence of fairly numerous water-worn crystals of yellow monazite. Chromite was 
probably present in the concentrate also, for it contained chromium equivalent to Tl per 
cent, of chromite. 



92 



lro?isand. 
As mentioned on previous pages, more or less ironsand (magnetite; occurs along the 
coast of the subdivision and in the old beach leads of auriferous material. Ihe iron- 
sand, however, does not occur in sufficient quantity at any one place to entitle it to 
be considered as an iron-ore. 

Ikon-ore. 
In the lower part of the Xine-mile Creek (Kotorapi Stream) boulders consisting 
principally of carbonate of iron or siderite (spatliic iron-ore) are common. Their ex- 
terior is red, owing to a thin crust of iron-oxide. A traverse of the Nine-mile Creek 
to its source shows that these boulders are derived from concretions and bands of im- 
pure carbonate of iron in the upper shales of the Paparoa Beds. The only continuous 
band observed is about a mile in a straight line from the mouth of the stream, and has 
a thickness of 6 in. to 7 in., with a strike of 227°, and a dip of 15° to the south-east. 
It is underlain by sandstone, whilst above is about 3 ft. of shaly rock with a few inches 
of impure coal. Above this is more sandstone. Somewhat higher up the creek several 
concretions of carbonate of iron ranging to 2 ft. in diameter may be observed in shale. 

In the Seven-mile Creek, a little below Moody Creek junction, two similar bands 
occur, neither of which is more than a few inches thick. These bands strike north-west 
to south-east, and have a dip of about 12° to the south-west. 

Carbonate-of-iron bands and concretions may also be observed on the crest of the 
Paparoa Range near Asper Knob. The most important band is not more than i in. to 
5 in. thick. 

A small band of iron-carbonate occurs in the shale outcropping on the beach about 
a mile and a half north of the Ten-mile Creek. 

The Island Sandstone in places contains ferrtiginous concretions, which are usually 
only a few inches in diameter, and very impure. The ironstone balls found in various 
sluicing claims near Blackball are probably derived from this horizon. They generally 
have a core of soft dark material, which contains but little iron. 

The various occurrences of iron-ore in the Greymouth coal-measures, though very 
interesting, appear to be of no commercial importance. The following analyses may 
be cited : — 





1. 


2. 


3. 


4. 


Sihca (SiOa) 


15-92 


40-91 


12-56 




Ferrous carbonate (FeCOg) 


72-87 


34-20 


58-22 


78-01 


Ferrous oxide (FeO) 


Nil 


3-70 


. . 




Ferric oxide (FcjOj) 


1-34 


5-10 


13-20 


6-70 


Ahunina (Al^Oj) . . 


5-72 


8-18 


7-83 


. . 


Titanium-dioxide (TiOj) . . 


n.d. 


n.d. 


0-10 




Calcium-carbonate (CaCOg) 


1-06 


2-30 


1-80 




Magnesia (MgO) . . 


0-17 


0-65 


0-90 




Water and organic matter 


2-92 

1 


4-96 


4-71 




Undetermined, including alkaUes . . 


, 0-68 


-- 




100-00 


100-00 


100-00 




Total iron calculated as metal per cent. 


3612 i 


22-96 j 


37-35 


42-35 



(1.) Carbonate-of-iron nodule with leaf-remains from a small tributary of Rocky 

Creek (Seven-mile watershed). 
(2.) Impure carbonate-of-iron band from 6 in. to 7 in. seam in Nine-mile Creek. 
(3.) Carbonate-of-iron band on crest of Paparoa Range, near Asper Knob. 
(4.) Carbonate of iron from Nine-mile Creek. Analysed by W. Skey (1883). 



93 

The following partial analyses show the nature of tlie iron-oxide nodules occurring 
in Montgomery's Terrace Sluicing Claim (Blackball), and the soft dark material tilling 

their centres : — 

I. II. 

Per Cent. Per Cent. 

Moisture and organic matter . . . . .. 18-10 11-02 

Ferric oxide (F2O3) . . . . . . . . 78-57* 0-88 

Manganous oxide (MnO) .. .. • .. 0-10 Nil 

I. Exterior part of nodule. 
II. Interior part of nodule (air-dried). 

Building and Ornamkntal Stones. 

The building and ornamental stones of the Greymouth Subdivision include granite, 
limestone, sandstone, and pounamu or greenstone. 

Granite occurs in great abundance, forming the main mass of the Hohonu Range, 
and practically the whole of Mount Te Kinga. There are two distinct varieties, red 
and grey. The former is found only along the western base of the Hohonu Range, and, 
as a rule, is too shattered or too decomposed to be of great value. The grey granite 
has been quarried to a small extent near Te Kinga Railway-station (outside the sub- 
division), where it is very hard and solid, though not so well jointed as the best build- 
ing-granite of other countries. Within the subdivision there are localities on the eastern 
and southern shores of Lake Brunner where a (juarry could be establislicd with water- 
carriage to Moana Bailway-station, twenty-three miles fioni Greymouth. 

The somewhat impure limestone of the (juarries near Greymouth (Cobden Limestone) 
has proved of great value in constructing the moles that control the entrance to the 
harbour. It is a soft well-l)edded rock, easily broken, and a practically unlimited 
supply can be (juarried under almost itleal conditions. The rock at Point Elizabeth is 
somewhat similar, and could be used, it desired, in the ccmstruction of the breakwater 
necessary to form a harbour in this locality. 

Tiie limestones mentioned above, ami those occurring elsewhere in the Greymouth 
Subdivision, for example, at Saltwater and Fireball creeks, could be locally utilized as 
building-stones. Whether any aie of a quality suitable for export on a large scale may 
be doubted. 

Much the best building-stone known in the subdivision is the sandstone now being 
worked at Dobson in the upper horizon of the Island Sandstone. Some of this stone 
is particularly well adapted for monumental purposes. Portions, however, show dark 
patclies and iron-stains, which detract somewhat from the appearance of the stone, but 
do not sensibly impair its value for ordinary building purposes. At the quarry several 
layers of sandstone are being worked. The Ijest band is about •") ft. thick, and has a 
very fine grain and a uniform grey colour, except ffir the occasional stains mentioned 
above. 

According to tests made in the Canterbury College School of Engineering on 2| in. 
cubes (approximate dim(msions), the average crushing-load of Dobson Sandstone is 706'3 
tons per square foot, and the water-absorption in seventy-two hours •370.5 per cent. A 
weathering-test made on 1 in. cubes gave very satisfactory results. 

Dobson Sandstone has been largely used for the basement of the additions now 
(1910) being made to the General Post Office, Wellington. 

Though elsewhere not of such high quality as in the Dobson Quarry, the Island 
Sandstone is usually suitable for rough building purposes. Near Blackball Railway- 
station it is well bedded, and might be easily and cheaply quarried. 

* Equivalent to 55 per cent, of metallic iron. 



94 

Greenstone or pounaiiiu, known niineralogically as nephrite, occur>< Kparingly as 
water- or ice-borne boulders in tlie frravels of tlie subdivision. Some very large blocks 
iiave been obtained at Ku'iiara and Maori Point (Greenstone Riverj in alluvial gold 
workings.* 

Road-making Material. 

In almost every part of the subdivision the stream-gravels furnisli abundant and, 
as a rule, excellent material for road-making. Of the solid rocks occurring in the 
area, the Cobden Limestone is perhaps the best for road-making purposes, and at Grey- 
mouth has been so utilized to a small extent. 

Limestones for Manufacture of Lime and Cement. 

At Greymouth the Cobden Limestone is being quarried and burnt to form a lime 
that contains a somewhat high percentage of impurities. It is said to be excellent for 
making mortar. The limestones at the head of Saltwater Creek, in the Kaiata Range 
near Kakawau Peak, and in Fireball and Tansey creeks (near Kumara) are of fair 
quality for the manufacture of lime for agricultural purposes. In Bray and Black- 
water creeks, on the eastern side of the Paparoa Range, south of Blackwater, bands of 
fairly good limestone occur, but not under conditions warranting exploitation. The 
same is the case at Kotuku, where a band of nearly pure limestone 110 ft. to 12.3 ft. 
thick occurs at a depth of several hundred feet below the surface. Tlie foraminiferal 
limestone near Greymouth, however, deserves some attention. 

On the whole, tlie limestones of the Greymouth Subdivision are either of somewhat 
poor quality or are too remote from water-carriage to be suitable for the manufacture 
of cement on a large scale. When population increases, however, and the local demand 
becomes large, it is possible that the indxjstry could be established under commercial 
conditions. 

Analyses of Limestones. 



Silica (SiOa) .. 
Alumina (AljOg) 
Ferric oxide (FcaOg) 
Ferrous oxide (FeO) 
Lime (CaO) 
Magnesia (MgO) 
Carbonic anhydride (COg) 
Phosphoric anhydride(P20.-J 
Combined water and or- 
ganic matter 
Moisture 
Alkalies and undetermined 



2. 



14-05 
1-20 
0-95 
0-65 

44-50 
0-65 

35-76 
0-32 
0-64 

1-28 



16-50 
0-60 
0-93 
0-39 

43-78 
0-61 

34-02 
0-14 
1-81 

1-22 



18-45 
1-03 
0-72 
n.d. 

42-52 
0-61 

32-73 
0-07 

2-46 

l-41t 



5. 



2-02 
0-33 
0-41 
0-32 

53-50 
1-00 

40-62 
0-13 
0-80 

0-87 



12-95 


7-00 


2-05 


1-55 


n.d. 


n.d. 


45-40 


49-50 


0-50 


0-40 


37-10 


38-80 


n.d. 


n.d. 


0-25t 


0-85t 


0-30 


Nil 


1-45 


1-90 



3-25 

1-50 

n.d. 
52-60 

0-30 
41-30 
n.d. 

0-20t, 

Nil 
0-85 



100-00 



100-00 100-00 100-00 100-00 100-00 100-00 



10-96 
3-17 
1-68 
0-79 

45-60 
1-25 

35-97 
0-22 

0-41 



100-05§ 



(1.) Arenaceous limestone. Point Elizabeth. 

(2.) Arenaceous limestone, north end of Rapahoe Range. 

(3.) Arenaceous limestone, Greymouth. 



* For information concerning the occurrence of nephrite in situ see Bulletin No. 1, pp. 77, 99, and an 
article by A. M. Finlayson entitled " The Nephrite and Magnesian Rocks of the South Island of New 
Zealand " {Q.J.G.S., voL Ixv, 1909, pp. 351-381). 

t Organic matter onl}'. 

t Includes potash (KgO) 0-91, soda (NajO) 0-30, titanium oxide 0-04. 

§ Contains in addition 0-15 per cent, of titanium dioxide. 



95 

(4.) Limestone from Omotiimotu Beds, Bi-ay Creek. 
(5.) Arenaceous limestone, Sylvester Creek. 
(6.) Arenaceous limestone, Fireball Creek. 

(7.) Limestone from Lake Brunner Oil Company's No. 2 bore (Kotuku). 
(8.) Foraminiferal limestone from low horizon in the Blue Bottom, near Greymouth. 
All these limestones except Nos. 4 and <S are from the Cobden Limestone. No. 4 
has a grey colour; the others are yellowish or grej'ish-white, or even almost pure white.* 

Cr.ATs FOR BincK and Ceme>t Manufacture. 

In the Greymouth Subdivision there are practically no modern clays suitable for 
brick-making or pottery, but there are inexhaustible supplies of somewhat calcareous 
claj'stones of Tertiary age that may be used for brick-maldng and as part of the material 
required in cement-manufacture. 

A mile or two south of Greymouth there are two brick-works utilizing the Blue 
Bottom clays. The mudstone of the Port Elizalietli Beds, which is very similar to tlie 
Blue Biittom clays, could be similarly used. In places the Kaiata Mudstone may also 
be suitable for brick-making. Material from all three horizons would furnish clay 
suitable for mixing with lime in the manufacture of Portland cement. For this purpose 
tile highly foraminiferal layers observed in various localities will be the most suitable. 

Of the following three analyses, the two first are of Blue Bottom clays from the 
Hokitika Subdivisiim.t and tlie tliird represents a sample of Kaiata Mudstone froni the 
neighbourhood of Taylorvillc 



Silica (SiO.) . . 


1. 
57-05 


2. 

60-50 


3. 
52-60 


Alumina (Ai^03) 


22-40 


20-04 


1709 


Ferric oxide (Fe^Og) 
Ferrous oxide (FcO) 


6-56 

1 


6-60 


1 6-36 
' Nil 


Lime (CaO) 


1-80 


2-70 


5-92 


Magnesia (MgO) 


1-90 


l-(il 


1-72 


Potash (KjG) . . 
Soda (Na,0) . . 


' 6-60 

1 


6-06 


1 2-07 
' 1-58 


Carbonic anhydride (COj) 


n.d. 


n.d. 


4-15 


Combined water and organic matter 
Loss at 1(X)'C. . . 


' 3-69 


3-09 


j 6-02 
1 203 



100-00 100-00 99-55 

FlKECLAT AND ShAI.E. 

At Brunner an excellent fireclay underlies the Brunner seam in most places. In 
the ohl Brunner Mine the thickness of the fireclay is said to have varied from 5 ft. 
downwards. In the St, Kilda section the fireclay is in places almost ab.sent. A well- 
equipped plant on the north side of the (Jrey River employs alxiut fourteen men in 
the manufacture of firebrick goods for various purposes. Waste fiieclay and broken 
firebricks, together with some surface clay, are mixed together and used for making 
ordinary building-bricks 

* In the Fifteenth Annual Report of the Colonial Museum and Laboratory (1880, p. 35) Skey gives six 
analvscs of limestones from Grevmouth. 

t See Bull. No. 1 (New Series), N.Z. G.S., 1906, p. 87. 



96 



An analysis of shaly fireclay from the St. Kilda section of the Brunner Mine gives 
the following results : — 

47-22 



Alumina (AlgOg) 










36-68 


Ferric oxide (FejOg) 










1-20 


Lime (CaO) 










0-05 


Magnesia (MgO) 










Nil 


Alkalies (K^O and NajO) . 










3-22 


Water and organic matter 










11-63 



1. 
63-20 


2. 

61-20 


22-20 


26-20 


1-80 


1-60 


0-30 


0-40 


0-50 


0-40 


2-40 


3-80 


9-60 


6-40 



100-00 
Two analyses of fireclay from the No. 1 Point Elizabeth State Coal-mine made in 
1904 are as follows : — 

Silica (SiOa) . . 

Alumina (AlgOg) 

Iron-oxide (FejOg) 

Lime (CaO) . . 

Magnesia (MgO) 

Soda and potash (KjO and NajO) 

Organic matter and water 

100-00 100-00 

1. From No. 1 tunnel, bottom seam. 

2. From No. 2 tunnel, top seam. 

Dr. Maciaurin remarks that these " are fiieclays of very fair quality, although too 
low in silica and too high in iron-oxides, potash, and soda to stand the higliest tem- 
peratures." 

The thick beds of shale that occur in the Paparoa Beds have as yet no economic 
value, but in the future may perhaps prove to be capable of utilization in the manu- 
facture of building-brick, tiles, and possibly some classes of fireclay goods. 

Coal. 

In the purely geological section of this report (Chapter Y) brief references to the 
numerous coal-seams of the Greyniouth Coalfield were made. These will now be sup- 
plemented by a detailed description of outcrops, by analyses, and by other data of 
importance. Estimates of the quantity of coal actually in the seams and of the quan- 
tity available for extraction will be given. In Chapter II the future of the field was 
discussed, and the necessity of utilizing its fuel resources to the best advantage was 
pointed out. 

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE VARIOUS COAL-SEAMS. 

In describing the various coal-seams of the area under discussion the initial diffi- 
culty is an inability to corr3late with certainty the various outcrops of one and the 
same seam. This difficulty is due to the relatively intricate structure described in 
Chapter Y, and to the complications introduced by extensive faulting. The task of 
correlation is increased by variations in the thickness and quality of the seams, by 
changes in the enclosing strata, and by the absence of distinctive fossil horizons, as 
well as by the rugged nature of much of the country and by the forest which covers 
its surface. In some cases seams which are practically in the one horizon, though in 
difierent localities, show such differences in composition as to lead to the inference 



97 

that they are really disiiiict, ami formed from iliffereiit classes of vegetable-matter. 
It has been thought advisable to attempt correlations as much as possible, tliough in 
nearly all cases the correlation must be regarded as of a tentative nature. 

In proceeding to describe the various coal-seams, it is considered best to group 
them according to horizons that are always more or less deftnitely recognizable. Thus 
the following divisions will be made : — 

I. Coal-seams of the Paparoa Beds. 
(fl.) Lower series. 

(h.) Upper series (Moody's Creek seams). 
II. Coal-seams of the Brunncr Beds. 
III. CoaI-.seams of the Kaiata .Mu<lstone. 

I. ('odl-seam-f of the I'miaroa BxU. 

(a.) Lower Series. 

The lowest coal-seam of the Paparoa Beds appears on the nuiin divide of the 
Paparoa Range, 3 or 4 chains north of the (ireymouth Subdivision boundaiv, and only 
half a chain fiom the junction of the coal-measures and tiic (Ireenlainl rocks. The 
seam is a small one, indicated by loose coal rather than a solid outcroj), and probably 
has no great lateral extent. It is enclosed in sandstone, striking 2()('^°, and dipping 
16° to the south. 

The ne.xt lowest seam is one that will be designate<l the sub-A seam. It is called 
the " extra seam " by the Paparoa Company, in whoso lease it is seen outcropping at 
an elevation of S,'}.'*^ ft. in the lx;d of upper Ford Creek. Here it is at least .") ft. 
thick, and is of good (piality. The roof of the seam is a shaly rock : the imme- 
diate floor cannot be se<m, but shale outcrops a short distance down-stream. The uj)j)er 
shale strikes .■5.")7°, and dips 21° to the east. A few chains to the south-east what is 
probably the same seam outciops at the top of a cliff on the south side of the stieam, 
where it is somewhat over 4 ft. thick. Here the roof and floor consist of fine sandstone, 
passing into shale above and below. The .strike is north of west to soutli of east, and 
the dip gentle to the west of south. The sub-A seam, though workable at the outcrops 
just described, appears to be of little importance elsewhere. The following pro.ximate 
analyses show that the coal is of high grade, and might Ix- called a semi-anthracite. 

1. 2. 

Fixed carbon ... . ... f^OO.") 79-52 

Volatile hydrocarbons .. . 1-")10 l.")(]9 

Water ... ... . . ... 065 0-74 

Ash ... ... ... 4-20 4-05 



10000 10000 



Total sulphur, per cent. 037 042 

Calories per gram (by calorimeter) ... 8,-398 

Briti.sh thermal units per pound . . ... 15,050 

Evaporative power per pound ... ... ... 15' 60 

Practical evapoi-ative power (assuming a boiler efficiency of 

60 per cent.) ... ... ... ... 936 

Sample (1) was forwarded to the Dominion Laboratory by Mr. F. A. Cutten in 
1904; sample (2) by Mr. J. P. Maxwell in 1909. Concerning the latter. Dr. Mac- 
laurin remarks: "The coal is bright in appearance, and rather brittle. On heating 
in a closed ves.sel it swells, forming a hard coke. It burns to a grev flocculent ash. 
The coal . . . should prove excellent for steaming purposes." 
7 — Greymouth. 



98 

Not far above the sub-A seam comes the very important A seam, as it will here 
be called. It is the No. 1 seam of the Paparoa Coal Companj-, and the No. 6 seam of 
the No. 2 Point Elizabeth State Coal-mine. The A seam has bsen exposed by pro- 
specting operations at a point wliich is 1 or 2 chains south of the outcrops of the sub-A 
seam near Ford Creek, and is 2,370 ft. (by barometer) above sea-level. At least 18 ft. 
of clean though somewhat friable coal is here exposed. Other outcrops are visible in 
Tunnel, Waterfall, and Ford Creek valleys, on the crest of the Paparoa Range, near 
Mount Watson, in Walter Creek, in Otto Creek, and in tlie watershed of Bishop Creek. 
The A seam can thus be traced outcropping along an irregularly curved line extending 
northward from the Paparoa Mine towards the head of Ford Creek, and thence to- 
wards the west for two mile.s. In general, the strike is north-west to south-east, and 
the dip soutli-west, but there are many irregularities both in stiike and dip. The 
enclosing rock is almost everywhere shale, tliough near Mount Watson it may be de- 
scribed as a fine sandstone. The seam vai'ies in thickness from 3 ft. to over 25 ft., 
and is usually of high grade. Of the following analyses, No. 1 is a sample from near 
Ford Creek* submitted by Mr. F. A. Cutten in 1904; No. 2 is a general sample from 
or near the point where the Paparoa Coal Company's main incline intersects the seam ; 
No. 3 is al&o from the Paparoa Mine (analysis by Mr. H. W. Lawrence, F.C.S.); whilst 
Nos. 4 and 5 are duplicate samples from the Paparoa Mine forwarded in June, 1910, 

by the management. 

Proximate Analyses. 



(2.) 



(3.) 



(4.) 



(5.) 



Fixed carbon 
Volatile hydrocarbons 
Water 
Ash 



Total sulphur, per cent. 
Calories per gram (from calorimeter) 
British thermal units, per pound 
Evaporative power, per pound 
Practical evaporative power, assuming 

cent, efficiency 
Specific gravity . . 



79-10 

15-05 

1-85 

4-00 



76-04 

17-60 

0-35 

6-01 



79-90 

14-90 

MO 

4-10 



77-67 

16-68 

0-70 

4-95 



77-50 

16-65 

0-50 

5-35 



100-00 



100-00 100-00 100-00 100-00 



0-23 



60 



per 



0-37 

8,242 

14,835 

15-38 

9-23 

1-37 



0-28 



15-87t 



0-30 

8,286 

14,915 

15-46 

9-28 



0-31 

8,285 

14,913 

15-45 

9-30 





Ultimate Analyses 


of (4) 


and (5). 




Carbon 






83-89 


83-41 


Hydrogen 






4-46 


4-53 


Nitrogen 






0-70 


0-77 


Sulphur 






0-30 


0-31 


Ash.. 






4-95 


5-35 


Oxygen (by difference) 






5-70 


5-63 




100-00 


100-00 



Calories per gram, calculated from ultimate analysis 8,077-30 8,069-60 

No. 2 sample, on being heated in a closed vessel, swelled very much, giving a 
light cellular coke. The ash was light grey. 



* This .sample is pcssibly from the sub-A seam. Difficulty has been experienced in this and in many 
other cases in deciding which outcroiJ the analysis represents. 
t Calculated. 



99 

No. 3 sample is reported by Mr. Lawrence as somewhat brittle, swelling on heat- 
ing in the retort, and yielding a good dense coke. Tlie ash was greyish-brown. He 
further states that tiie 1-1"'J0 per cent, of " volatile hyilrocarbons " was made up as 
follows : — 

Water ... ... ... ... ... ... 3"57 

Volatile oils distilling below 150° C ... ... .,. 0-28 

between 150° C and 300° C ... ... 068 

Tar and lieavy lubricating oils ... .. .. ... 2"78 

Volatile '^as ... ... . . ... ... ... 7-59* 



i4fl0 
In the State Coal-mine Reserve the A and other seams of the Paparoa Beds are 
characterized by lower percentages of fi.xed carbon and higlier percentages of volatile 
liydrocarbons than in tlie Paparoa Coal-mining Company's lease. The following 
analyses, the first two of wliich probably, though perhaps not cjuite certainly, repre- 
sent (Hitcrops of the A seam, illustrate this statement, though in a somewhat over- 
emphatic manner, for higher seams in the same neighbourhood contain, as a rule, 
over GO per cent, of fi.xed carbon. 

Fixed caibon 
Volatile hydrocarbons 
Water ... 
Ash 



1. 

5.")()3 


2. 

55-10 


3. 

77-585 


3!)- 10 


40-34 


16-665 


1-62 


2-36 


0-60 


3- 65 


1-90 
100-00 


5-15 


10000 


100-00 


0-2.5 


0-22 


0-305 


7,94:j 


8,130 


8,285-5 


14.300 


14,634 


14,914 


11-83 


1517 


15-455 



lotal snljdiur, per cent. . 
Calories per gram, by calorimeter .. 
British thermal units, per pound. 
Evaporative power per pound 

1. From outcrop 21 ft. thick, valley of Bishop Creek. 

2. From outcrop 16 ft. thick, below slip, valley of Bishop Creek. 

3. From Paparoa .Mine — average of analyses Nos. 4 and 5, page 98. 

The low peicentage of sulphur in the A and, indeed, almost all the other seams oi 
the Paparoa Beds, leads to the expectation that the coke will prove most valuable in 
iron-smelting. As <leveloped in th',- State Coal Reserve, the A seam appears to be very 
suitable also for gas-making purposes. 

The B seam of this i-eport occurs at a horizon whicii piobably averages about 
200 ft. in height above the A seam. It is the Paparoa Coal Company's No. 2 seam, and 
is probably the No. 5 seam of the No. 2 Point Elizalx?th State Coal-mine. On the 
eastern side of the Paparoa Range the seam outcrops in Paparoa, Waterfall, and Ford 
Creek valleys, and on the western side should l)e seen in Otto, Bishop, and Seven- 
mile Creek valleys, but the writer has not been able to identify it even provisionally 
with any outcrop in these localities. 

The immediate floor of the B seam i.^ generally shale, Ixdow which come layers of 
sandstone or grit alternating with shale. The roof consists of shale or shalv sand- 
stone, which in mo.st places pa.sses at a few feet above the seam into a decided sand- 
stone. These characters of roof and floor .seem sufficiently persistent to form some 
guide in recognizing outcrops of the seam. \Miorpver it has been identified the B seam 
contains from 5 ft. to 14 ft. of coal, with few or no dirt-bands, and is, as a rule, of 
fine quality. 

• Includes nitrogen, 1'19. 
7* — Greymoutb. 



Fixed carbon 
Volatile hydrocarbons 
Water 

Ash.. ' .. 



(2.) 
75-55 


(3.) 
70-00 


(4.) 
78-90 


22-75 


24-35 


16-93 


0-70 


0-85 


U-40 


1-00 


4-80 


3-77 


100-00 


100-00 


100-00 


0-29 


019 


0-37 
8,439 
15,190 
15-74 



100 

The following analyses show the composition of the seam as it occurs in the Paparoa 
Coal-mining Company's lease 

77-20 
19-00 
0-60 
.. 3-20 

100-00 
Total sulphur, per cent. . . 0-26 
Calories per gram by calorimeter 
British thermal units, per poimd 
Evaporative power, per poimd . . 
Practical evaporative power per poimd (assuming 60 per cent. 

boiler efficiency) . . . . . . . . . . 9-44 

Xos. 1, 2, and 3 from outcrops near Ford Creek. No. 1 may possibly be from 
the A seam outcrop. Xos. 2 and 3, with fair probability, from the B seam. 
Samples forwarded by Mr. F. A. Cutten, in 1904. 
Xo. 4. From Paparoa Mine, seam 14 ft. thick. 

Xo analyses of the B seam from certainly identified localities west of the crest 
of the Paparoa Range are available, but analyses Xos. 7, 8, and 9, in the table on 
page 112, may possibly be referred to this seam. 

The C. seam is equivalent to the Paparoa Coal Company's X'o. 3 seam, and possibly 
to the X"o. 4 seam of the X'o. 2 Point Elizabeth State Coal-mine. Its horizon is usually 
60 ft. or 70 ft. above the B seam, but in one part of the Paparoa Mine workings it is 
reported to be 200 ft. above the B seam. The floor is shale, which downwards passes 
into sandstone, whilst shale and shaly sandstone predominate in the roof. As worked 
in the Papaioa Mine the seam has a thickness of 8 ft. to 10 ft. 

Outside the workings of the Paparoa Mine the C seam is not positively identified, 
but it is believed by the writer to be the 15 ft. to 18 ft. seam seen in Paparoa and 
Jay creeks, to the westward of the mine. X'orth of the mine the seam thins to 3 ft. or 
4 ft. in Waterfall Creek, and to 20 in. on Tom Ridge. West of the crest of the Paparoa 
Range it begins to thicken again, and is 3 ft. thick at a point west of Will Ridge. 

The writer provisionally identifies the C seam with a large seam that outcrops 
extensively in the upper part of the Seven-mile Creek watershed, and shows from 6 ft. 
to perhaps 20 ft. of coal. The correlation is very doubtful, but can be easily proved 
or disproved by boring in a suitable locality. 

As a rule, the C seam presents a good quality of coal. The analysis given below 
shows its composition as occurring in the Paparoa Mine at a point where it is 6 ft. 
thick. One or more of the analyses, X'os. 3-6, in the table on page 112, probably 
refer to the Seven-mile Creek outcrops of the C seam. 

Fixed carbon ... ... ... ... 7G'02 

Volatile hydrocarbons ... ... ... . 1S)07 

Water . . ... .. ... ... ... O".")! 

Ash ... . . ... ... ... 4-40 



10000 



Total sulphur, per cent. ... ... ... 0"29 

Calories per gram, by calorimeter ... ... ... 8,348 

British thermal units, per pound .. . ... 15,026 

Evaporative power ... ... ... ... ... ]5'58 

Practical evaporative power (assuming 60-per-cent. efficiency) 9'35 

On heatinjr the coal swells somewhat, and cokes. The ash is srrev. 



101 

The D seam outci-ops on the ■western side of Will i!idg:e, \\here it is about 'M ft. 
above the C seam, and i ft. thick. It is correlated by the writer with a 5 fi. outcrop 
on the northern side of Will Uidge, and with the 5 ft. seam :<. quarter of a mile to 
the eastward on the crest of the Paparoa Range. The seam has not yet been proved in 
the Paparoa Mine workings. A G ft. seam outcropping on George Ridge may represent 
the D seam, which ma}- also be the same as a 6 ft. to 10 ft. seam that outcrops in the 
valleys of Waionio and upper Seven-mile creeks. The beds below the D seam are of 
a shaly character for some distance. A few feet above the seam is a prominent band 
of sandstone. 

The coal of the various outcrops referred to the D seam is in most cases of good 
quality. In places there are minor tlirt-bands. No analyses are available, but the 
composition of the D seam is probably much the same as that of the C seam. 

Seams called by the writer E and F outcrop on George Ridge, in a horizon esti- 
mated to be 150 ft. to '200 ft. above seam D. The E seam shows 4 ft. of coal, with a 
6 in. shale-band, but to the northward probably thins to under 3 ft. The F seam, which 
lies about 80 ft. above the E seam, is G ft. thick on George Ridge, and on Edward 
Ridge also shows 6 ft. of coal, but this is split into two parts by a 1 ft. shale-band. A 
little below the F seam is a prominent band of gritty sand.stone. 

The E and F seams are much denuded over a great part of the higher countiy in 
the Seven-mile Valley and elsewhere, but seaward have increasing cover. 

On the crest of the Paparoa Range to the north of Asper Knob and on Will 
Ridge seams E and F have thinned to under 2 ft., perhaps to a few inches only. 
There is in these localities a numerous succession of small seams which have a strong 
tentlency to occur in pairs oi- even triplets. In a vertical horizon of about 600 ft. there 
are not less than twenty seams ranging from 'i in. to 2 ft. in thickness. A sample from 
one of these outcropping on tiie main ridge, and selected as typical, gave the following 
results on analysis : — 

Fi.ved carbon ... ... ... ... . . G2'20 

Volatile hydrocarbons . ... ... 27"9.'} 

Water... ... ... .. . 315 

Ash ... ... ... ... ... ... ... r.-72 



Total sulphur, j>er cent. 
Calories per gram (by calorimeter) 
British thermal units per pound 
Evaporative power per pound 
Practical evaporative power per pound, a.ssuniiiig 60 per cent. 

efficiency ... ... .. . ... 915 

(h.) Upper Series (Moody's Creek Seatns). 
At a horizon well above that of seams E and F, and corresponding in part to the 
horizon of the highest of the .small seams last mentioned, in part to a still higher 
horizon, a number of workable seams are found in the lower part of tlie Seven-mile 
Creek valley. A short distance Ijelow the junction of tlie small stream known as Moody's 
Creek with the Seven-mile Creek five coal-seams, varying in thickness from 3 ft. to 6 ft., 
are found. These five seams are enclosed in sandstones witli ininf>r shale-bands. The 
total thickness of these rocks as measured from the lowest to the highest of the five 
seams is probably under 150 ft. Westward these seams are cut off by the Dunollie 
Fault, which has the effect of bringing the Upper Paparoa shale to the level of the water 





10000 




0- 


50 


7 


,360 




13 


,2 IS 






13- 


73 



102 



in the Seven-mile Creek. In this shale, at water-level, a sixth seam showing from 3 ft. 
to 4 ft. of good coal overlain by 10 in. of shale and 18 in. to 2 ft. of somewhat poor 
coal may be traced for some distance down-stream. 

Eastward of Moody's Creek several of the seams are well exposed in the sandstones 
along the railway-cuttings, and outcrops are seen also on the south side of the creek. 
The various outcrops range from 2 ft. or 3 ft. to 7 ft. or 8 ft. in thickness In Garvey's 
Creek three or four seams are visible in the sandstones, and at a higher horizon there 
are two seams in tlie Upper Paparoa shale, the lower 3 ft. 8 in. thick, tlie upper 3 ft. 
or more. 

Again, in the Seven-mile Creek valley two seams of the group under consideration 
appear a short distance above Davy Creek, and the same or other seams of the group 
outcrop on the east side of the stream about three-quarters of a mile higher up. 

A 3 ft. seam visible in Coal Creek about 16 chains below Coulthard Ci-eek junction 
may correspond to one of the upper seams of the group. 

The seams of the group now being described are not, so far as known, of workable 
thickness over a large area, and in places have been entirely removed by denudation. 
They are, however, unproved over much of the coalfield, including that part below sea- 
level. In many places the seams contain dirt-bands, but there are also many outcrops 
of good quality. 

The following analyses show the composition of the coal from various localities. 
The samples for the most part have been selected from the better outcrops, so that the 
percentages of ash are hardly representative of the seams as a whole : — 





1. 


2. 


3. 


4. 


5. 


6. 


Fixed carbon 

Volatile hvdrocarbons 

Water .'. . . 

Ash 


56-05 

39-13 

1-62 

3-20 


54-70 

37-95 

2-95 

4-40 


53-62 

39-60 
1-68 
5-10 


57-78 

34-30 

7-00 

0-92 


59-68 

36-54 

2-54 

1-24 


57-50 

37-18 

2-35 

2-97 




100-00 


100-00 


100-00 


100-00 


100-00 


100-00 


Total sulphur, per cent. 
Calories per gram (by calorimeter) 
British thermal units per pound 
Evaporative power per pound 


0-19 
8,206-1 
14,771-0 
15-31 


0-31 
7,750-8 
13,951-4 
14-44 


0-31 

7,797-2 
14,035-0 
14-55 


0-04 
6,973-2 
12,551-8 
13-01 


0-41 
7,893 
14,207 
14-73 


1-04 
7,842 
14,115 
14-63 


Practical evaporative power per pound, 
assuming 60 per cent, efficiency 


10-21 


9-63 


9-70 


8-67 


8-84 


8-78 



Ultimate Analyses of 5 and 6. 



Hydrogen 
Carbon 

Nitrogen 

Oxygen (by difference) 

Sulphur 

Ash.. 



5. 

4-98 


6. 
5-01 


77-34 


76-73 


1-59 


1-38 


14-44 


12-87 


041 


1-04 


1-24 


2-97 



100-00 



100-00 



Calories per gram as calculated from ultimate 
analysis . . . . . . . . . . 7,354 



7,395 



No. 1 is from a 5 ft. 10 in. outcrop in bluff on west side of Seven-mile Ci'eek above 
Davy Creek junction. The coal swells on heating, and forms a good coke. 

]No. 2 is from a 5 ft. 3 in. outcrop in the same locality as No. 1, and may repre- 
sent the same seam. The coal swells on heating, and forms a good coke. 



103 

No. 3 is from a 3 ft. seam in the same locality as Nos. 1 and 2. The coal swells on 
heating, aud forms a good coke. 

No. i is from the 5 ft. seam in upper Paparoa sliale, Garvey's Ci'eek. This coal is 
non-caking. 

No. 5 is from an outcrop in Garvey's Creek, exact locality not stated. 

No. G is from a seam near the bin-site, No. 2 State Coal-mine. 

Analyses Xos. 10-1-3 in the table on page 112 refer to coals from the neigliboinhood 
of Moody's Creek. 

Summary. 

The Paparoa Beds contain about fourteen seams that may be called workable. Many 
of these, however, eitlier thin to an unworkable extent in places or have been removed 
by denudation. The A and 13 seams are thick, and of good (juality almost everywhere. 
They have been but little affected by denudation. The C seam is generally workable, 
but in places thins to under 2 ft. Where known, the D seam is 4 ft. or more in tliick- 
ness. The E and F seams are workable only locally, and tiie same statement applies to 
the seven seams of the Moody's Creek group. 

Detailed Description of Coal-outcrops in the Paparoa Beds. 

Upper Rocky Creek. — Towards tlie head of Prospect Kill, a small branch of Rocky 
Creek (east side of Paparoa Range), a coal-seam several feet thick was located by Messrs. 
Gillies and Spence some years ago. Mr. Gillies gives tlie strike as 325°, and the dip 
as 1 in 2£ (20°) to the south-west. The outcrop is 2,140 ft. above sea-level, and is cal- 
culated to be stratigraphically at least 1,400 ft. below the Brunner seam, wliich out- 
crops 25 chains to the north-west and 55 chains to the south-west at consideraI)Iy higher 
elevations. 

In a rill valley somewhat to the south-west a 1 ft. seam outcrops at a barometric 
elevation of 2,140 ft. The enclosing rock is sandstone, below whicli comes a conglome- 
rate of no great thickness, resting upon rocks of the Greenland Series. 

It is probable that the first-mentioned seam has here cut out against the ancient 
shore-line of the Paparoa Basin, but it may liave practically unlimited extension west- 
ward. The horizon is that of the I'pper Paparoa shales, and the seam itself may be 
correlated with one of those occurring in Garvey's Creek. 

Upper Bray Creek. — The soutlicrn branch of Bray Creek (Dublin Creek) was partly 
examined towards its head, but no coal-outcrop was found. The northern bianch, which 
affords a very good section of tlie upper liorizons of the Paparoa Beds, shows several 
seams above the point where Greenland rocks give place to the coal-measures. Tlie 
largest of these seams, which outcrops at a height of approximately 2,040ft., is 4 ft. 
thick, and appears to be of excellent (juality. It strikes 187° and dips 45° to tiie west. 
Alternating shale and sandstone come below the seam, whilst a thick sandstone layer 
lies above. As will be seen from the map, a fault interrupts the seam a chain or two 
to the westward. 

About 10 chains higher up the creek is a 3 ft. seam with 2i ft. of c(jal divided into 
two parts by a 6 in. shale band. The strike is, roughly, north and south, the dip 45° 
to the west. 

Besides these two seams, eight others, varying in thickness from 5 in. to 18 in., 
were noted in this locality. The horizon is evidently that of the middle sandstones of 
the Paparoa Beds, in which occur most of the Moody's Creek seams. The coal-seams of 
the lower sandstones and shales will probably be found at depth a short distance to the 
westward of the junction of the Greenland rocks with the coal-measures ; but ow ing to 
the Paparoa Beds having been deposited on an uneven surface, boring or driving will 
be necessary in order to piove the boundaries tliat define these lower seams. 



104 

V pptr Paparoa Creek and I nhittants. — In the bed of Paparoa Creek and its 
tributaries are many outcrops of all the more important coal-seams of the lower sand- 
stones and fchales, the A seam excepted. 

In Jay Creek a complete section should Ix- shown, for the basal conglomerate of the 
Paparoa Beds is the first rock seen in ascending the stream. Above the conglomerate, 
however, outcrops are somewhat scanty, and seams A and B do not appear, though a little 
prospecting might reveal one or both about half a mile up the cieek. After the Brae- 
town fault zone is passed a 2i ft. coal-.seam is seen on the north side of the creek just 
below a waterfall at a barometric height of 1,660 ft. The boundary-line of the Paparoa 
Coal Company's lease crosses the stream a chain or two above the waterfall.* Above 
the coal come several feet of shale with small coal-seams. The.se strike 3il°, and dip 
25° to the east. 

About 7 chains above the Paparoa Company's boundary-line a slip on the south 
side of the creek exposes a few feet of shale, followed by 8 ft. of sandstone, above wliich 
comes 25 ft. of alternating sandstone and shale capped by a coal-seam the thickness of 
which could not be exactly seen, but is probably under 3 ft. Above the coal is a thick 
band of sandstone. The rocks here strike 352°, and dip about 40° to the west. At the 
creek-level the barometer reads 1,860 ft. 

Four chains above this, at a barometric height of 1,930 ft., a coal-seam shows in 
a cliff on the south side of the creek just below a waterfall. Here it is 4 ft. thick, and 
of moderate quality only. A foot below is a 6 in. seam of coal. This a few yards to 
the north of the creek, through the thinning-out of the intervening shale, joins the main 
seam, which thus becomes 5 ft. thick, and now exhibits coal of good quality. Hard 
shale and sandstone form the overlying rocks. The strike of the beds in this locality 
is almost due north and south, and the dip 35° to 40° to the west. 

Five or six chains higher up Jay Creek the following section , is visible : Shale 
overlain by 4 in. of coal, 3 ft. of shaly sandstone, 6 in. of coal, 4 ft. of sandstone, and 
finally 2 ft. 3 in. of coal. 

A number of other seams varying in thickness from 3 in. to 18 in. may be seen in 
the creek-bed at various points. The horizon of these and of the larger seams is thought 
to be wholly above that uf the B seam, and probably above that of the D seam. Hence 
two or more workable seams are likeh' to be found at depth in the Jay Creek watershed. 
Faulting and erratic folding are prevalent, so that the working of the various seams 
will be difficult and expensive, as unfortunately will also Ix; the case in many other 
parts of the Greymouth Coalfield. 

In Pay Creek, which joins Paparoa Creek just below the high waterfall, no coal- 
outcrop is seen for over a quarter of a mile above the junction. Twelve chains up, 
however, loose coal is visible on the south bank in quantity sufficient to indicate a seam 
of some size. Just above or at the point where the Braetown fault crosses a seam of 
coal 18 ft. thick outcrops on both banks at a barometric elevation of about 1,700 ft. 
Were it not crushed, the coal would he of good quality, for it is practically free from 
dirt-bands. The strike is 328°, and the dip 90°. A chain farther up the creek the 
seam reappear.; on the north bank. Here it shows 15 ft. of friable coal, with a strike 
of 353°, and a dip of 15° to the westward. Thus there is here a sharp anticlinal fold, 
possibly with a fault-broken crest. It is difficult to say what seam is represented by 
these outcrops. At a guess, it may be put down as the B .«:eam 

Above the outcrops just described Pay Creek shows no large coal-seams, but it is 
possible that prospecting would disclose one or more workable seams. 

* In the map Jay Creek has been plotted of too great length, so that the outcrop mentioned is shown 
above instead of below the boundarj'. 



105 

In Paparoa Creek itself there are no coal-outcrops of importance visible below 
Braetown Creek junction, though the presence of the A seam is suspected somewhere 
near the top of the high waterfall. This seam, however, may have thinned very con- 
siderably in the locality under discussion. 

Ten chains or so above the Braetown Creek junction, and at a point within the 
Braetown fault zone, a large seam of crushed coal outcrops on the south bank. The 
apparently overlying shale strikes 191°, and dips 80° to the east. The underlying rock 
mav also be shale. Between 5 and G ciiains higher up the ci'eek, wluit is probably the 
same seam outcrops first (m tlie north and then on the south baidc, at barometric eleva- 
tions approaching 1,GG0 ft. The beds below the outcrop on the north bank strike 245°, 
and dip 25° to the south-east. Up-stream tlie strike rapidly changes to about 315°, 
and the dip to south-west. It is therefoi-e piobable that between the first outcrop some 
chains down the creek and the second outcrop there is a syncline with the eastern limb 
slightly overturned, but since faulting is present between the two outcrops a positive 
statement cannot be made. Between the second and third outcrops there is evidently a 
V anticline, with its a.vis pitciiing downwards to the south. Figure 2 illustrates the 
interpretation here given. 




'-tip' 



Approximate hoHzon/'a/ scale 5 chains linch. 

Via. 2. — .SttiioN sHuw.iNG .SiuucTLiti: IX bri't;u Tai-akua Ciikek. 

The tiiree outcrops just described may provisionally be referred to the B seam. In 
any case it is probable that tliey belong to the same seam as the 15 ft. to 18 ft. out- 
crops observed in Pay Creek. 

About 8 chains above the last outcrop of the B seam a 2 ft. seam appears on the 
south side of the creek. The strike of the enclosing rock is 177°, and the dip 85° to 
the south. Both strike and dip are very variable in this locality, curvature in striice 
being especially noticeable. Faulting is also in evidence. The main fault has a north- 
west to south-east strike, and runs almost parallel with Paparoa Creek for some dis- 
tance above the outcrop last mentioned. 

In Braetown Creek a seam of less than workable thickness is visible at the foot of 
the waterfall a few chains above the junction with Paparoa Creek. A little above the 
waterfall is a 5J ft. seam outcropping in shale on the right or western bank at a baro- 
metric elevation of 1,680 ft. This is believed to be the B seam (No. 2 of the Paparoa 
Mine). The strike is 317°, and the dip 15° to the south-west. Some chains higher up 
the creek an outcrop of the same seam was once visible, but is now covered by debris. 
A fault with a strike somewhat west of north and a downthrow of perhaps 50 ft. or 
60 ft. to the west intervenes between the outcrops. 



106 

Four or five chainc above the fanhouse a remnant of coal is seen on the east side 
of the creek. This has been brought into contact with sandstone by a fault with strike 
of 163° and dip of 1)0°, whicli is really part of the Braetown fault. Two chains higher 
up the creek what rnay be the li seani appears on the western side of the creek. Three 
chains above this point the C seam outcrops on the eastern side of the creek at a baro- 
metric elevation of 2,U3U ft. The seam, which lies nearly flat, and has been driven on 
for some distance, is, including a dirt-band, o ft. in thickness. 

in the small branch of iiraetown Creek that runs slightly east of north a number 
of small seams, the largest of which is 18 in. thick, outcrop. In several instances two 
or more small seams occur close together, and probably these elsewhere junction, so as 
to form one or more workable seams. A few chains east of the creek near its head a 
coal-outcrop of workable thickness has been located by the Paparoa Coal-mining Com- 
pany at a levelled height of 2,441 ft. The horizon of this and of the minor seams just 
mentioned is apparently in the main that of seams D to F. A somewhat higher horizon 
may also be represented. 

Upper Ford Creek ami Tributaries. — The outcrops of coal in the Tunnel Creek 
watershed were not visited. In Waterfall Creek, the next tributary of Ford Creek to 
the north, a very important section is exposed up the creek from the point where the 
foot-track crosses. At the crossing and for some distance down the lowest shale of the 
Paparoa Beds is exposed. On the south side of the creek, just above the track-crossing 
and at a height of 2,065 ft. above sea-level, the A seam is exposed. Here it has a thick- 
ness of at least 12 ft. The strike of the enclosing shale is 191°, and the dip 20° to the 
west. Some chains up the stream alternating shale and sandstone, with two 6 in. seams 
of coal, api^ear. Above the next waterfall the following section is seen : 3 ft. sand- 
stone, 10 ft. fine conglomerate, shaly sandstone, 1 ft. conglomerate, shale, 25 ft. of coarse 
sandstone or grit. A little above this last bed, at a barometric height of 2,220 ft., comes 
the B seam, here 7| ft. thick, underlain by 6 ft. of shale, and overlain by a shaly sand- 
stone or shale, above which comes a band of sandstone, perhaps 15 ft. thick. These rocks 
strike 262°, and dip about 12° to the southward. The B seam is also visible a few 
yards up a left-hand tributary of Waterfall Creek that joins just below. 

Two chains or less higher up the creek a 4 ft. seam appears just below a small 
waterfall, at a height of 2,270 ft. This with the enclosing shale has a strike of 307°, 
and a southward dip of 20°. It is in all probability the C or Paparoa Mine No. 3 
seam. 

Somewhat more than a chain past the C seam outcrop a 2^ ft. seam, showing in 
upward order 16 in. coal, 6 in. shale, and 8 in. coal, is seen in the creek. About 3 yards 
onward is a 16 in. seam with a dirt-band. The lower 2^ ft. seam is regarded as the 
D seam of this chapter, and elsewhere it is quite possible that the upper 16 in. seam 
junctions with it. Owing to synclining, the D seam probably reappears 4 chains or so 
up the creek ; but there are quite a number of small seams in this part of Waterfall 
Creek, and the identification is uncertain. 

A little above the supposed D seam outcrop the Braetown fault zone crosses the 
creek. Involved more or less in the faulting is a large seam of crushed coal, seen out- 
cropping on the south side of the stream. Strike and dip are not distinguishable, but 
a little down-stream is a small coal-seam striking 191°, and dipping 70° westward. 
Up-stream from the coal comes more sandstone, and rather more than a chain up-stream 
is a 20 ft. band of sandstone striking 341°, and having a dip of 90°. Alternating 
shale, sandstone, and small coal-seams follow. About 3 chains up-stream from the large 
coal-outcrop last mentioned 7 ft. of coal (barometric elevation, 2,530 ft.) is seen, over- 
lain by 4 ft. or 5 ft. of shale, which is followed by a few inches of coal and some thick- 



107 



uesa of shaly sandstone. The strike is 345°, and the dip 3CP to 35° westward. The 
two larye outcrops belong to one and the same seam, believed to be the B seam. 

About 2 chains above the last-described outcrop is the point where the C seam 
should be seen, but debris here hides any possible outcrop. The rocks next seen dip 
down-stream, and thus at 4^ chains above the B seam outcrop seam C appears, a little 
over 3 ft. thick, enclosed in shale as before, wliilst sandstone ajjpears below the shale 
forming the floor. 

Two chains higher up the creek, which is now a mere rill, the B seam, though almost 
hidden, shows on the north side of the creek, and 15 yards or 20 yards further on may 
be seen above the creek in a slip on the south side. Here it is 6 ft. thick, strikes 204°, 
and dips 36° to the s(mth of east. This outcrop is 2,672 ft. above sea-level. It is 
underlain by sandstone, whilst above comes 8 ft. of shale with a small seam of coal, 
probably followed by sandstone. 

Two and a half chains up-stream is m 1<^ in. coal-seam, 7 ft above which is a 
slightly larger seam. Overlying this is the sandstone that underlies the B seam, which 
probably would be found on climbing towards the head of the gully. 

The plan and section on this page (figure 3) will illustrate the creek-valley just 
described. Though the section is slightly ideal, in tliat the projection of the outcrops on 
the plane surface of the paper is not absolutely correct or (|uite to scale, it is lielieved 
that the diagram is practically tiue to fact. The folding of the beds is, if anything, 
more irregular than the diagrams show. 







? C S ea m 



Scale of (;liains. 

Fig. 3. — Plan ov Outcrops, Waterfall Creek. 



Sma/lStamt 










Fig. 3a. — Semi-ideal Section along Course of Waterfall Creek. (For explanation of signs 

see Fig. 4.) 



108 

Tom Ridge. — On Tom Ridge, north of Waterfall Creek, a somewhat similar section 
to that seen in Waterfall Creek is displayed. It has been thought that besides the 
sub- A and the A seam outcropping near Ford Creek several other seams outcrop. The 
interpretation given by the writer shows that only one other workable seam, the B 
seam, outcrops. The overlying C seam is not more than 20 in. thick in this locality. 
The D and other seams higher in the sequence have been removed by denudation. 

The section shows that a bore Ijetween the two upper outcrops of tlie supposed 
B seam would prove the trutli or otliei wise of tlie interpretation, though, as a matter of 
fact, there is little room for doubt. 

Coal oukrops shown fhus m 
Sandsl-one „ „ „ +++ 

Shale „ „ „ = 

4 3 2 10 5 10 




Fig. 4. — Pl.\x of Outcrops, Ton Ridge. 
(Divisions of scale indicate chains.) 




Fig. 4a. — Semi-ideal Section along Line abed, Tom Ridge. 

Main Divide and Subsidiary Ridges. — The special map, on a scale of l\ in. to the 
mile, M'ill show that north of Asper Knob small seams of the Paparoa middle sand- 
stones outcrop in downward succession. Finally, several outcrops of a 5 ft. seam (pro- 
bably D) are seen about a quarter of a mile to the north. North of these outcrops 
the Braetown fault crosses, trending slightly west of north, and there are also minor 
disturbances. Westward, on Will Ridge (beyond Harry Creek), the same succession is 
well displayed, and down a minor ridge to the west there outcrop, first, the D seam 



109 

(4 ft. thick), at 2,G20 ft. above sea-level; then the C seam (3 ft. thick), at 2,600 ft. 
above sea-level; and, lastly, the B seam (10ft. thick), at 2,540ft. above sea-level. 
Inspection of the map will show another outciop of the B seam to the north, where 
11 ft. of coal is exposed in a trench (cut by the Geological Survey party). The 11 ft 
coal contains a small dirt-band, but is otheiwise of good quality. 

The map sufficient!}' illustrates the outcrops on or near Edward and George ridges. 

Upper Seven-mile Creek and Tributaries. — In the watershed of the Seven-mile 
Creek and its tributaries erosion has not exposed the A seam, and it is fairlj probable 
that the B seam also remains wholly under cover. Apparently the Paparoa Beds in 
this area have thickened as compared with the corresponding strata on the eastern 
side of the Paparoa Range, and, as there are also changes in lithological character, 
the writer is not able positively to state that his correlations are correct. Exact corre- 
lation is possible only by a highly detailed survey involving the construction of an 
accurately contoured map, together with more or less boring in order to verify con- 
clusions. 

The supposed C and D seams of the Paparoa Beds have thickened considerably, 
and many of the overlying seams also show thickening, as noted on page 101. In 
the upper part of the Seven-mile watershed, however, denudation has removed the greater 
part of all seams above tlie D seam horizon. 

The section seen in the upper part of the Seven-mile Creek may be fully described 
in order to give an idea of the probable succession of the coal-seams. It should be 
noted that the beds rise more or less with the stream, so that a thick section is not 
exposed. Towards the head of the stream the grade is such that the stream rises more 
rapidly than the strata. 

About 13 chains above the junction with Waiomo Creek a coal-outcrop is seen at 
the base of a low cliS on the east side of the creek. The whole thickness of the seam 
is not exposed, but 3 ft. of coal is visible, of which the upper part is somewhat stony. 
The dip is between 1")° and li^° to the south of west. On following a prospecting- 
track to the north-east for some chains an outcrop of the same seam, showing (3 ft. of 
coal without the floor being visible, is seen (barometric height, 1,615 ft.). The roof- 
rock strikes 334°, and dips 18° to 20° to the south-west. Two or three chains ahead 
the following .section is exposed in upward order, at a barometric height of about 
1,700 ft.: 16 in. coal, 6 in. stone, over 2 ft. coal, 3 ft. sandstone, Oft. to 10 ft. coal, 
with an 8 in. stony band near the bottom. The seam is tentatively considered by the 
writer to be the D seam of the Paparoa Beds, but may possibly be in the F horizon. 

In the creek-bed, about 2 chains above the point where the first outcrop of the 
D seam was seen, 16 in. of coal, enclosed in shale and shaly sandstone, is visible. The 
strike is 342°, and the dip 18° to 20° to the westward. A few yards onward may 
be seen shaly sandstone overlain by 15 in. of coal, followed by 6 in. of shale and 1 ft. 
of stony coal. These outcrops are stratigraphically below the supposed D seam. 

Further up the creek various other small seams, the largest of which reaches 2 ft. 
in thickness, are visible. Somewhat more than a quarter of a mile from the junction 
with Waiomo Creek a seam varying from 6 ft. to over 8 ft. in thickness is exposed almost 
continuously on both sides of the creek for several chains. The barometric elevation 
is here about 1,600 ft. Above the coal on the western side of the creek is a shale-band, 
thinning from 12 ft. or 14 ft. to 3 ft. up-stream, and above this is sand.stone. At one 
place a thin pebble-band appears a little above the coal. 

On the eastern side, where the outcrop is last seen, the section exposed is 8 ft. 
of coal, overlain bv 6 ft. of shale or shaly sandstone, thickening down-stream, a small 
coal-seam, 1 ft. of shale or fine-grained sandstone, and 18 in. of coal, above which is 



110 

sandstone. In the outcrop just described the dip of the coal varies from about 5° to 
15° to the south-west. Ihe seam underlies tlie supposed D seam mentioned above, and 
is perhaps to ba identified with the C seam of former pages. 

Somewhat more tlian 4 chains up-stream from the last-mentioned outcrop what 
is not improbably the same seam appears at the foot of a small waterfall. Here it is 
6 ft. thick, and overlain by shale. The strike is 314°, and the dip nearly 20° to the 
south-west. 

Three chains to the north-west of the last outcrop the same seam, showing 4 ft. of 
coal with a small dirt-band, is exposed in a shale clifi on the western side of the creek, 
at a barometric elevation of 1,800 ft. Eight to ten chains up-stream the supposed C 
seam reappears, first on the east and then on the western side of the creek. The first 
outcrop shows over 7 ft. of coal, with a 4 in. shale-band 1 ft. from the roof. The second 
outcrop, at a barometric elevation of 1,870ft., shows only oft. of coal. The strike 
of the seam is 355°, and the dip 15° to the west. Shale overlies. 

About 10 chains up-stream a very large seam outcrops on the east side of the creek, 
and about 120 ft. above the stream-channel. This is possibly the C seam seen below. If 
so, it has greatly increased in thickness. 

Almost a quarter of a mile further up the stream-valley there is an outcrop of 
coal 2 or 3 chains up a small right (western) branch, Laura Creek. This outcrop 
was not seen by the writer, but its position was obtained from the plans of the State 
Colliery. It is either the B seam, or more probably one of the higher seams faulted 
down. Outcrops being absent from the creek for some chains below, positive evidence 
of faulting is here not obtainable. 

About 12 chains up the main creek from the junction with Laura Creek, and 
above some waterfalls over sandstone, is a 2 ft. coal-seam, above which is 3 ft. of shale, 
followed by a 10 in. or 11 in. coal-seam, the roof of which is sandstone. The horizon 
is possibly that of the D seam. A few chains to the east of the creek are cliSs showing 
one or more coal-seams of apparently workable size. 

Towards the head of the creek, after passing a horizon of coarse sandstone con- 
taining in places grit-bands, an 18 in. coal-seam is visible near the top of a 100 ft. 
wateifall. A few yards past the waterfall 6 ft. of coal, overlain by 2 ft. or more of 
shale, above which comes not less than 18 in. of coal, is exposed on the western side 
of the creek. The horizon of this outcrop may correspond to the E seam of former 
pages, and the F seam may be represented by a higher outcrop some chains to the north. 

In Waiomo Creek valley a number of seams from 2 ft. to 6 ft. thick outcrop. The 
largest of these is one which has been traced by prospecting operations on the northern 
side of the creek for nearly half a mile. The line of outcrop is well marked by an 
overlying sandstone band, which forms a line of clifEs. The outcrops show, on the 
average, 6 ft. of good coal. At one place two seams separated by 5 ft. of shale are 
seen. The upper is 4 ft. thick, ba+ very dirty. The lower seam, of a thickness that 
could not be observed, shows several feet of good coal. A few chains to the south- 
westward the dirty seam has nearly disappeared, whilst the lower seam shows 6 ft. of 
good coal. The general strike of the seam is north-north-west and south-south-east, 
the dip is westerly and mostly from 6° to 12°, but increases somewhat in the western 
outcrops. The most probable horizon for this seam appears to be that of the F seam. 

The outcrops of coal towards the head of Waiomo Creek may also belong to this 
seam. These show about 3k ft. of fair coal, striking 209° to 214°, and dipping about 
45° to the south of ea.st. Eastward of these outcrops there is probably a considerable 
fault, with upthrow to the east. Westward there is a well-marked anticlinal fold, with 
axis pitching to the south. 



Ill 

In Waiomo Creek, near its junction with tlie Seven-mile Creek, are several out- 
crops showing 2 ft. to 5 ft. of coal. These probably belong to seams above the F horizon, 
in the Middle Paparoa Sandstones. 

In Tararu Creek, an eastern branch of Parawai Creek, are some important coal- 
outcrops. On one of these, about a quarter of a mile above the junction with Parawai 
Creek, is situated the initial drive of the No. 2 Point Elizabeth State Coal-mine. Here, 
on the east side of the creek, an outcrop of coal 10 ft. to 12 ft. thick is seen at a 
barometric elevation of 1,700 ft. A few chains down the creek the seam shows 9 ft. to 
10 ft. of coal, striking 315°, and dipping 20° to the south-west. I^ess than 2 chains 
farther down the seam shows 8 ft. of coal, Iwlow which is 1 ft. ot stone, and then 
another 2 ft. of coal. The strike is now about 2.'U°, the dip 25° to SG° to the south- 
east. On the west side of the creek is a considerable fault, striking somewhat east 
of north, and having its downthrow to the west, so that shales from a much higher 
horizon than the coal-seam just described appear at the same level near the mine- 
opening. 

The exact horizon of this seam cannot be exactly stated by the writer from the 
data available. On the whole, it is probable that it corresponds to the supposed C 
seam seen in the Seven-mile Creek valley to the east. Boring or other form of pro- 
specting is necessary to prove the exact horizon. 

A few chains down the tram-line a 3 ft. to 3J ft. coal-seam enclosed in sandstone 
appears. Tliis strikes 209°, and dips 20° to the eastward. Stratigraphically below 
are various smaller seams, one of which ranges from 18 in. to 2 ft. in thickness. 

Spring Creek. — In Spring Creek, a large right-hand (northern) tributary of the 
Seven-mile Creek, somewhat numerous coal-outcrops from 2 ft. to 6 ft. thick are seen 
at two miles and a half to three miles above its mouth. 

The exact horizon of these seams could not be determined, but they are probably 
all above the D seam horizon. Owing to somewhat erratic strike and dip, the number 
of workable seams represented is not easily determinable without more prospecting, or a 
contoured topographical survey. 

The various seams show in general coal of moderate to fairly good quality. 
The following is an analysis of the coal from a 6 ft. seam in Spring Creek. 
The horizon is probably that of the Upper Paparoa or Moody's Creek seams. 

Fi.xed carbon ... ... ... ... ... 4365 

Volatile hydrocarbons ... ... ... ... 42" 94 

Water ... .. ... ... ... ... 316 

Ash ... ... ... ... ... ... 10-25 



10000 

Total sulphur, per cent. ... ... ... 0'09 

Calories, per gram, by calorimeter ... ... ... 6,758 

British thermal units, per pound . . ... ... 12,165 

Theoretical evaporative power, in pounds, of water at 212° 

Fahr. ... ... ... ... ... ... 12-61 

Practical evaporative power, assuming 60-per-cent. efficiency 7-57 

Miacellanfous A nalysM. 
Of the following miscellaneous analyses No. 1 repre.sents coals from all horizons 
of the Paparoa Beds as these occur on the western side of the Paparoa Range ; Nos. 2-9 
represent coals from the lower horizons; and Nos. 10-15 from the upper or Moody's 
Creek seams. 



112 







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113 

II. Coal-seams of the Brunner Beds. 
Up to the present time nearly all tlie coal mined in the Greyniouth District has 
bt'en obtained from seams in the Brunner Beds. Owing to the diiticulty of correlation, 
the exact number of workable seams in the Brunner horizon is not known. In any one 
locality not more than two such seams are known, and in many places only one seam 
is being exploited. It is probable, however, that at least five seams reach workable 
thickness in places, bat not one, except possibly the Brunner seam, is known to extend 
over the whole field. If the Brunner seam does so extend, its composition varies 
greatly in different localities, as will be seen by comparing the analyses on later pages 
of the coals from the Brunner, Blackball, and Point Elizabeth State No. I mines. 

Although the writer will give his opinion as to correlation, it ought to be borne 
in mind that it is founded, as witli the Paparoa seams, on imperfect data, and is there- 
fore merely tentative. Moreover, the same imperfection of the data makes it advisable 
to describe the various outcrops for each locility, rather than to give a generalized 
account. 

Point Elizabeth State Coal-mine Xo. 1. 
In the Point Klizal)eth State Coal-mine No. 1 two .seams are I)eing v.orlced, the upjier 
being No. 1 and tiie lower No. 2. A third seam in a higher horizon is, where proved, 
very thin, and of poor quality : but it is quite possible tliat some uncoi-related out- 
crops of considerable thickness and good quality may belong to this seam. 

No. 2 seam, where worked in Nos. 1 and 2 mine sections, .<:hows from 3 ft. to o ft. 
of good coal. It thins, however, in many parts of the mine, and thus becomes unwork- 
able. To the rise of No. 2 mine section there is some probability of the seam being 
workable in part at least. In the dip-workings of No. 1 mine section. No. 2 seam is 
represented by two I ft. seams, separated by 2 ft. of stone. There is little or no fire- 
clay below the seam, and the enclosing rock, except for some sliale in the floor, may he 
descriljed as sandstone. The strike varies from nearly east and west to north-west and 
south-east. The dip of the worked portions is southward or south-west, at angles of 
from 10° to 20°. 

With the State mine No. 2 seam is possibly to be correlated a M ft. seam that out- 
crops on the north bank of the Seven-mile Cicek a few chains above No. 4 " tunnel " 
or drive. The coal, except for occasional pyiitic nodules, seems to lie of good quality. 
The floor shows a little shale or fireclay, but otherwi.se the seam is encased in fine sand- 
stones. These strike nearly north and south (354°), and dip 21° to the west. 

The following analysis shows the composition of the No. 2 seam in Point Elizabeth 
State Coal-mine No. 1 at a point in No. 1 tunnel where tiie scam is oi ft. thick. 

Fixed carbon ... 51 1 

Volatile hydrocarbons . 34'4 

Water ... ... ... ... ... ... 13-4 

Ash ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 11 

10000 
No. 1 seam is from 12 ft. to 25 ft. above No. 2, and, as worked in the mine, 
varies in thickness from 4 ft. to 12 ft., with an average of perhaps 8 ft. to 10 ft. To 
the rise of both No. 1 and No. 2 mine sections it becomes too thin for profitable 
working under present conditions, in one place .showing only 18 in. of coal. To the 
dip of the workings, according to the evidence given by bores, it is under G ft. in 
thickness, and of moderate quality only. Shale or fireclay may form the floor, l)ut 
otherwise the enclosing rock is sandstone. The dip is generally from 10° to 20°, but 
in one part of No. 2 mine it is 1 in l\, or about 38i°. The strike varies from nearly 
8 — Graymouth. 



114 

north ami soutli to west and cast, and thence to west-south-west and cast-nortli-east. 
In this respect there is a striking siniihirity betv.een No. 1 and No. 2 mine sections, 
for each shows a curved strike, witli the dip gradually swinging round from a westerly 
to an east of south direction. Ilie general structure in each section is therefore, 
as will be easily seen by inspection of the mine-plans, that of a flat Y anticline, with 
a downward pitch to the south-west of 15° to 20°. There are, as might be expected, 
minor " rolls " and complications produced by faulting. 

The coal of No. 1 seam is in most places very clean, and of fine quality for house- 
hold use. Kesin (retinite) of a clear brown colour is a not uncommon constituent. It 
occurs for tlie most part in irregularly shaped lumps varying in diameter from 1 in. 
or less to several inches. There are in some parts of the mine-workings dirt or stone 
bands in the coal, which may also contain large pyritic nodules, some weighing 2 cwt. 
to 3 cwt. These are easily picked out, and the coal, as will be seen by the following 
analyses, is otherwise low in sulpluir-contents : — 

Fixed carbon 

Volatile hydrocarbons . . 

Water 

Ash 



Sulphur, per cen'!^. 
Calories, per gram, by calorimeter 
British thermal units per poimd 
Evaporative power per pound . . 
Practical evaporative power per 

pound, assuming a boiler effi 

ciency of 60 per cent. 

Hydrogen 

Carbon 

Nitrogen 

Oxygen 

Sulphur 

Ash 



1. 


2. 


3. 


4. 


5. 


51-2 


48-70 


44-08 


47-45 


49-71 


36-7 


41-52 


43-00 


39-85 


41-50 


9-9 


8-36 


5-85 


8-58 


8-22 


2-2 


1-42 


7-07 


4-12 


0-57 


100-0 


100-00 


100-00 


100-00 


■100-00 


0-23 


0-82 


1-15 


i-79 


0-45 




7,143 


7,134 


7,200 


7,118 




12,857 


12,841 


12,960 


12,812 


' 


13-33 


13-31 


13-43 


13-28 




8-00 


7-98 


8-06 


7-97 


Ultima 


te Analvsis of 5. 









5-51 
70-19 

1-09 
22-19 

0-4.3 

0-57 



100-00 



Calories, per gram, calculated froin ultimate analvsis 



6,626 



1. Sam.ple from cargo of coal shipped for British Admiralty in 1904. May con- 

tain some coal from No. 2 seam. 

2. Sample of household coal, Point Elizabeth State Coal-mine No. 1. Probablv 

No. 1 seam. Analysed at Christchurch Exhibition. 

3. Sample from bottom of seam in No. 2 dip heading, Point Elizabeth State Coal- 

mine No. 1. 

4. Sample fi-om upper part of seam in No. 2 dip heading. Point Elizabeth State 

Coal-mine No. 1. 

5. Representative sample from Point Elizabeth State Coal-mine No. 1. Forwarded 

by Mr. James Bishop, Manager, in September, 1910 



116 

With the No. 1 seam of the State mine is possibly to be correlated an outcrop in 
the Saven-mile Creek about a chain and a half west of the 3 ft. outcrop of the sup- 
posed No. 2 seam. At this point from 2 ft. to 3 ft. of impure coal enclosed in fine 
sandstones is visible. Various outcrops of good coal to the south-eastward of this 
locality, on the slopes of the hill east of the mine-workings, may be referable to No. 1 
seam, or may belong to a somewhat higher horizon. They will be described in a later 
paragraph. 

About 110 ft. above No. 1 seain of tlie State mine is a third .scam, which, wliere 
certainly identified, is under 2 ft. in thickness. Its horizon seems to be marked by a 
coarse grit or pebble band tliat occurs a few feet below (see log of No. 1 bore, page 128). 
It is believed that a number of outcrops showing workable coal to the north-eastward 
of Point Elizabetli State Mine No. 1 (Dunollie) are referable to tliis seam, which may 
be called the 1a seam. Tho first of these to be mentioned is about a quarter of a mile 
north-east of the mine-bins, at a point where the railway side-cutting has exposed a 
seam of good coal not less than 6 ft. thick. .The roof is coarse sandstone, containing 
an irregular pebble-band 3 in. or i in. thick. The immediate floor is not clearly seen, 
but a chain eastward the cutting shows 3 ft. of light-coloured shaly sandstone with 
plant-remains overlying rather coarse micaceous sandstone, which contains two bands 
of fine conglomerate, one 3 ft. to -1 ft. thick, and the other, 4i ft. below, about 6 ft. 
thick. Fine sandstone succeeds. 'Ilie strike <>f the beds in this locality is 329°, and 
the dip 18° to the south-west. 

On the north side of the Seven-mile Creek, 6 chains to the north-west of the out- 
crop just described, a drive known as No. 4 " tunnel " has been put in on a scam that 
shows a good thickness of coal (5^ ft. or more), but is not of very good quality, owing 
to the presence of dirt-bands. This is with tolerable certainty the 1a seam. 

On the hillside to the south-east various outcrops of an apparently large seam, 
sometimes called the " Exhibition seam," have been exposed by prospecting opera- 
tions along a line over a ijuarter of a mile in length. At a point 450 ft. above sea- 
level by the barometer a dip drive has be<^;n put in on a seam showing 6 ft. of good coal. 
The floor is sandstone, with small heams of coal, and the roof sandstone also. The 
strike of the seam is 303°, and the dip 18° to the south-west. A few chains to the 
south-eastward the section exposed at a prospecting-drive in upward order is 8 ft. of 
coal (floor not seen), 20 in. of sandstone, 1 ft. of coal, sandstone. The strike is .319°, 
dip 15° to the south-west. A few chains to the eastward, at a barometric height of 
670 ft., the coal is cut off by a fault, but up tlie hill prospecting-works show, at a height 
of 79.") ft., a seam with 11 ft. or 12 ft. of coal (floor not seen), overlain by about 10 ft. 
of sandstone, above which is seen 12 ft. of coarse grit or fine conglomerate. The beds 
strike 279°, and dip 12° to the southward. On the western side the coal, owing to 
faulting, butts against coarse sandstone. The strike of the faulfis 185° to 190°, and 
the dip 80° to the west. On the supposition, probably correct, that this is the same 
seam as that observed below, the downthrow to the west is not less than 125 ft. 

About 7 chains southward a trench and drive, at a height of 870 ft., expo-e a coal- 
seam overlain by sandstone. Three feet of coal are seen, and a further thickness 
probably not bss than 2 ft., is hidden by water. The strike is 279°, and tho dip 10° 
to the south. It is not improbable that this outcrop represents an upfaulted con- 
tinuation of that last described, but certainty is wanting. 

From 27 chains to 32 chains southward various outcrops of coal have been bared by 
prospecting operations. These show a good coal-seam varying from 4 ft. to 8 ft. thick, 
enclosed in sandstone. The coal strikes from 288° to 293°, and dips 15° to the south- 
ward. The thickest outcrop is about 650 ft. above sea-level. The seam to which the 

8' — Greymouth. 



116 

outcrops belong is liigli in the IJnimier liorizon, and is tlierefore correlated with tlie 1a 
or Exhibition seam. It is separated from the Exhibition outcrops proper by the 
DunoUie fault. 

It is unfortunate tliat prospecting operations have shown that tlie Exhibition seam, 
in the area near the Seven - mile Creek, thins rapidly to the dip. It is probable, 
however, that some coal may, even under present conditions, be profitably mined from 
it, and there is a possibility that economic conditions may improve so as to permit 
the mining of the thinner portions. 

The following analysis shows the composition of a sample from the seam exposed 
in Xo. 4 "tunnel," forwarded to the Dominion Laboratory in 1904: — 

Fixed carbon ... ... ... ... 45' 4 

Volatile hydrocarbons ... ... . . 40"9 

Water ... ... . ... ... . . 7"3 

Ash . . ... ... ... ... .. 6-4 

1000 
Brunner District. 

The Brunner Seam. — In the neighbourhood of Brunner there i.s practically only 
one workable seam — the Brunnsr. It is quite impossible accurately to correlate the 
Brunner with any of the State Colliery seams, but the writer's impression is that the 
Brunner seam is either equivalent to the Exhibition or 1a seam or is in a horizon 
bstween this and the Xo. 1 seam. This tentative correlation depends mainly on a con- 
sideration of the various pebble-bands and the distance of the various seams below the 
Island Sandstone. Chemical composition cannot be used as a criterion, for the Brunner 
seam is higher in fixed carbon and sulphur tlian any of the State mine seams, but 
lower in hydrocarbons, and more especially in water. 

As worked in the old Brunner, Coal-pit Heath, Tyneside, and Wallsend mines, 
the Brunner seam varied in thickness from 20 ft. downwards, and probably averaged 
lift, or 12 ft. In certain directions, notably to the rise of the Brunner Mine, it 
became too thin to work. In the St. Kilda section of the Brunner Mine the average 
thickness of the seam is about 14 ft. Xear Mount Sewell the outcrops of the Brunner 
seam are 3 ft. to 5 ft. thick. Further north, towards Mount Davy, the outcrops show 
a somewhat greater thickness, perhaps as much as 10 ft. In this area, however, the 
seam is largely removed by denudation, and the small patches that remain are weathered 
and of little value. Of the two seams that outcrop near Mount Davy, the upper, about 
2 ft. thick, is thought to represent the Brunner seam. 

In the small partly detached area prospected by the now defunct South Brunner 
Coal Company near Stillwater the seam (possibly not the Brunner) exposed in a drive 
has a thickness of 2 ft. to 2\ ft. only. 

The Greymouth Harbour Board's Xo. 1 bore at Dobson passed through the Brunner 
seam at 572 ft. 6 in. to 584 ft. 6 in. According to the driller, Mr. R. Lindsay, the whole 
12 ft. of coal was very clean and free from stone. 

In the old Brunner Mine the floor of the Brunner seam is fireclay, below which 
comes sandstone and grit. Elsewhere there is little fireclay. The roof is everywhere 
sandstone, which generally stands well. 

In the main, the strike and dip of the Brunner seam are determined by the notable 
anticline, with south-pitching axis, already described under the name of the Paparoa 
anticline (pase -32). Tlius, in the South Brunner Mine the seam strikes 213°, and dips 
45° to the south-east, Xear Brunner the strike is 240° (or a little less), and the dip 



117 



10^ to the south-east ; whilst near the bridge tha crest of the anticline is passed, and 
the strike west of the bridge becomes 311°, the dip 10° to the south-west. At Dob^on 
the Island Sandstone strikes 319°, and dips 16° to the south-west, figures which will, 
of course, also represent the strike and dip of the underlying coal-seams. Along 
the crest of the Paparoa Range from Mount Sewell to near Mount Davy the strike is 
almost north and south, and the dip westerly at moderate angles. 

The Brunner seam, where worked, is generally of fine cjuality, its chief defect 
Ijeing its friability, which in the past has led to many thousands of tons of slack being 
wasted. In a few places, more especially in the old Wallsend Mine, it contains stony 
bands. On tlie whole, however, the coal is of an all-niund cliaracter, adapted for 
steaming, coking, and gas-making purposes. Tin- following analyses show its composi- 
tion, and that of the Rriinner coke : — 



Locality, <tc. 



oo 






1 




^^ 






5 






' S 


>^l 




? 












Z3 






§ 






B. 

3 

33 


Si 


H . 


a S5 


Analyst, and Date 




jj 




.2 o 


i:^ 


Sia% 


of Publication. 


> 


1 


OD 

< 


H 


Calor 
Cal 


■S a 


o »*■ o 





10. 

11. 

12. 
13. 



Circy River (Brunner) 



Brunner Coal-mine : Average 
of six samples 

Coal-pit Heath Mine 

Grej'mouth Coal Company's 
mine 

Brunner Mine : Rise work- 
ings, tiOO ft. above sea-level 
and 1,800 ft. west of fault ; 
seam, 9 ft. thick 

Same locality as 7 

Brunner Mine : New work- 
ings, 150 ft. from fault, and 
150 ft. above sea - level ; 
seam, 10 ft. thick 

Brunner Mine : Sample from 
]> i 1 1 a r working ; seam, 
12 ft. to 10 ft. tliick 

Tyneside Mine : Sample from 
.solid working-face ; seam, 
6 ft. to 12 ft. thiak 

South Brunner Coal Company 
(Fleming lease) : From solid 
working - face ; angle of 
.scam, half-edge ; thickness 
variable, about 3 ft. 

Brunner Mine : Average 
sample from coke-ovens 



1-280| 6100 33-90 1-90 3-20 

55-40 37-20 1-60 5-80 

1-300 54-11 3319 1-40 ll-30! 1-85 

56-62 3508 1-59 6-11 



59-38 35-48 1-05 
5308 41-95 0-99 



4-09 
3-98 



57-96 36-87i 1-98 3-19 



54-49; 39-75 1-57 
57-76 38-30; 1-75 



54-70 3903' 0-47 
56-57 37-22 0-46 
45-80 40-38 2-82 



83-76 0-72 0-10 



4-19 
2-19 



6-80 



2-31 



8,076 



5-751 2-67 8,064 

I I 



14,537 
14,515 



1507 
15-05 



ll-OOi 2-88, 6,766| 12,179 12-62 



W. Skey; 1866. 

„ 1866. 

1866. 

1872. 

1878. 
1879. 

1886. 



1886. 
1886. 



\V. Donovan 
and L. And- 
rew, 1907. 

Ditto, 1907. 



I 



15-42 



2-02, 6,574 



11,833, 12-27 



1907. 



1907. 



The following remarks are made by the analysts on samples 10 to 13 : — 
No. 10. "Coke somewliat swollen. Ash grey." 
No. 11. '■ Coke swollen and firm. Ash brown and granular." 
No. 12. ■■ Coke light and porous, though not much .swollen. Ash white." 
No. 13. '■ Coke hard, compact, grey in colour, with a metallic ring. Ash light- 
coloured." 

The somewhat high percentage of ash in the coke (No. 13) is proof that coal- 
washing machinery for the slack could with advantage be installed. 



lib 



i'he following analyses show the composition of the coal in the St. Kilda section. 
So. 1 is a general sample from all parts of the mine, whilst No. 2 represents a hard 
band occurring in one or two places only : — 



Proximate Analyses. 



Fixed carbon 
Volatile hydrocarbons 
Water . . 
Ash . . 



Total sulphur, per cent. . . 

Calories per gram (by calorimeter) . . 

British thermal imits per pound 

Evaporative power per pound 

Practical evaporative power, assuming 60 per 
cent, efficiency 



1. 


2. 


5716 


56-13 


36-93 


39-49 


0-34 


0-36 


5-57 


402 


100-00 


100-00 


2-35 


2-57 


8,025 


8,179 


14,445 


14,722 


14-97 


15-26 



-98 



916 



Ultimate Analysis of (1). 



Hydrogen 
Carbon 

Nitrogen 
Oxygen 
Sulphur 
Ash 



4-94 
78-41 
0-87 
7-86 
2-35 
5-57 



100-00 



Calories, per gram, calculated from ultimate analysis 



7,753 



The Brunner Eider. — About 30 ft. above the Brunner seam is the horizor of a small 
seam known as the Brunner rider. This in the Brunner iline area has bean found to 
be as much as 4 ft. in thickness, but is in general only a few inches thick. The 
Brunner rider is traceable from Brunner to beyond Mount Sewell, where it may either 
die out or be entirely removed by denudation. 

In the Greymouth Harbour Board Xo. 1 bore at Dobson the Brunner rider is 
represented by a 6 ft. 3 in layer of coal and bands of stone occurring at a depth of 
549 ft. (see page 129). 

The 2 ft. 6 in. seam penetrated at a depth of 1,142 ft. in Xo. 2 bore is pro- 
bably also the Brunner rider. In the Xo. 3 bore the presence of the rider is doubtful. 



The Blackball Mine Seams. 

In the Blackball Mine two closely- associated seams of coal, both workable, occur. 
The lower of these is remarkably regular in thickness, quality, strike, and dip for 
a X'^ew- Zealand seam. It is almost everywhere at least 10 ft. to 12 ft. thick. Towards 
the end of the present main drive, which runs north-west, and is about a mile and 
a quarter long, the seam, affected by a roof-roll and a small fault, thins and tem- 
porarily disappears. A little distance onwards the coal reappears, and in the face 



119 



(April, 1910) is 4 ft. thick. North-westward, in the Snioke-Ho yection of the Black- 
ball Coal Company's property, the seam is of considerable thickness, and at one spot 
is stated to show 21 ft. of coal. 

The floor of the seam consists, so far as observed, of a few inches of shale (hardly 
fireclay), below which comes coarse micaceous sandstone, or in places a quartzose grit. 
The roof is in genei al sandstone, somewhat soft and tender in many places. 

Throughout the Blackball Coal Company's property the coal-seams strike north- 
west or north-north-west to south-east or south-south-east, and dip almost invariably 
at an angle of 10° or 12°, or even less, to the south-westward. In the neighbourhood 
of trigonometrical station M (south of the junction of Smoke-Ho and Blackball creeks, 
and not far from tlie end of the main drive) there is some disturbance and thinning 
of the coal in both seams, but no serious faulting. 

In the mine-workings the upper seam is almost uniformly 4 ft. to 5 ft. in thick- 
ness, and is on the average only 4 ft. above the lower seam. In some places the 
distance of the seams apart may be 8 ft., but in others it is only 1ft. or 6 in., and 
at the thick outcrop near Smoke-Ho Creek there is only 3 in. of dark shale separating 
the upper seam, here stated to be 13 ft. thick, from the lower seam. The roof of 
the upper seam is sandstone, which, about 30 ft. above the coal, is followed by 
quartzose grit or fine conglomerate, and this again is succeeded by the marine Island 
Sandstone. 

Although, as will be seen by inspection of the analyses, the Blackball seams differ 
considerably in composition from the main Brunner seam, they are very approxi- 
mately in the same horizon, and must therefore, at least tentatively, be correlated with 
the Brunner seam and its rider. 

The coal of the Blackball .seams is harder than most of the Greymouth coals, so 
that it stands transport well. It is very generally free from stony bands, and very 
low in ash, but is high in sulphur. A noteworthy feature is the occurrence of resin 
(retinite) in the coal. The following analyses show tiiat the percentage of hydro- 
carbons is almost or more than equal to that of fi.xed carbon, so that the coal ap- 
proaches the cannel class. 















1 &^ 




Theoretical 


Practical 


Locality. 


Fixed 
Carbon. 


VoUtlle 
Hydro- 
carbons. 


1 


.s 


3 
•i. 

p 


Calories (t 
Calorimete 


British 

Thermal 

Units. 


Evapora- 
tivi- Power 
in Pounds 
of Water 


Evapora- 
tive Power 
in Pounds 

of Water 








^ 1 ;ii 


€ 




at 212°. 


at 212°. 


1. Biackhall Mine : Lowirscam.. 


4915 


46-75 


3-20 


0-90 






1 

14-25 


[8-55] 


2. Blackball Mine : From solid 


46-67 


48-66 


3-52 


115 


4-70 


7,541 


13,574 


14-07 


8-44 


face, main or lower seam 




















thickness, 10 ft. to 12 ft. 




















3. Blackball Mine : Main level. 


45-40 


50-00 


3-50 


1-10 


3-62 


, . 


. , 


, , 




No. 2 tunnel 




















4. Blackball Mine : Upptr scam . . 


47-35 


44-95 


4-80 


2-90 






. , 


12-47 


[7-48J 


5. Blackball Mine : From solid 


47-55 


44-96 


4-24 


3-25 


5-46 


7.042 


12,676 


13-14 


7-88 


face, top scam ; thickness 




















4 ft. to 6 ft. 




















6. Blackball Mine : No. 2 cross- 


47-35 


44-95 


4-80 


2-90 


4-64 


, , 


, , 






cut, upper seam 





















Analyses 1 and 4 are quoted from the New Zealand .Mining Handbook (1906), 
page 438. The analyst's name is not given. Analyses 2 and 5 were made at the 
Christchurch International Exhibition, 1906-7, by Messrs. Donovan and Andrew, of 
the Dominion Laboratory staff. The coke in each case is reported as hard and dense; 
the ash brown. Analyses 3 and 6 are from Dominion Analyst's Report for 1905 
(page 7). 



120 

Brown's Coal-prospectiruj Lease. 
In the area of 1,»70 acre.i iieiu uaucr prospecting license by Mr. \V. Brown coal 
outcrops towards the heads of Soldier and Blackwater creeks. An outcrop near that 
part of Paparoa Creek where conglomerate (Brunner Beds) is first seen on ascending the 
stream is known to exist, but was not seen by the writer. The coal has been brought 
to the surface in this locality by a strong fault with upthrow to the west. About 
30 chains to the south, on the noi-th side of Soldier Creek, is a vary poor outcrop of 
much-crushed altered coal, which, like the last, has been brought to the surface by 
fault-movements. The altitude of the outcrop is about 750 ft. Some 28 chains to 
the south-westward coal has been discovered near a small branch of Blackwater Creek. 
The outcrop actually seen by the writer, at an altitude of 1,060 ft., had l>een exposed 
by a falling tree, and appeared to be crushed, but more solid coal is said to be shown 
in a prospecting-trench near by. About 8 chains south-west of the outcrop last men- 
tioned coal shows on the north bank of Blackwater Creek, at an altitude of 1,040 ft. 
The actual thickness was not seen, but may be about 6 ft. The enclosing rock is 
sandstone, with perhaps a little shale below the seam. Half a chain up-stream con- 
glomerate appears m a horizon about 20 ft. below the coal. The coal-seam, which strikes 
216° and dips 70° south-eastward, is somewhat crushed, and is apparently of moderate 
purity only. It is stated to contain some resin. Some 16 or 17 chains to the west- 
ward a large coal-seam crosses Blackwater Creek. It is well exposed by prospecting 
operations on the south side of the creek, where, at an altitude of 1,350 ft., perhaps 
20 ft. of coal with only one dirt-parting is shown. The roof of the coal is a Hark 
micaceous shale, followed by sandstone. Sandstone probably comes below, and this 
is succeeded by conglomerate. The strike of the rocks enclosing the seam is 306°, 
and the dip 30° to the south-west. The following analysis of a sample supplied by 
Mr. Brown shows the strong resemblance of the coal to the Blackball main seam, an 
analysis of which is also cited : — 

I. II. 

Brown's Seam. Blackball Main Seam. 
Fixed carbon . . . . . . . . . . 45-93 46-67 

Volatile hydrocarbons . . . . . . . . 50-23 48-66 

Water ' .. .. .. .. .. 2-42 3-52 

Ash .. .. .. .. .. .. 1-42 1-15 



100-00 100-00 



316 


4-70 


7,862 


7,541 


4,152 


13,574 


14-67 


14-07 


8-80 


8-44 



Total sulphur, per cent. . . 

Calories per gram 

British thermal units per poimd 

Evaporative power per pound from calori- 
meter 

Practical evaporative power, assimiing 60 per 
cent, efficiency . . . . . . 

On heating in a closed vessel Xo. 1 swells, forming a hard cellular coke. It burns 
to a reddish-brown ash. No. II forms a hard and dense coke. The ash is brown. 

The various outcrops described as occurring in Brown's coal lease may tentatively 
be correlated as belonging to one and the same seam, for all occur in the one horizon 
with respect to the underlying conglomerate. From the field relations, and the evidence 
supplied by the analysis given above, there can be no doubt but that the thick outcrop 
in Blackwater Creek is either identical with the lower Blackball seam, or represents a 
coalescence of the upper and lower seams, the dirt-parting being then probably the 
plane of separation. In this connection it will be remembered that coalescence of the 
tAvo seams practically takes place near Smoke-Ho Creek (see page 119). 



121 

Northern Part of Cohden Survey District and Southern Pari of Temiko Survey District. 
In the northern part of the Cobtlen Survey District and tlie southern part of the 
Temiko Survey District are a number of coal-outcrops that cannot well be correlated 
Avith any of the worked seams of the JJninner IJeds. The coal of these outcrops is, 
as a rule, of a peculiarly tough character, and has a conchoidal fracture. Analyses 
show that the percentage of fixed carbon is low, varying from 35'35 to 4r90 per cent. ; 
whilst hydrocarbons are high, ranging from 3()"31 to 5327 per cent. Water varies 
from 5"06 to 10"07 per cent., and ash from 6"32 to ir72 per cent. Sulphur is in 
general high, but in one analysis oidy 027 per cent, is recorded. These coals, ac- 
cording to the classification adopted by the Dominion Laboratory, would be classed 
aj "pitch coals"; according to the classification used by the United States Geolo- 
gical survey as bituminous coals. Tliey may also be regarded as cannel coals, con- 
taining a moderate percentage of water, and from this point of view bear a con- 
siderable' resemblance to the Blackball coals. For steam and household purpose.* 
these cannel-like coals are undoubtedly useful, and, where sufficiently free from 
sulphur, may also be valuable for gas-making. 

In the following paragraphs the principal outcrops will be described according 
to localities: — 

Cavern Creek. — On the right bank of Cavern Creek, about 12 chains above the 
tavern into which the stream disappears, is an outcrop of coal 4 ft. or more in thick- 
ness. The floor is not seen, but the roof is sandstone. Down-stream the outcrop is 
cut off by a fault. The strata hereabout strike north-west or north-north-west, and dip 
westerly at an angle of 10° or 12° 'llie horizon of tliis seam appears to be some 
distance, perliaps 100 ft., above the conglomerate at or near the base of the Brunner 
Beds. The (juality of the coal is sliown by analysis Xo. 1 in tlie table on page 124. 

Rocky Creek (tributary of Seven-mile Creek). — About 50 chains up Kocky Creek 
the following section is seen in a cliff on the east bank : 6 ft. sandstone, followed in 
upward order by 2 ft. to 3 ft. fireclay and shale with a little coaly matter, 3 ft. gritty 
sandstone, 2 ft. hard coal with lumps of resin and pyritic nodules. Above the coal 
«omes 8 ft. or 10 ft. of sandstone, then 1 ft. to 2 ft. of shale, with a little coaly matter. 
The strata dip about 6° (1 in 10) to the east. Some II chains to the liorth a 2 ft. 10 in. 
coal-seam outcrops in sandstone on tha east bank of the creek. The coal is similar 
in character to that seen below, and probably the seams are identical. Tlie strike is 
181°, and tlie dip 17° to the ea.st. An analysis of the coal is given on page 124. 

Nine-mile Bluff Seam. — On the face of the clifi at the Nine-mile Bluff a coal-.seam 
outcrops very conspicuouslv. Its greatest thickness is 4 ft., but southward it tliins 
rapidly, until apparently it disappears. It is said, liowever, that the seam has been 
seen on the beach at low water. Northward, after bsing interrupted by a small break, 
the seam is cut off by a large normal fault that strikes 2G0°, and dips 75° to the north. 
The coal is overlain by fossiliferous marine sandstone ("Island Sandstone), and under- 
lain by conglomerate, hardly an inch of shaly material intervening. The strike of 
the seam is from sliglitly east of north to west of south, and the dip about 10° to 
the west. In bygone years the seam was worked to a small extent, and perhaps 
100 tons extracted from it. The coal is peculiarly hard and tough. 

What is probably ths same seam outcrops in Kane Creek, about throe-quarters of 
a mile to the south-south-east, at an elevation of 350 ft. (B).* Here there is 4 ft. of 
coal, striking 268°, and dipping 10° to the south. 



* The letter B, occasionally placed after a height in this report, indicates that it is barometric. 



122 

Of the analyses on page 12-1, Nos. 3 (by W. Skey, made nearly forty years ago) 
and 4 refer to the cliff outcrop, whilst No. 5 is the analysis of the Kane Creek outcrop. 
The close agreement of tlic throe determinations is very striking. 

Nine-mile Creek. — In the south branch of ths Nine-mile Creek a coal-seam 6 ft. or 

7 ft. thick outcrops at an elevation of 320 ft. (Bj on the south side, about lialf a mile above 
the road-crossing. The seam is overlain by sandstone, which strikes about 213°, and 
dips 15° to west of north. A little up-stream the seam is partly visible in the creek 
itself. At this point the dip appears to be easterly. This seam may perhaps be the 
same as the Nine-mile Bluff seam. 

Well up the main branch of the Nine-mile Creek, at a point nearly two miles from 
the sea as the crow flies, and at an altitude of 1,090 ft. (B), is an outcrop of coal fully 

8 ft. thick, enclosed in sandstone. The strike is between 160° and 170°, and the dip 
39° or 40° to the westward. This seam probably occurs in a lower horizon than the 
Brunner Beds, but is mentioned here because in appearance the coal is similar to that 
of the last-described outcrop and others in the area under discussion. 

Ten-mile Creek. — Above the horse-track leading to the bridge over the Ten-mile 
Crsek (Waianiwhaniwha River) a seam of coal somewhat over 3 ft. in thickness, with 
a small dirt-band, outcrops. llie coal at the top and bottom of the seam is very hard 
and tough, but the middle part is somewhat softer and more bituminous-looking. 
The coal contains much pyrite, which is weathering to sulphate of iron, &c. Resin is 
noticeable in the lower part of the seam. Fossiliferous Island Sandstone overlies the 
seam, whilst the underlying rock, except for a very little shale below the coal, is con- 
glomerate. The seam strikes 334°, and dips 22° to the south of west. It is evidently 
the same as the Nine-mile Bluff seam. 

A quarter of a mile to the south-east of the outcrop last described, and a little 
past the bridge, is a point where the same seam (probaljly) once outcropped. The coal 
was carelessly set on fire about forty years ago, and burned until a few years back. 
Owing to slips caused by the collapse of the strata as the coal burned away, nothing 
of the seam is at present visible. 

Nearly three-quarters of a mile up the stream from the bridge a 2f ft. coal-seam 
of apparently good quality outcrops on the north bank, at an elevation of 60 ft. (B). 
The strike is east of north, and the dip 11° to the westward. The enclosing rock is 
sandstone, which both above and below ultimately passes into conglomerate. The 
horizon is considerably below that of the Nine-mile Bluff seam. 

Seven or eight chains farther up-stream a coal-seam, 10ft. to lift, thick, out- 
crops on the north bank. Near the top of the seam is a sandstone-band, and the lower 
portion is somewhat stony, but otheiwise the coal is of fair quality. The enclosing 
rocks are alternating sandstones and conglomerates that strike 199°, and dip 15° to 
the eastward. 

Nine chains above, a seam over 1 ft. thiciv, with strike of 214° and dip of 25° to 
the south-eastward, outcrops on the north bank. To the north of this point a seam 
several feet thick outcrops on the foot-track. It appears to have a westerly dip. 

A few chains up-stream, past the line of a probable fault, an 8 ft. coal-seam 
outcrops on the south bank of the creek, at an altitude of 85 ft. (B) above sea-level. 
Sandstone forms the floor, whilst the roof is conglomerate. The seam strikes 214°, 
and dips 30° to the south-eastward. It may be the same as the 10 ft.-to-ll ft. seam 
noted about 14 chains down-stream, but of this supposition there is no proof. 

About 6 chains up-stream is the following interesting section : 2J ft. coal, followed 
by 3 ft. sandstone, 10 in. to 12 in. coal, 2 ft. sandstone, 2|: ft. coal. Overlying rock not 



125 

lietinitely noted, but is probably sandstone, succeeded by conglomerate. The strat;i 
here strike 206°, and dip 20° to the south of east. 

The exact correlation of the various seams appearing in the Ten-mile Creek from 
50 to 85 chains above the bridga seam is to some extent doubtful. The Brunner Beds 
in this locality consist of alternating sandstones and conglomerates, the latter pre- 
dominating, and are evidently subject to considerable variation in texture and thick- 
ness, lliey are, moreover, thrown into a seriss of small folds, and are probably 
broken by several faults, with downthrows to the east. On the strikes and dips alone 
the 2| ft. coal, the 11 ft. coal, the 8 ft. coal, and the last-described set of beds with 
5J ft. of coal would appear to form four separate seams; but the probability, on the 
whole, is that these four seams may be reduced to two. There are several other small 
seams 1 ft. or less in thickness. 

As regards the horizon, it is possible that the lower sandstones and conglomerates 
are equivalent to the topmost sandstones of the Paparoa Beds, but the writer 
thinks not. 

Southern Part of Temiko Survey District. — In Schulz Creek, a tributary of the 
Eleven-mile Creek, about a quarter cf a mile above the track crossing, a coal-seam 4 ft. 
to 4i ft. thick outcrops, at an elevation of 230 ft. (B), on both sides of the stream. 
The floor is sandstone, and the roof is also a sandstone, which contains two small seams 
of coal, and is followed by a thick layer of conglomsrate. The seam strikes north- 
west to south-east, and dips 10° to the south-west. The coal contains a few pebTjlcs, 
and at a point where a sample was taken small dirt-bands appear. The analysis 
(No. 6) on page 12-1 shows that wiiile the ash is somewhat high, the sulphur is re- 
markably low. 

On the beach, about 55 chains north of the mouth of the Eleven-mile Creek, and 
not far from the contact of the coal-measures with Greenland rocks, is a point whore 
a coal-soam is known to occur. The seam was not seen by the writer, owing to the 
outcrop being covered by sand and the rising tide making it impossible to dig for 
tha coal. The section shown on the beach from north to soutli is as follows: Green- 
land rocks, striking 3.30° and dipping 55° to east-north-east, are followed by con- 
glomerate striking 179° and dipping 10° to the west. At IG chains from the point 
of contact, as seen at low water, the conglomerate becomes interbedded with sandstone, 
which southward predominates, and finally passes into shale, striking 296°, and 
dipping 20° to the south-west. This shale contains a band of impure carbonate of iron. 
At 30 chains a small blank indicates tlie horizon of the coal. Southward of this the 
shale passes into sand-stone interst ratified with conglomerate, which finally prevails, and 
for a full mile forms high cliffs. 

The horizon of the coal-seam is not improbably below the Brunner horizon, and 
may be that of the upper Paparoa shales. 

On the hillside north-east of Sciiulz's house, a coal-seam, reported to be of consider- 
able thickness, was worked to a small extent many years ago. The spot was not found 
by the writer, but the following section was observed in a low cliff: Conglomtrate, 
followed upwards by 2ft. or 3ft. sandstone and shale, Gin. coal. Gin. .shale, 2ft. 
coal with a 1 in. and a 3 in. band of shalo. Gin. to 12 in. shale, 3 in. coal, 3 ft. sand- 
stone, conglomerate. As determined by dips and strikes, the horizon of these beds is 
below that of the beach seam. 

Analyses. — The following table gives analyses of six samples of coal from outcrops 
in the northern part of the Cobden Surv^^y District and the southern part of the Temiko 



124 

Survey District. Of tliese analyses, No. .3 was made by Mr. W. Skey in 1871 or 1872*; 
the others are by the Dominion Laboratory staff. 



Locality, &c. 



1. Cavern Creek 

2. Rocky Creek 

3. Nine-mile Bluff 
4. 

5. Kane's Creek 

6. Sclmlz Creek 



Fixed 
Carbon. 



3903 
3810 
34-80 
35-35 
35-35 
41-90 



Volatile 
Hydro- 
carbon. 



Water. 



Asli. 



Total 
.-julphur, 
per Cent. 



41-16 
45-03 
55-40 
5203 
53-27 
36-31 



10-14 


9-67 


7-92 


8-35 


0-20 


3-60 


5-32 


6-70 


5-06 


6-32 


10-07 


11-72 



4-25 
7-01 

3-74 
4-70 
0--27 



Calories, 
per gram 
by 
Calori- 
meter. 



6,021 
6,376 

6,934 
6,999 





Theoretical 


Practical 


British 


iivaporative 


Evaporative 


Tliemial 


Power in 


Power assum 


Units, per 


Pounds of 


ing 60 per 


Pound. 


Water at 


Cent. 




212° Fahr. 


Efficiency. 



10,838 
11,477 

12,481 
12,598 



11-23 
11-90 

12-94 
13-06 



6-74 
7-14 

7-76 
7-83 



Dr. .Uaciaurin further reports concerning Isos. 1, 2, 4, 5, and 6: "On* heating 
in a closed vessel these coals frit together without swelling. Nos. 1 and 6 give a coke 
that is soft and friable. Nos. 2, -1, and j yield fairly hard cokes. No. 1 gives a grey 
and No. i a brown ash. Nos. 2 and -j burn to daik-brown ashes. No. 6 burns to a 
buff-coloured ash." 

III. Coal-seams of th.c Kaiaia Mudstone. 
Kane's Sea/n. — Almost a mile north of the mouth of >Seven-mile Creek a workable 
coal-seam outcrops on the hillside facing the sea, at an elevation of somewhat under 
200 ft. This seam has been forked for some years on a small scale by Mr. Kane, who 
sells the coal locally. In the workings the coal is from 6 ft. to 7i ft. thick, but the seam 
is reported to show 20 ft. of coal at an outcrop to the eastward. Ihe floor of the seam 
is a dark mudstone or shale. The roof consists of 1 ft. of coarse sandstone, above which 
comes a fine-grained argillaceous sandstone. The dip of the seam is at a low angle 
to the westward. The coal is hard, and is said to Ije excellent for household use. 
Pyrite is a somewhat abundant impurity. The following analysis represents material 
left in the mine-bin, and is probably considerably higher in ash and sulphur than the 
average run of mine-samples. A noteworthy feature is the high percentage of volatile 
matter : — 

r'ixed carbon ... ... ... ... ... ... 29'23 

Volatile hydrocarbons ... ... ... ... .. i7'57 

Water ... ... ... ... .. ... 4-18 

Ash ... ... ... ... ... ... 19-02 



100-00 



Total sulphur ... ... ... ... 7-19 

On heating in a closed vessel the coal frits together without swelling. The coke is soft 
and friable, the ash dark drown . 

Minor Seams. — In the Kaiata district coal lias been reported in the mudstones on 
several occasions. According to information supplied to the writer a few years ago 
some coal taken from an outcrop near the end of a tram-line up Kaiata Creek was 
burnt under a sawmill boiler. The seam is said to be crushed, and not very thick. 
Many years ago two miners, while cutting an approach to a prospecting-tunnel about 
half a mile west of Taylorville, found a small seam of coal, stated by one of the dis- 
coverers, Mr. John Grigg, to be little over an inch thick. The writei-, guided by 
Mr. Grigg, visited the spot, but the coal could not be seen, owing to its being covered by 
debris from the old drive. 



* See G.S. Rep. during 1871-72, vol. 8, 1872, p. 131. 



125 

Not long ago the discovery of ti woikable seam in the Kaiata Ci'eek watcrsht'd 
was reported, but this lias not been confirmed. 

None of the various bore-holes that have penetrated Kaiata Mudstones for dejitlis 
reaching 1,000 ft. have passed thi-ougli coal over a few inches in tliickness. In most 
of tlie bores no coal at all has been encountered. It is therefore evident that the likeli- 
hood of finding workable coal in the Kaiata Mudstones outside Kane's Mine is not 
sutticient to reijuirc fuither discussion. 

Origin of Coal. 
The field evidence t)l)tained in the Greymouth Subdivision supports wiiat is known 
as the " drift theory " of coal-formation, which asserts that tlie veg'taljle matter now 
transformed into coal was transported some little distance at least by water, so that a 
coal-seam is to all intents and purposes as much a sedimentary deposit as the associated 
sandstones, shales. A-c. Possibly fast-growing algse, which flourished in fresh water, but 
had no fixed roots, may have constituted the bulk of the vegetable organisms that have 
gone to form the Greymouth coal-seams. 

The principal facts favouring the drift theory are as follows : — 

(1.) The absence of any identifiable ancient soil beneath the coal-seams tells strongly 
against the opposing theory of growth in situ. Where fireclay or shale is present this 
may contain leaf-remains and small twigs, but never roots or whole plants. At the 
Nine-mile Bluff and in the Ten-mile Creek coal is found practically resting on con- 
glomerate, witli less than an inch of intervening shale. 

(2.) The manner in which shaly bands occui- wiihin tlie coal-seams indicates that 
the material forming the accompanying coal has Ix.'en water-borne. For one thing, " it 
is difficult to understand liow the alternate rising and lowering of thC' ground could 
have so rapidly taken place as would be necessary to account for the alternate layers 
of thin coal and shale so often found."* 

("5.) The lenticular nature of the coal-seams and of the includid shah'-bands, and 
the manner in which " rolls" occur, support the drift theory 

(4.) The presence of water-worn pebbles in some of the seams belonging to the 
Paparoa Beds,t and tliat of resinous lumps (believed to be water-borne) in most of the 
seams belonging to the Brunner Beds, favour the drift theory. 

Katimnfex of Coal in Ground and of Coal available for Exfrartion. 

In the Greymouth Coalfield workable coal-seams, as shown on previous pages, occur 
in tliree horizons — the Kaiata Mudstone, the Biunner Beds, and the Paparoa Beds. 

So far as known, tlie workable coal in the Kaiata Mudstone is confined to Kane's 
seam, north of the Seven-mile. The extent of this seam is not known, l)ut probably 
it is not of workable thickness over a much greater area than 20 arres. If the seam be 
assximed to average 6 ft. in thickness, and the tonnacre per acre per foot to be 1,500, 
then the quantity of coal contained in the seam is 180.000 tons, 80 per cent, of v.hieh 
may be extractable. 

Many years ago the amount of workable coal in the Brunner horizon was estimated 
by Sir James Hector to be .37,000,000 tons. J The estimate was based upon the acreage 
of level free coal west of the belt of Greenland rocks on the eastern side of tlie Paparoa 
Range, and did not include the Blackball portion of the field. Another estimate by 
Hector gives the quantity of workable coal as 53,760,000 tons.§ 

• H. W. Huffhes : " A Text-book of Coal-mininc" Fifth edition, 1904. p. 5. 

t And also in the Schuiz Crfok scam fp. 12."?). 

+ "Progress Report." Rop. O.S. during 1888-89, vol. 20, 1890, p. xv. 

^ hoc. cit. p. xxvii. 



126 

Tlie detailed work of the present survey shows that the area over which coal-measure 
rocks, not including tlie barren basal conglomerate, outcrop is approximately 36,500 
acres. Coal in the future may be worked over a somewhat larger area, but it will be 
as well to take the acreage mentioned as the basis of the calculations of quantity now 
to be made. Of this area appro.ximately 12,500 acres have been eroded to such an 
extent that the coal-seams of the Brunner horizon have either been removed or have so 
little cover as to be practically worthless. It is impossible to estimate the average 
thickness of workable coal with any accuracy, but in the Xo. 1 Point Elizabeth State 
Coal-mine it may be assumed to average 10 ft.; in the Brunner Mines, 12 ft.; and 
in the Blackball Mine, 15 ft. There are areas, however, where the thickness of coal is 
considerably less, but it is nowhere known to be under 2 ft., a thickness that will be 
assumed to represent the smallest size of seam that can ever be profitably worked on the 
coalfield. If the average thickness of coal over the 24,000 acres considered to contain 
coal belonging to the Brunner horizon be taken as 6 ft. — a conservative estimate, since 
two workable seams are in many places present — then on the basis of 1,500 tons per 
foot per acre, the Brunner horizon contains 216,000,000 tons of coal. Of this ton- 
nage approximately 6,000,000 tons have already been extracted, and not less than 
10,000,000 tons have been or will be left as unrecoverable in worked ai-eas. Ttis waste 
is in part unavoidable, but is for the most part due to lack of demand for friable coal. 
How far unskilful methods of mining have led to waste is a problem not easily or ac- 
curately determinable. 

Assuming the most favourable future conditions that may reasonably bs expected 
— such as the opening-up of foreign markets, the utilization of the '" slack " or fine 
coal, and a reduction in costs of extraction and transport — the writer estimates that 
not less than one-fourth nor more than one-half of the coal remaining in the Brunner 
horizon will be profitably extracted — that is to say, the total future production of 
the horizon may range from 50,000,000 to 100,000,000 tons. Under present condi- 
tions, however, less than one-half of the smaller tonnage would be extracted. 

In the case of the Paparoa Beds it is difficult to estimate the acreage in which 
coal belonging to that section of the coal-measures occurs. In fact, since the coal-seams 
of the Paparoa Beds have as yet lieen little worked, and have nowhere been proved 
below sea-level, an accurate calculation cannot be made. From the remarks on page 52 
it will be gathered that the Paparoa Beds are much overlapped by the Brunner and 
overlying beds of the coal-measures, and therefore that outcrops of the higher beds afford 
but an unsatisfactory criterion as to the extent of the lower. The area of coal-measure 
country east of the Roa fault (Blackball district) probably does not contain the Paparoa 
Beds. Even if these do occur, they will be so deep as to be almost unworkable under 
any conditions likely to obtain in Xew Zealand during the present century. On the 
western side of the Paparoa Range, however, the Paparoa coal-seams may lie expected to 
continue westward and south-westward to and beyond the coast, but over much of this 
area the seams will be so deep as to be practically unworkable. 

The writer estimates the area of potentially workable country containing Paparoa 
coal-seams as about 14.000 acres. The western limit of this area is approximately 
the 2,000 ft. contour below sea-level. In places not less than 60 ft. of coal in workable 
seams was dsposited in the Paparoa Beds, but owing to denudation, thinning, and 
dirt-bands, 20 ft. appears to be the highest average it is reasonable to estimate as now 
present. On this basis the Paparoa Beds contain -30,000 tons of workable coal per 
acre, or 420, 000, 000 tons in all, out of which onlv a few thousand tons have hitherto 
been mined. Of this large tonnage by far the srreater part, owing to faultine. 
irregular folding, and unavoidable waste in mining, is irrecoverable at a profit under 
anv conditions likely to obtain during the present generation. Ultimately from one- 



127 

third to one-half may be recovered. Tlie extraction of even one-fourth of the Paparoa 
coal would be very good work, and in order to obtain one-half almost ideal condi- 
tions would be required. 

A factor to whicli considerable weight uiust be given is the lenticular character of 
the coal-seams both in the Biunner and the Paparoa horizons. It would appear, how- 
ever, that in many places where one seam becomes unworkably thin another either 
above or below may thicken considerably, and in making the above estimates the writer 
has assumed that this takes place in unproved country to the same extent as in areas 
already prospected ; but there is the danger that this is not so, and therefore that the 
estimates may ultimately be found to rc(juire discounting. In this connection the 
following remarks by Sir James Hector may be quoted : — 

" Nearly all our coals, especially those on the West Coast, have been formed in 
deposits like the Canterbury Plains. There are great quantities of conglomerates, and 
it is quite obvious that a fluviatile formation of that kind must be very liable to lun 
out. . . . They are not seams that can l)e depended upon for steadiness, such as 
we are accustomed to find in the carboniferous rocks of the Old Country."* 

iSvmmari/. — The Grey Coalfield is estimated to contain 63(),000,0()0 tons of coal, 
of which about 6,000,000 tons have already bsen mined, and a further 10,000,000 
tons at least left as irrecoverable in worked aieas. Of the remaining 620,000,000 tons, 
about one-fourth, or 150,000,000 tons, may be mined, provided that conditions as 
favourable as can reasonably hs expected prevail in the future. Under almost ideal 
future conditions possibly one half, or .'{00, 000, 000 tons, may be recovereil. These 
estimates assume that crushed coal will be profitably utilized in the future. The low 
po.ssible percentage of profitable extraction is due mainly to faulting and irregular 
folding. The estimate of the quantity of coal in the ground and of the amount that 
can be profitably extracted is ba.sed on an interpretation of the field evidence as 
optimistic as is justifiable. 

"Rolls." 

The term '' roll " as used by coal-miners has two distinct meanings. In the one 
sense it is used to denote a minor change of strike or dip, or both, in the strata en- 
closing a coal-seam of such a character as to produce an undulation, after which the 




Sandstone 
Shale 

Coal 

.^<si^ Fireclay 
^^ Sandstone 
Fig. 5. — Roll in Coal-seam. 



£=_r r- — ~^-^~— — — — -- Sandstone 
Shale 

Coal 

^fRECLAY OR 

Shale 

Fio 6. — Floor-rot.l or " Horseback " in Coai.-sfam. 




♦ Report of Coal-mines Commission, C.-4, 1901, p. 324. 



128 

iiornuil attitude is resumed. In tlic other sense '" roll " denotes an undulatory rising 
of the floor or a depression of the roof of a coal-seam so that a thinning of the seam 
takes place. A floor-roll is also known as a "horseback." A combination of a floor 
and a roof roll produces a '" pinch." In some ca.ses the coal may pinch out altogether 
for a short distance. Figures .J, G. and 7 illustrate a stratigraphic roll, a floor-roll 
or horseback, and a combined floor and roof roll. Each of these types is common in the 
Grevmouth coal-field. 



Sandstone 
Shale 




Fig. 7. — Roof-roll axd Floor-roll or " Pinch " in Coal-seam. 



Bore Lug^. 

A considerable number of bores have been put down by the diamond drill on the 
State Coal Reserve. The following table summarizes the logs of two bores, supplied by 
the courtesy of Mr. James Bishop, manager of the Point Elizabeth State Coal-mine : — 



No. 1 Bore on No. 1 Section. 
(Started 17th December, 1906.) 



Thickness. 



Total 
Depth. 



No. 4 Bore. 



(Started 4th February, 1908, and flniahed 
9th ApriL) 



Thickness. 



Total 
Depth. 



[ Ft. in. 

Surface soil, &c. . . . . 2 

Marl and tine sandstone [Hori- 194 

zon of Island Sandstone] 

Sandstone . . . . . . 69 



Dirty coal [Seam 1a] . . 1 10 

Sandstone and shale with coal- 5 

streaks, &c. 

Coarse grey sandstone, with 21 .5 

pebbles 

Sandstone and shale, with some 57 6 

fireclay I 

I 

Coal . . . . . . 10 

Fireclay, shale, and sandstone . . 28 4 

Coal, main seam [No. 1] . . | 10 10 

Shale and sandstone . . 8 5 

Dirty coal [No. 2 seam] . . 14 

Grey shale . . . . . . 16 



Ft. 


in. 


' 2 





196 





265 





266 


10 


271 


10 


292 


6 


350 





351 





379 


4 


390 


2 


398 


7 


399 


11 


401 


5 

i 



I Ft. in. 
Surface soil, &c. . . . . 9 

Marl, &c., [Kaiata Mudstone 988 

and Island Sandstone] 
Sandstone and shale 
Dirty coal . . 
Shale, sandstone, &c. 
Dirty coal [probably 1a] 
Shale, sandstone, &c., with 

some coal-streaks 
Coarse pebble grit . . 



39 

6 
32 6 

1 
24 



Ft. 

9 

997 

1,036 
1,036 
1,069 
1,070 
1,094 



1,224 
1,229 
1,232 
1,232 
1,234 
1,254 
1,255 
1,453 



29 1,123 



Clay, shale, and sandstone, with 100 6 1,223 6 

streaks of coal at 1,178 ft., 

1,206 ft., and 1,218 ft. 
Coal .. .. .. ! 13 

Fireclav, &c. . . . . ' 4 6 

(Coal ' .. .. ..I 2 11 

- Grey fireclav [shale] . . j 6 

(Coal ..- .. .. 1 2 

Fireclav and sandstone . . ! 19 7 

Coal [No. 2] . . . . ! 1 

Fireclay-, clay, shale, and sand- 198 

stone (last predominating) in 

thin beds, with streaks of 

coal at 1,264 ft. 3 in., 1,334 ft. j 

3 in., 1,404 ft. 9 in., and I 

1,432 ft. 1 in. Coarse sand- | 

stone at 1,317-1,329 ft. ' 



During the years 1902-1903 the Greymouth Harbour Board drilled three bores 
by diamond drill on its endowment near Dobson. The sites of these bores are marked 



129 



on the geolot^ical map of the Arnold Survey District, and also on the special 60-chain 
map of the Greymouth Coalfield. The logs, as kindly supplied by Mr. Burnett, formerly 
Secretary to the Harbour Board, are as follows: — 

Log of No. 1 Bore (April, 1902) taken from Map in Office. 



Depth. 



Stratum. 



Thickness. 



Surface to- 


_ 


i 


15 ft. 




• • 


350 ft. 






' 


352 ft. 








455 ft. 








536 ft. 








540 ft. 








549 ft. 








555 ft. 


3 


m. 




560 ft. 








561ft. 






. 1 


572 ft. 


6 


in. 




584 ft. 


6 


in. 




594 ft. 


6 


in. 





Surface soil, clay, gravel 

Dark-grey micaceous sandstone 

Grey gritty sandstone 

Dark-grey sandstone 

" Granite " grit 

Gritty sandstone 

Grey sandstone 

Coal with bands of stone [Brunner riderj 

" Granite " grit 

Dark-grey sandstone 

" Granite " grit 

Coal [Brunner seam] 

Sandstone . . 



Ft. in. 

15 

335 

2 

103 

81 

4 

9 

6 

4 

1 



11 6 

12 
12 



The driller reported as follows on the coal: "In No. 1 bore 4 ft. 9 in. seam 
[? 6 ft. 3 in.] was a mixture of blaes and coal. The 12 ft. seam was very clean and free 
from stone." 

The rock in this bore from 15 ft. to 4").") ft. is Island Sandstone, which is therefore 
440 ft. thick (measured at an angle of about 74° to the dij)). At 4.")") ft. Brunner Beds 
appear to begin. 

Lo<i of No. 2 Bore (July, 1902). 



Depth. 



Stratum. 



I Thickness. 



Surface to — 




10 ft. . . 


17 ft. . 




684 ft. . 




890 ft. . 




986 ft. . 




1,022 ft. . 




1,032 ft. . 




1,069 ft. . 




1,092 ft. . 




1,098 ft. . 




1,099 ft. . 




1,107 ft. . 




1,108 ft. . 




1,140 ft. . 




1,142 ft. 6 in. 


1,144 ft. .. 


. 



Yellow clay 

Gravel 

Fine-grained dark-grey micaceous sandstone 

Grey sandstone 

Fine-grained grey sandstone . . 

Fine-grained gritty micaceous sandstone 

Fine grey sandstone 

Soft dark sandstone 

Coarse grit 

Grey sandstone 

White pug [? fault produced] 

Coarse grit 

Fireclay [shale] 

Coarse grit 

Coal [Brunner rider] 

Fireclay . . 



Ft. 


in. 


10 





7 





667 





206 





106 





36 





10 





37 





23 





6 






1 

8 

1 
32 

2 6 
1 6 



From 17 ft. to 684 ft. this bore appears to have pas.sed through Kaiata Mudstone. 
From 684 ft to 1,009 ft. the rock is evidently Island Sandstone, below which the Brunner 
Beds come in. After passing through a small coal-seam, supposed to be the Brunner 
rider, the bore got into difficulties through caving of the sides, and was abandoned. 

9— Greymouth. 



130 

Log of So. 3 Bore {April, 1003). 



Depth. 



Stratum. 



Thickness. 



Surface to — 




Ft. in. 


19 ft. . . 


Surface soil, clay, and gravel 




19 


1,070 ft. .. 


Fine-grained dark micaceous sandstone 




1.051 


1,106 ft. . . 


Grey sandstone 




36 


1,206 ft. .. 


Dark-grey sandstone 




100 


1,208 ft. . . 


Light-grey sandstone 




2 


1,319 ft 


Dark-grey sandstone 




111 


1,336 ft 


Gritty quartz sandstone 




17 


1,347 ft. . . 


Grey micaceous sandstone . . 




11 


1,426 ft 


Gritty grey sandstone 




79 


1,452 ft. . . 


Gritty quartz sandstone 




26 


1,457 ft. . . 


Coarse grit, mainly quartz . . 
Water and natural gas 




5 


1.493 ft. 6 in. 


Coarse grit, mainly quartz . . 




36 6 


1,495 ft. 2 in. 


Coal [? Brunner rider] 




1 8 


1.498 ft. . . 


Fireclay . . 




2 10 


1,504 ft. . . 


Dark-grey sandstone 




6 


1,536 ft 


Coarse granite grit . . 




32 


1,538 ft. . . 


Dark fine-grained sandstone [slickensided] 




2 


1,566 ft 


Grey granite grit . . 




28 


1,574 ft. ; . 


Granite grit and shale 




8 


1,575 ft 


Black shale 




1 


1,605 ft. .. 


Coarse granite grit . . 




30 


1,613 ft. . . 


Dark mudstone 




8 


1,627 ft 


Coarse granite grit . . 




14 


1,632 ft 


Micaceous sandstone 




5 


1,644 ft. . . 


Coarse granite grit . . 




12 


1,645 ft 


Bluish-grey fireclay [? shale] 




1 


1,649 ft. . . 


Fine-grained sandstone 




4 


1,650 ft. 6 in. 


Fireclay [? shale] . . 




1 6 


1,693 ft. .. 


Coarse granite grit . . 




42 6 


1,695 ft 


Fireclay . . 




2 


1,702 ft. . . 


Dark micaceous sandstone . . 




7 


1,724 ft 


Granite grit 




22 


1,739 ft. . . 


Dark-grey micaceous sandstone 




15 


1,747 ft 


Granite grit 
Petroleum . . 




8 


1,735 ft. ! ! 


Dark-grey sandstone 




8 


1,756 ft. 6 in. 


Fireclay . . 




1 6 


1,765 ft. 6 in. 


Dark-grey sandstone 




9 


1,766 ft 


Fireclay . . 




6 


1,774 ft 


Fine granite grit 




8 


1,783 ft 


Dark micaceous sandstone . . 




9 


1,784 ft. 6 in. 


Fireclay . . 




1 6 


1,785 ft 


WTiite pug [? fault -produced] 




6 


1,786 ft 


Fireclay . . 




1 


1,792 ft 


Dark-grey sandstone 




6 


1,798 ft 


Granite grit 




6 


1,800 ft. . . 


Fireclay . . 




2 


1,804 ft 


Gritty micaceous sandstone . . 




4 


1,814 ft 


Granite grit 




10 


1,832 ft 


Dark-grey micaceous sandstone 




18 


1,846 ft 


Granite grit 




14 


1,904 ft 


Fine-grained sandstone 




58 


1,910 ft. . . 


Fine-grained grey sandstone. . 




6 


1,923 ft 


Coarse micaceous sandstone . . 




13 



131 



Log of No. 3 Bore (April, 1U03) — coutinued. 



Depth. 



Stratum. 



Thickness. 



Surface to — 
1,939 ft. . . 
1,949 ft. . . 
2,005 ft. . . 
2,059 ft. . . 
2,062 ft. . . 
2,137 ft. . . 
2,139 ft. . . 

2.153 ft. . . 

2.154 ft. . . 
2,158 ft. 6 ill. 
2,161ft. .. 
2,165 ft. . . 



Dark-grey sandstone 

Sandstone with " veins " of coal 

Dark micaceous sandstone . . 

Sandstone with " veins " of coal 

Gritty sandstone 

Dark micaceous sandstone . . 

Gritty sandstone 

Sandstone with " veins " of coal 

Gritty sandstone 

Dark-grey sandstone 

Gritty sandstone 

Dark-grey sandstone 



Ft. in. 

16 

10 

56 

54 

3 
75 

2 

14 

1 

4 6 

2 6 
4 



Samples of cures from this bore have been preserved, and are now located in the 
Greymouth Museum. Fium an inspection of these and the bore log it may be inferred 
that from 19 ft. to 1,070 ft., or perhaps 1,100 ft., the bore passed through Kaiata Mud- 
stoiie, from 1,070 ft. to 1,426 ft. through Island Sandstone (the upper 136 ft. of which 
is dark and Kne-grained), fi-om 1,426 ft. to about 1,.")36 ft. through Brunner Beds, and 
below that depth through Paparoa Beds (upper sandstones and shales). Some of the cores 
show dips varying from 18° to 22°, and others are more or less slickensided, especially 
from 1,538 ft. to 1,602 ft.* 

The writer believes that, owing to a normal fault that intersected the boreliole at 
about 1,498 ft., the Brunner seam, which otlierwise would have been cut at appro.vi- 
mately 1,525 ft., was missed. 

On, .AND Gas Shale. 
An oil or gas shale has been reported from the neighbuurhoc 
following analysis of a '"gas-shale seam," made in 1896 or 1897 h 
represents the occurrence: — 
Fixed carbon 

Volatile matter (hydrocarbon, &c.) 
Water driven off at 180° Fahr. 
Ash 

100-00 

A sample of shale collected near Smoke-Ho Creek (from neigiibourhood of coal- 
.seam) gave on analysis the following results : — 

Fi.xed carbon ... ... ... ... . . ... 3ri7 

Volatile hydrocarbons ... ... .. 3337 

Water ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 4-68 

Ash ... ... ... ... ... ... 30-78 



.d 


of 


DunoUie. The 


\' 


w. 


Skey, probably 

44-23 
45-63 

211 

8-03 



10000 
By distillation, oil and tar were obtained equivalent to 22-7 gallons per ton of 
shale. Tliis is only a very rough approximation, as tlie s.imple av.iilable for the test 
was very small. 

* Thp statements made in this sentence are founded mainly on a report made by Mr. Alex. McKay on 
seventy-two samples submitted to him in 190.3. 

9* — Greymouth 



132 

Petroleum, 
introduction. 
One of the chief reasons for making a geological survey of the Greymouth Sub- 
division was based on the occurrence of petroleum in the area. In view of the increas- 
ing importance of petroleum as a factor in the world's industrial progress, and, if 
Sumatra be excluded, the absence of any developed oil-field in the Southern Hemis- 
phere, the necessity for an adequate investigation of petroleum possibilities in New 
Zealand can hardly be too strongly insisted upon. As regards the Greymouth Sub- 
division, it will be sliown on later pages that favourable conditions for the occurrence 
of petroleum in considerable quantity seem to exist. At the same time, it has to be 
stated that the geological data obtained from surface examinations and from the some- 
what shallow trial bores over a restricted area are not conclusive, and require to be 
supplemented by deeper bores over a much greater area. In this area the geologist 
has the difficult task of formulating reliable conclusions from scant}- material, while 
at the same time avoiding on the one hand a sanguine optimism not justified by the 
facts, and on the other an overcautious depreciation or an excess of non-committal 
statements. 

MODE OF OCCURRENCE. 

Petroleum is known to occur in two localities within the subdivision — namely, at 
Kotuku, near Lake Brunner, and at Dobson, about five miles from Greymouth. 

At Kotuku, as stated in Chapter II, surface seepages of oil have been known 
since 1897. These occur near Deep Creek and its tributaries. Petroleum and Sawpit 
or Red creeks. Here the modern surface gravels within an area half a mile or more 
in length and some chains in width show numerous exudations of petroleum having a 
greenish-brown colour and a moderate degree of viscosity. In Sawpit Creek a band of 
outcropping Upper Miocene conglomerate also gives rise to an oil-seepage. At the gorge 
of Deep Creek, two miles north of Kotuku Railway-station, the Miocene sandstone, 
according to McKay, contains traces of oil.* This statement is confirmed by the fact 
that the freshly broken sandstone smells of petroleum. The numerous shallow bores 
that have been put down in recent years show that the strata underlying the petro- 
liferous surface gravels to a depth of about 350 ft. contain a considerable amount of 
oil. A limestone stratum met with at depths varying from 381 ft. to 455 ft. contains 
large quantities of salt water saturated with carbon-dioxide. The limestone is known 
to contain petroleum, but has not yet proved productive. Below the limestone comes 
a thick conglomerate containing thin sandy layers that are reported to contain oil and 
inflammable gas. It is not known whether oil-bearing strata occur below this con- 
glomerate or not, but the presumption is that the oil and gas in it have a deeper source. 

About 1903 a bore-hole drilled at Dobson in search of coal (see also page 130) en- 
countered some inflammable gas at a depth of 1,457 ft., and a thick oil, practically 
petroleum butter, at a depth of 1,747 ft. The oil occurred in a grit, enclosed in sand- 
stones. No attempt was made to ascertain the value of the discovery, beyond having 
an analysis of tlie material made (see page 135). In May, 1909, perceptibly warm 
water was issuing from the bore, carrying with it small quantities of a thick oil-scum, 
and bubljles of inflammable gas were constantly rising to the surface of the water in 
the bore-hole. In November, 1910, however, little or no oil-scum was observable, and 
the amount of inflammable gas was much less than eighteen months previously. 

* " Eeport on Indications of Petroleum at Deep Creek, Lake Brvinner, Nelson," Mines Report, C.-IO, 
1901, p. 10. 



133 

On the whole, it is probable that the Dobsou petroleum is merely a very local occur- 
rence, such as has in a few instances been reported in connection with coal-bearing 
rocks in various parts of the world. In that case it has no economic importance. 

At Fireball Creek, near Kumara, the Cobden Limestone, here exposed along an 
anticlinal axis, emits an evanescent smell of petroleum when freshly broken. 

MODE OF ACCUMULATION. 

Anticlinal Theory. — In order that " pools " of petroleum may occur, it is gene- 
rally considered that a stratum pervious to oil, such as sandstone, overlain by an im- 
pervious stratum — for example, a shale or other mudstont — must be present. When 
gas, as is practically always the case, occurs with the oil, it will naturally occupy the 
highest position it can attain — that is, in a horizontal pervious stratum it will be found 
at the top of the bed, and in folded or domed strata it will be found along the anti- 
clines or in the domes. If no water is present it is generally assumed that in the case 
of folded strata the oil will collect in the synclines or stratigraphical depressions. If 
but little water is present this, being heavier than oil,* will fill the synclines, and oil 
will occur on the anticlinal slopes. If, as is usual in most parts of the world, the strata 
contain much water, the oil will float or be driven upwards to the anticlines; and this, 
it is thought, will especially be the case when the water is under high in-drostatic head. 
Whether the oil actually reaches the anticline or not may be supposed to depend on the 
amount of gas and the imperviousness of the overlying strata. 

In many instances oil does occur in anticlines very closely associated with gas. 
Thus the essential correctness of the " anticlinal theory," or that hypothesis which 
assumes that gas, oil, and water will accumulate in a porous stratum according to the 
law of gravity, and therefore that under ordinary conditions gas and oil will accumu- 
late in anticlines, is generally regarded as proved. It is at least certain that there is 
a connection between geological structure and the occurrence of oil-accumulations. 

According to a slight modification of the anticlinal theory, oil may also occur in 
' terraces " or flats in the strata — that is, localities where inclined strata temporarily 
become horizontal, or nearly so. 

The anticlinal theory is not universally accepted, nor does it seem always to apply. 
There are, moreover, theoretical objections to its validity, one of the most important 
of which is that so-called capillary attraction would in most rocks overcome gravita- 
tional pressure. Since, however, the anticlinal theory, or hypotliesis as it ought rather 
to be called, is the most reasonable explanation of oil-accumulation yet enunciated, 
and is known to account for actual occurrences in many cases, its truth will generally 
be assumed by the writer on later pages. 

MODE OF ORICIN. 

Hypotheses dealing with the genesis of petroleum are almost innumerable, hut there 
is none that accounts for all the facts, and it therefore seems probable that petroleum 
originates in more than one way. There are two main schools of thought — one that 
favours an organic genesis, and one that advocates an inorganic genesis. G. F. Becker 
has advanced the view that petroleum originates both organically and inorganically 
in economically important quantities. Eugene Coste advocates what may be called the 
volcanic hypothesis. 

Under almost any hypothesis hitherto advocated there is little difficulty in account- 
ing for the petroleum found in the Greymouth District. There is a large amount of 
animal as well as some vegetable matter in the marine strata from the Blue Bottom 
Formation to the Island Sandstone. Below the Island Sandstone the numerous coal- 

• Very exceptionally, oil has a specific gravity greater than that of water. 



184 

seams of the Brunner and Paparoa beds may be considered by some as a probable source 
of oil under certain conditions. Since igneous rocks (of more than one age) are also 
present, the volcanic hypothesis of Coste may Ije invoked if desired. 

To the writer it seems probable that the petroleum in the Greymouth Subdivision 
has originated for the most part from the animal-remains in the marine Tertiaries, 
and more particularly from Foraminifera, which are abundant in almost all the marine 
strata. Algae such as Lithothaimiwn may also have formed a notable portion of the oil. 

The petroleum found at Dobson has evidently originated from vegetable-matter in 
the coal-measures. It is of a very diSerent character from that of the Kotuku district, 
which, as inferred above, is probably mainly of animal origin. 

PHYSICAL AXD CHEMICAL I-HOPERTIES. 

The oil obtained at Kotuku is, as a rule, of a dark-green colour. Some, however, 
such as that from a depth of 176 ft. in the Kotuku Oil Syndicate's A2 bore, may be 
described as of a clear green colour. Surface oil having naturally been affected by 
volatilization, has a more or less brownish tint. As regards viscosity, the oil, while 
much thicker at temperatures above 55° to 60° Fahr. than oils from the Poverty Bay 
district, is somewhat less viscous than most samples of Taranaki oil. Ihe average 
specific gravity is 0'885. 

Analyses show that the percentage of benzine is low, that of burning-oil or kero- 
sene fairly high, and that of lubricating-oil well above the average. The percen- 
tage of paraffin is remarkably small. Nitrogen and sulphur are both low, the latter 
feature being especially satisfactory. If oil should ever be obtained from greater depths 
than has hitherto been the case, the percentage of benzine may be expected to show an 
increase, and that of lubricating-oil a decrease. Paraffin, however, may possibly be 
present in greater amount. 

The first analysis of Kotuku oil was made in January, 1901, by Mr. B. C. Aston, 
Chief Chemist to the Agricultural Department. His report is as follows : — 

"Crude Petroleum. — This is a brownish-black liquid oil, having a specific gravity 
of 0"921. It retains its li(juid state when subjected to a temperature of — 1.")° C. On 
fractionating it by distillation, it yields the following : — 

Below 150° C. (light oils and naphtha) ... ... Trace. 

,, 150°-300O C. (burning-oil, S.G. 0-863)... ... 37 per cent. 

,, 3000-400° C. (heavy oil, S.G. 0-884) ... ... 42 

Above 400° C. (tarry residue in retort) ... ... 21 ,, 

100 

" The sample has a higher specific gravity than most American crude petroleums, 
but this and the absence of light oils and naphtha might be accounted for partly by 
the exposure of the sample in thin layers before it was collected, entailing volatilization 
of the lighter fractions, with possibly some oxidation of the remainder. 

" The oil contained in the first fraction is rather heavier than is usually used for 
burning purposes. That in the second fraction would probably find best application 
as a lubricant. The tarry residue could be used for fuel." 

The sample of petroleum submitted to Mr. Aston was surface-oil, as indicated above, 
and was probably taken from the first-discovered oil-seepage on the left bank of Petro- 
leum Creek. A comparison of the analysis given above with those under A and B 
below will prove interesting. 

The following tabulated analyses will enable a comparison to be made between 
petroleums from Kotuku, Dobson, Poverty Bay, Taranaki, Pennsylvania, and Cali- 
fornia : — 



135 



A. Complete Analyses made in September, 1910, of Two Samples from Bores West of Deep Creek. 

(Specific gravity of I, 0-863 ; of II, 0-899.) 





I 




U 


• 


III. 


' 




Specific 




Specific 






Per Cent. 


Gravity 
at 15.i>° C. 


Per Cent. 


Gravity 
at 15-5° C. 


Per Cent. 


Water, &c. . . 


Nil 




14-50 






Petroleum spirit (benzine) distilling below 150° C. . 


15-00 


0-753 


9-00 


0-790 


16-53 


Burning-oil (kerosene) distilling between 150° C. and 


4200 


0-850 


30-20 


0-856 


35-32 


300° C. 












Lubricating-oil distilling above 300° C. . . 


37-70 


0-895 


41-45 


0-889 


48-48 


Paraflfin 


1-30 




1-05 




1-23 


Pitch and loss 


4-00 




3-80 


-- 


4-44 




100-00 


100-00 


100-00 


Nitrogen, per cent. 


0-08 


0-08 


009 


Sulphur, per cent. 


019 




016 




019 


Calories per gram (by calorimeter) 


10,590 




8,737 




[10,219]* 


No. of pounds of water at 212° Fahr. evaporated by 


19-76 




16-30 




[19-06J* 


1 lb. of oil 













I. Sample from bore on flat near store. 

II. Sample from bore on terrace (A2). 

IIa. Analysis II recalculated, with omission of water. 

Dr. Maclaurin remark.s: "The samples contain larger percentages of benzine tlian 
those from the same district examined in the Laboratory in 1907. The benzine is 
colourless, and of good quality. The burning-oil, after purification with sulphuric 
acid and soda and redistillation, has a faint yellow colour. By rejecting that por- 
tion which distils over above 270° C. an almost colourless oil is, however, ol)taiiie(l. The 
percentage of lubricants is higher than in most mineral oils." 

B. Summary of other Analyses of Kotuku Petroleum, together with Analysis of Dohson Petroleum. 





I. 


n. 


UI. 




Per Cent. 


Specific 
Gravity. 


Per Cent. 


Specific 

Gravity 

at 15-5° C. 


Per Cent. 


Specific 
Gravity. 


Water .. 

Petroleum spirit (benzine) distilling 

below 150° C. 
Burning - oil (kerosene) distilling 

between 150° C. and 300° C. 
Lubricating-oil distilling above 300° C. 
Pitch or coke 
Loss 


42-3 
51-0 


0-800 
0-912 


410 

42-40 

47-80 
5-20 
0-50 


0-7594 
0-8443 
0-9024 

0-8934 


26-50 
1-50 

2000 

39-15t 
7-20t 
5-65 


0-755 
0-8026 




100-00 


100-00 




Specific gravity of crude oil 




•■ 


•• 



I. Analysis made by D. B. Waters, in October, 1906, of oil from one of Kotuku 

Oil Association's wells. 
II. Analysis made in Dominion Laboratory in 1906 of oil from 4 in. well, Kotuku 
Oil Association. 
III. Analysis made in Dominion Laboratory in 190.? of petroleum from Greymouth 
Harbour Board's No. .3 bore at Dobson (depth of petroliferous layer, 1,747 ft.). 



* In these recalcidated results no allowance has been made beyond eliminating the water-percentage. 
In practice, were the oil actually free from water, higher figures would be obtained. 
t SoUd at ordinary temperature. 
X Containing 4-65 per cent, of ash. 



136 



0. Analyses of Gisborne, Taranaki, 


Pennsylvanian, 


and Californian Oils f 


or Comparison. 




I. 


II. 


ni. 


IV. 


V. 




Per Cent. 


Specific 
Gravity. 


Per Cent. 


Specific 
Gravity. 


Per Cent. 


Per Cent. 


^"^"t- IS 


Water 

Petroleum spirit (benzine) distilling 

below 150° 
Burning - oil (kerosene) distilling 

between 150° and 300° 
Lubricating-oil distilling above 300° 
Paraffin 
Pitch 
Loss, &c. 


Nil 
Nil 

47-2 

51-7 
1-1 


0-836 


2-7 
14-0 

39-0 

20-5 

14-5 

9-3 


0-7426 
0-8317 


20-0 
60-0 

i 25-3 

1 

1-12 
(3-58) 


15-6 
45-0 

32-0 

[ 8-0 


1-2 

24-5 

21-5* 

42-Ot 

( 10-8 

"( ... 


0-745 

0-8345 

1 0-905- 
to-917 




100-0 


100-0 


100-00 


100-0 


100-0 


•• 


Specific gravity of crude oil 


-■ 




•- 


-• 


0-810 


0-844 


0-891 


•• 



1. t'rom main Waitaiigi Spring, Gisborne. 
II. From bore-hole near breakwater, New Plymouth, 1908. 

III. From Bradford, Pennsylvania. 

IV. From Pico Canyon, California. 

V. From Santa Maria district, California. 

SPECIAL, AREA. THE KOTUKU OILFIELD. 

On page 30 Nils Mortensen's discovery of petroleum at Kotuku in 1897 was re- 
corded, and the history of the various oil-prospecting companies was given. In the 
fuller description of the district now to folloAv, some repetition of material on former 
pages is desirable for the sake of convenience. 



Situation and Topography. 

The Kotuku Oilfield is about twenty-one miles by rail south-east of the Port of 
Greymouth, and about two miles north of Lake Brunner. The Arnold River forms 
the southern boundary? of the district, and, though tliis stream is not navigable to- 
wards the sea except for canoes and small boats, its valley affords a good route for the 
railway-line from Greymouth. On the noi-th side of the Arnold is the gravel-covered 
Kotuku Flat, which extends with a gradual upward slope about two miles to the north. 
The surface of Kotuku Flat varies from 287 ft. above sea-level at the railway-station 
to about 360 ft. near Deep Cresk gorge. Several hundred acres of the flat are open 
land, or pakihi. The remaining portion and the surrounding country are clothed 
by a forest containing large amounts of good milling-timber (rimu, kahikatea, silver- 
pine, beech, kc). 

The district is traversed by two tributaries of the Arnold River, one of which is 
Molloy Creek, coming from the east, and the other Deep Creek, or, as it is named on 
old maps. Brown's River. Deep Creek rises on Bell Hill, and, after flowing north 
of west for about eight miles, turns to the south and passes through a gorge in which 
Miocene sandstones are exposed. It finally enters the Arnold River at a point two 
miles and a quarter south of the gorge and about 300 yards west of Kotuku Railway- 
station. In the latter part of its course Deep Creek is joined from the westward by 
Red or Sawpit Creek and by Petroleum Creek. 

* At 150° to 250° C. 

t 250° C. to 350° : 19-0 per cent. Above 350° C. : 23-0 per cent. 



137 

Surrounding Kotuku Flat in almost all directions are terraces and ridges that to 
the westward may ba considered as composed of Huviatile gravels, but to the north- 
eastward, and more especially eastward, are largely formed of fluvio-glacial and morainic 
material. South of the Arnold is hill^^ country of the same character as that to the 
east of Kotuku. 

Slightly to the west of north from Kotuku Flat is a rounded hill 1,230 ft. in 
height. This hill, known as Molloy's Look-out, is formed largely of Miocene sand- 
stone, with a gravel cap. 

Resume of Geology. 

As may be inferred from the topographical description, almost the whole of the 
Kotuku district is covered by loosely consolidated debris. This material, which is 
mainly of Pleistocene age, for the most part consists of fluvio-glacial and morainic 
gravels, but in places may be regarded as of ordinary fluviatile, and possibly even as 
of lacustrine deposition. For example, the fine gravels between Kotuku Railway- 
station and Lake Brunner seem to be due to deposition by the Arnold and small tribu- 
tary streams after the Pleistocene ice-sheet had retreated somewhat. The fine gravels, 
coarse sand, and clays encountered in a bore near Kotuku Railway-station (Lake Brunner 
Oil Company's No. 3 well) may be of glacio-lacustrine deposition. The somewhat con- 
solidated gravels, sands, clays, and lignite found from a few feet below the surface to 
the horizon of the Miocene sandstone in most of the oil-bores are probably of Pleistocene 
age. A consideration of the bore logs shows that an unconformity exists between these 
Pleistocene beds and the underlying Miocene rocks. 

Northward and westward of Kotuku Flat the Pleistocene deposits thin consider- 
ably, with the result that exposures of the underlying rocks appear. These, in the 
valley of Deep Creek above the gorge, are seen to be compacted gravels with sand and 
lignite layers, probably referable to the Moutere or Old Man Gravels of Pliocene 
age since, no far as can be determined, they are somewhat older than the similar 
beds mentioned above, and rest without any detectable unconformity upon Miocene 
sandstones and mudstones with interbedded conglomerate. These latter rocks are seen 
in Deep Creek gorge, on the slopes of Molloy's Look-out, along the track from the 
suspension foot-bridge over Deep Creek to Notown, and in Sawpit Creek. Cores ob- 
tained from some of the bores show that under Kotuku Flat the sandstones are fine- 
grained and highly argillaceous. They are more or less calcareous, and some samples 
show Foraminifera (JJlohigerina, Amphistegina) and fragments of small shells. 

In the Lake Brunner Oil Company's No. 6 bore a moderately fin? conglomerate 
was encountered at 66 ft. When the bore was abandoned at a depth of 322 ft. it was 
still in this conglomerate. The cores show that it consists of pebbles of grauwacke, 
argillite, granite, and quartz, cemented by a paste of finer material. Large boulders 
were reported by the driller in the lower part of the bore. The exact horizon of this 
conglomerate must remain doubtful until further drilling has been done. 

Below the sandstone, at depths of from 381 ft. to 455 ft., the deeper bores prove 
the existence of a stratum of nearly pure limestone 110 ft. to 123 ft. in thickness. This 
limestone is correlated by the writer with the Cobden Limestone. Its smaller thick- 
ness as compared with the exposures near Greymouth is in accordance with the observa- 
tion that south-east from Greymouth the limestone thins considerably. Microscopic 
examination of a section of the limestone from the Lake Brunner Oil Company's No. 2 
bore shows that it consists mainly of shell-fragments. There are also some large forami- 
niferal tests (? Amphistegina) present. 

Below the limestone, and apparently separated from it by a foot or less of sands, 
is, according to the logs of the Lake Brunner Oil Company's Nos. 2 and 9 wells, a 



138 

thick deposit of conglomerate, with occasional seams of finer material. ITie pebbles 
of this conglomerate are stated to be granite and " slate " (argillite and grauwackej. 
Towards the bottom of No. 9 bore large boulders were reported. 

No. 2 bore penetrated this conglomerate for 209 ft., and was then abandoned. 
No. 9 bore penetrated it for 289 ft., when, according to the log, clay mixed with stones 
was encountered, and drilled through for IG ft. before the bore was stopped. This 
stratum may possibly represent an old land-surface. 

Once for all it may here be said that there is considerable doubt as to the exact 
nature of this conglomerate, more particularly in its lower layers. Much depends on 
the accuracy of the bore-hole logs, but as there is every reason for believing that they 
faithfully recorded the driller's impressions, it is reasonable to assume that they are 
correct until proof of any error is forthcoming. 

According to the geological succession found in other parts of the Greymouth Sub- 
division, a quite different rock, the mudstone of the Port Elizabeth Beds, ought to 
have succeeded the limestone. The presence of the conglomerate seems best explained 
by the supposition of an unconformity between the coal-measures and the Miocene 
strata. This question has already been discussed in connection with the coal grits of 
the Omotumotu Beds (see page 66). 

The horizon or age of this Kotuku conglomerate must remain uncertain for the 
present. The writer provisionally correlates it with the Omotumotu Beds. It may 
therefore be Miocene, and separated from the Cobden Limestone by a local unconformity, 
or it may possibly belong to the coal-measures, in which case the prospects of oil at 
depth in the Kotuku district would be considerably less than under the former sup- 
position. 

Under the Kotuku conglomerate there may be coal-measure rocks, and these, if 
present, will be succeeded downwards by the highly folded grauwackes and argillites 
of the Greenland Series. Once these i-ocks a)e reached it will be useless to continue 
boring in search of oil. It is highly important to prove the presence or absence of 
the coal-measures. This can be done only by boring through the conglomerate, and 
it is therefore most desirable that at least one deep well should be drilled without 
loss of time. 

Oil-indications. 
The surface oil-indications at Kotuku consist of petroleum-seepages, gas-escapes, 
rock smelling of oil, and mineral springs. Indications obtained in the bores consist of 
petroleum itself, gas, and salt water. 

Petroleum-seepages. 

On the left bank of Petroleum Creek, 5 or 6 chains above its junction with Deep 
Creek, are the seepages of oil observed by Nils Mortensen in 1897. Two small holes 
which have been dug near this point are partly filled with water, upon which floats a 
layer of rather thick greenish-brown oil. About 2 chains to the northward is the first 
bore put down on the field. A certain amount of oil that reaches the surface around 
the pipe is apparently oozing out of surface gravels. 

On the east bank of Deep Creek, above the foot-bridge near Petroleum Creek junc- 
tion, is a spot where petroleum has been observed to ooze. Northward along the channels 
of Deep Creek and its anastomosing branches or bywashes a considerable amount of 
oxide of iron associated with oily films is observable on the gravels above water-mark 
and in small almost stagnant pools. The oily material may be due to surface decom- 
position of algae, (fee, but, on the whole, is more probably due to petroleum, of which 



139 

there is in many places a slight but distinct odour. About half a mile above the foot- 
bridge one or two shallow pits showing oil-seepages have been dug in the gravels on the 
western side of Deep Creek. 

In Red or Sawpit Creek — the former name being due to the oxide of iron its water 
deposits — there is a very noticeable seepage of oil between 6 and 7 chains above its 
junction with Deep Creek. The seepage appears at the foot of a small bluff of con- 
glomerate with overlying sandstone on the right bank of the creek. At the water-level 
the conglomerate appears to be saturated with a dark moderately thick oil, which is 
slowly oozing out into a small test-pit filled witli water. On tlie opposite bank of the 
stream tlie loose gravels at and below water-level arc more or less impregnated with 
petroleum. 

Gas-escapea. 

About 3^ chains to the north-west of the oil-seepages in Sawpit Creek numerous 
small bubbles of inflammable gas are escaping from the surface of a pool of water in a 
little watercourse near the right bank of Sawpit Creek. The gas, though small in quan- 
tity, is probably associated with the oil-(X;currences. It burns with a pale-blue flame, 
and is presumably methane (CH^). 

About a quarter of a mile, or somewhat more, above the junction of Sawpit and 
Deep creeks a few gas-bubbles may be observed rising from the bed of the latter stream. 
These are probably carbon-dio.\ide. 

Half a mile to the north of this occurrence, at a point just above the Bell Hill- 
Notown track crossing, numerous bubbles of gas appear in Deep Creek bed. These 
are seen at intervals for 12 chains or more above the foot-bridge, until a point in the 
gorge near the so-called soda-springs is reached. The gas extinguishes a matcli-flame, 
and appears to be almost pure carbon-dioxide. 

An escape of gas is reported to have been noticed at .Mr. J. Marshall's sawmill 
(about three miles ea.st of Deep Creek gorge) wiien post-holes were being dug .some time 
ago. Inquiries made support the view that the gas was simply air exuding from the 
surface gravels during a fall of the barometer. 

Rock ■iinellinj of Oil. 
When freshly broken the sandstone of the lower part of Deep Creek gorge has a 
noticeable smell of petroleum. Many years ago it was observed by the alluvial-gold 
miners that this sandstone contained traces of oil, and, as already noted, tliis fact was 
recorded by McKay in 1901. 

Mineral Springs. 

The two " soda-water " springs in Deep Creek gorge are described on page 38. 
Small springs depositing oxide of iron are very common along the course of Deep Creek 
and its tributaries. Petroleum and Sawpit creeks. In and near the area over which oil- 
seepages are found oxide-of-iron deposits are very prominent, and may be regarded as 
an indication of oil. Elsewhere the appearance of oxide of iron seems to have no par- 
ticular significance. 

The oil-indications given by the various bores will be detailed under the next 
heading. 

Exploitation . 

The exploratory work of the last ten or twelve years consists in the sinking of a 
few te.-^t-pits, of a small shaft 83 ft. in depth, and of about twenty bore-holes ranging 
from 40 ft. to 871 ft. in depth. 



140 

Kotulcu Consolidated Oil Company. 

The Kotuku Consolidated Oil Company's cliief work was tlic diilling of a hole near 
Petroleum Creek to a depth of 1G7 ft. Of this bore no log is available, but the strata 
through which it passed are stated to have consisted of gravel, silt, and sandstone, 
with a little lignite, or practically the same rocks as proved by later bores to the north. 
The bore is said to have yielded a little oil all the way down. 

Kotuku Oil Association or Syndicate. 

The Kotuku Oil Syndicate — a private concern in which Mr. Joseph Taylor held the 
principal interest — during the years 1902-9 drilled nine or ten holes, varying in depth 
from 40 ft. to 446 ft., and sank the small shaft mentioned alwve. These operations were 
conducted in a small area on the western side of Deep Creek, between Petroleum and 
Sawpit creeks. All the bores except one were located on Kotuku Flat, near the base of 
the western terrace. The exception was the bore numbered A2, which was drilled on 
the terrace-top. 

The various bores and the .shaft all passed through oil-bearing layers, the best of 
which are stated to have been from 40 ft. to 80 ft. below the surface (of Kotuku Flat). 
Although in no case was the flow of oil large, yet several of the bores have continued 
to yield oil to the present time at the rate of a few gallons per day. Up to the end of 
1910 about 250 barrels of oil had been saved from the shaft and the various bores. 

The following are the records of the shaft and several of the bores of the Kotuku 
Oil Association (data supplied by Messrs. Joseph and Charles Taylor, additions by 
writer in square brackets) : — 

Shaft sunk at Foot of Terrace, Western Side of Deep Creek. 
Oft. to 8ft. ... Surface gravels [probably modern creek giavels]. 
8 ft. to 26 ft. ... Conglomerate. 

26 ft. to 48 ft. ... Grey and brown clays. 

48ft. to 50ft. ... Brown carbonaceous shales with thin lignitic 

seams, showing a little oil. 

50ft. to 55 ft. ... Pebbly sands. 

55ft. to 57ft. ... Thin layers of carbonaceous shale. 

57ft. to 67ft. ... Open sands, heavily charged with non-inflam- 
mable gas [probably carbon-dioxide]. Con- 
tain a little water. 

67 ft. to 70ft. ... Layers of blue pug with a little oil. 

70 ft. to 76 ft. Petroliferous conglomerate, from which oil ex- 

udes. 

76 ft. to 80ft. ... A thin seam of pug containing oil, followed by 

4 ft. of brown shale and lignite. 

80ft. to 83ft. ... Sandy beds. Gas given oft by small hole drilled 

in bottom of shaft [probably carbon-dioxide]. 

It is probable that the beds encountered in this shaft from 8 ft. downwards are of 
Pleistocene age. They show a gentle dip 'slightly to the west of south. 

Nos. 1 to 7 bores of the Kotuku Oil A.ssociation passed through beds similar to 
those in the shaft. None of these is known to have entered the argillaceous sandstone 
of Miocene age, though probably the deepest hole did reach this rock. 



141 

The following logs are typical of the shallower wells bored by the Kotuku Oil 
Association : — 

Log of B4 Well {79 ft. Deep). 

Oft. to 15ft. ... ... ... Surface gravel, &c. 

15ft. to 35 ft. ... ... ... Conglomerate. 

35 ft. to 38 ft. ... ... ... Blue pug [clay or soft shale]. 

38ft. to 40 ft. ... .. . . Brown shale. 

40ft. to 61ft. ... ... ... Conglomerate. 

61ft. to 63 ft. ... ... Brown shale. 

63 ft. to 75 ft. ... ... ... Blue pug. 

75ft. to 79ft. .. ... ... Brown sand and oil. 

RevMiks. — This well is now full of debris, but formerly gave 12 gallons of oil 
per week. 

Lo(j oj B5 Well (111 ft. Deep). 

Surface gravel. 

Conglomerate. 

Blue pug [clay or soft shale]. 

Brown pug and lignite. 

Blue pug. 

Brown pug. 

Blue pug. 

Brown pug. 

Blue pug. 

Brown sand and oil. 

Blue pug. 

Reiruirks. — This well was drilled by hand, through very soft country, and at 107 ft. 
a sandy bed 2 ft. thick, carrying oil, was met with. The initial yield was 24 gallons 
for twenty-four hours, and for three years this well has given 15 gallons per week, 
although half-full of debris and the water not shut off. Had the water-seam above the 
oil been cut off and the well cased mucli lietter results woidd liave been obtained. 



Oft. 


to 


14 ft. .. 


14 ft. 


to 


28 ft. ... 


2«ft. 


to 


48 ft. .. 


48 ft. 


to 


50 ft. ... 


50 ft. 


to 


80 ft. ... 


80 ft. 


to 


83 ft. ... 


83 ft. 


to 


90 ft. .. 


94 ft. 


to 


98 ft. .. 


98 ft. 


to 


107 ft. ... 


107 ft. 


to 


109 ft. ... 


109 ft. 


to 


1 1 1 ft. . . . 



Lo<j of £6 Well (129 ft. Deep.) 

Surface gravel, &c. 

Conglomerate. 

Blue and brown pug [clay or soft shale]. 

Hard conglomerate. 

Brown pug and lignite. 

Hard sandstone. 

Brown pug and lignite. 

Hard brown and blue pug. 

Hard conglomerate. 

Soft blue pug (oil). 

Remarks. — This machine-drilled well passed through harder ground than B5. A 
small oil-bearing l)ed was met with at lOoft., and yields 12 gallons per week. The 
water-bed above the oil was cut off, but the oil-bed was very poor when struck. 

Of the two deepest bores, Al, drilled at the foot of the terrace and a few chains 
north of the shaft, after penetrating nearly 300 ft. of argillaceous sandstone, entered 
limestone at a depth of 381 ft. The limestone was almost dry at first, but gave off 
carbon-dioxide smelling of petroleum. 



Oft. 


to 


11 ft. .. 


lift. 


to 


31 ft. . 


31ft. 


to 


53 ft. . 


53 ft. 


to 


68 ft. . 


68 ft. 


to 


70 ft. .. 


70 ft. 


to 


71 ft. .. 


71 ft. 


to 


91 ft. .. 


91ft. 


to 


104 ft. .. 


104 ft. 


to 


106 ft. .. 


106 ft. 


to 


129 ft. .. 



Oft. 


to 


10 ft. 


10 ft. 


to 


32 ft. 


32 ft. 


to 


52 ft. 


52 ft. 


to 


67 ft. 


67 ft. 


to 


69 ft. 


69 ft. 


to 


70 ft. 


70 ft. 


to 


71 ft. 


71 ft. 


to 


76 ft. 


76 ft. 


to 


93^ ft. 


93| ft. 


to 


381 ft. 



142 

The log of this bore, as supplied by Mr. Charles Taylor, is as follows: — 

Gravel. 
Conglomerate. 

Brown pug [clay or soft shale]. 
Conglomerate. 
Brown pug. 
Hard conglomerate. 
Brown pug and lignite. 
Sandstone ; carried water and gas. 
Brown pug, lignite, sand, brown pug ; carried 

oil. 
Fine-grained argillaceous sandstone, with hard 

bands in places. 
381ft. to 400ft. ... Decomposed [soft, fissured] limestone (sandy); 

contained gas [COj] f^iiJ salt water. 

Rem/irks. — The usual shallow oil was met with at 95 ft. The best oil was obtained 
from 303ft. to 355 ft., as much as 80 gallons being obtained in twelve hours; but the 
argillaceous sandstone was not a suitable containing-bed. At 381 ft. the drill went 
into a soft porous seam, composed of sand and decomposed limestone, heavily charged 
with gas. After a week salt water broke in, and the well was abandoned. 

In November, 1910, the well was still throwing out salt water to a height of 30 ft., 
with an occasional spray to over 50 ft. 

The strata encountered in this bore from 10 ft. to 93 J ft. are probably of Early 
Pleistocene (or possibly Late Pliocene) age. Below 93i ft. the beds are Miocene. 

The bore numbered A2 was drilled during the first four months of 1909 about 
4 chains to the south of west from bore Al. It was on the terrace-top, almost exactly 
50 ft. above Al. At 176 ft. a show of oil equal to over a barrel per day was observed, 
but this soon fell off to a few gallons per day. The hole was then cased past the oil- 
layer, and boring continued to test deeper beds. At 422 ft. the bore entered calcareous 
sandstone or arenaceous limestone, which at about 426 ft. passed into fairly pure lime- 
stone. A considerable amount of carbon-dioxide was given off by the limestone, but 
no salt water had appeared at 448 ft., when boring was stopped in limestone. 

At the end of 1910 this well was still yielding oil of good quality (see analysis, 
page 135), except that it contained some water, due to churning of water and oil 
caused by gas rising from the limestone. 

The log of this bore, as supplied by Mr. Charles Taylor, is as follows: — 

Oft. to 10ft. Surface gravel. 

10 ft. to 30 ft. Blue pug or clay. [Probably gravelly.] 

30ft. to 84ft. ... Conglomerate. 
84 ft. to 107 ft. . . Brown pug or clay. 
107 ft. to 122 ft. . Hard conglomerate. [Compare with 52 ft. tc 67 ft. 

in log of Al.] 
122 ft. to 127 ft. Blue pug or clay. [Compare with 67 ft. to 69 ft. 

in log of Al.] 

127 ft. to 128 ft. .. Hard conglomerate. [Compare with 69 ft. to 70 ft. 

in log of Al.] 

128 ft. to 132 ft. .. Brown pug or clay. [Compare with 70 ft. to 71ft. 

in log of Al.] 
132 ft. to 140 ft. Conglomerate. 

140 ft. to 141 ft. .. Brown pug or clay. 



143 

141ft. to 148ft. ... Argillaceous sandstone. [Compare with 71ft. to 

76 ft. in log of Al.] 

148 ft. to 152 ft. Dark-brown mudstone and lignite. 

152 ft. to 174 ft. ... Light brown pug or clay, followed by blue clay. 

174 ft. to 170 ft. ... Hard conglomerate. Oil at 176 ft. 

176 ft. to 177 ft. ... Soft pug rock. 

177 ft. to 178ft. ... Hard pug rock. [Compare 148ft. to 178ft. in 

this log with 76 ft. to 93^ ft. in log of Al.] 

178 ft. to 180 ft. Soft az-gillac30us sandstone. 
180ft. to 410ft. ... Harder argillaceous sandstone. 
410ft. to 422 ft. ... Sandy mudstone. 

422ft. to 426 ft. ... Calcareous sandstone or arenaceous limestone. 
426 ft. to 448 ft.' . . Limestone, continuing. 

Just inside the eastern boundary of the area formerly beld by the Kotuku Oil 
Association are two shallow bores, which were drilled by the Lake Brunner Oil Com- 
pany, and are numbered Bl and B2. The logs of the.se bores, as supplied by Mr. 
Thomas Smith, formerly manager of the Lake Brunner Oil Company, are as follows* :— 

Strata passed through in Bl. 

Oft. to 14ft. ... Gravel. 

14ft. to 24ft. ... Clay and stones mixed. 

24 ft. to .■}2 ft. . ... .. ... Pug [clay] and shale. 

32 ft. to 61 ft. ... Clay and stones mixed. 

61 ft. to 62 ft. ... . Sand. Oil shows. 

62 ft. to 73 ft. . . ... Pbggy gravel. 

73 ft. to 73i ft. ... Sandstone. 

This is a 3 in. bore, sunk by hand. Oil .showed on the surface at site of bore, 
and every inch of material taken from bore was saturated with oil. At 73 ft. a fair 
quantity of oil was taken, and the bore in 1908 was yielding 2 to 3 gallons in twenty- 
four hours when baled regularly. 

Strata passed through in B2. 

Oft. to 12 ft. .. ... Gravel. 

12ft. to 45 ft. ... .. Fine gravel and sand. 

45ft. to 88ft. ... . . Gravel. 

88 ft. to 95 ft. Pug [clay]. 

95 ft. to 102 ft. Clay, gravel, conglomerate, traces of oil. 

102 ft. to 112 ft. . Soft sandstone. 

This is a 3 in. l)or3, sunk by hand, and situated 6 chains south of Bl. Very little 
oil showed in the material passed through. 

Lake Brunner Oil Company. 
The Lake Brunner Oil Company, now merged in the Kotuku Oilfields Syndicate, 
which held ground east of the Kotuku Oil Syndicate's leases, in addition to the two 
holes last mentioned, drilled nine holes on their property, varying in depth from 104 ft. 
to 871 ft. llie logs of these bores, according to data supplied by the Lake Brunner 
Oil Company (Mr. T. Smith, manager), are as follows: — 



* A few slight verbal alterations have been made in the logs and the remarks appended thereto, for the 
sake of clearness. 



144 

No. 1 Well {4i in. Bore, 104 ft. Deep). Situated about 78^ Chains North of Kotuku Railway-station. 
ft. to 15 ft. ... ... ... Course browu gravel. 

• • lilue pug [clay or soft shale]. 
... Blue pug, sand, and boulders. 

Blue gravel, carrying oil and gas. 
Sandstone. 



15 ft. to 48 ft. 

48 ft. to 102 ft. 

102 ft. to 103 ft. 

103 ft. to 104 ft. 



Summary of Remarks. — This was the first bore sunk on the Kotuku field. [Date 
about 1902.] From the gravel encountered at 102 ft. several barrels of petroleum were 
obtained. The flow of oil decreased after some little time, and on a pump being 
applied water came in freely, evidently from the same gravel as that which held the 
oil. In 1908 the well was still yielding a little oil and gas. [The oil, however, was 
not being collected.] 

The "hydraulic-jetting process" was used in drilling the hole, which was tubed to 
102 ft. (tubes driven with monkey). 

From 15 ft. downwards the strata encountered in this bore are probably of Pleis- 
tocene age. 

No. 2 Well {i^in. to 1^ in. Bore, 754 ft. Deep), 2i Chains South of No. 1 Well. 

Coarse brown gravel. 

Blue pug [clay]. 

Blue sand. 

Blue puggy sand and boulders. 

Blue pug. 

Blue sand. 

Blue pug. 

Pug mixed with gravel. 

Hard conglomerate, showing traces of oil. 

Blue sand. 

Hard conglomerate. 

Pug mixed with granite pebbles. Showed traces 
of oil. 

Sandstone [argillaceous and calcareous]. 

Decomposed [soft] limestone. Carbon-Jioxide and 
salt water showed freely. The gas displaced 
the water from the bore hourly [geyser-like 
action]. 
527 ft. to 545 ft. Hard limestone. Shows a little oil. 

545ft. to 754ft. ... Conglomerate, with pebbles of granite [slate, argil- 
lite, and grauwacke], and containing thin layers 
of sand that gave off oil and inflammable gas. 

Rem/irks. — The bore was started with 4^ in. casing, used to a depth of 142 ft. At 
419 ft. salt water, which played every two hours with geyser-like action, was struck. 
After a few days the interval decreased to an hour.* Drilling having been continued 
to 500 ft. 3 in. casing was then inserted, owing to the walls of the bore collapsing. At 
600 ft. H in. tubes were inserted, and drilling continued to 754 ft. 

The diamond drill was used for this hole from 500 ft. downwards. The log does 
not state what method was used for boring the upper portion of the well. 

Miocene strata appear in this bore from 142 ft. downwards. 

* New Zealand Mines Record, vol. 6, 1902-3, p. 497. 



Oft. 


to 


16 ft. 


16 ft. 


to 


53 ft. 


53 ft. 


to 


56 ft. 


56 ft. 


to 


80 ft. 


80 ft. 


to 


99 ft. 


99 ft. 


to 


105 ft. 


105 ft. 


to 


109 ft. 


109 ft. 


to 


122 ft. 


122 ft. 


to 


124 ft. 


124 ft. 


to 


126 ft. 


126 ft. 


to 


128 ft. 


128 ft. 


to 


142 ft. 


142 ft. 


to 


422 ft. 


422 ft. 


to 


527 ft. 



145 

No. 3 Well (6 in. to 5 in. Bore, 482 ft. Deep), about 23 Chains North-east of Koluku Railway-station. 

Fine gravel. 

Pug [clay or soft shale], with thin layers of sand. 
. Sand. 
• Pug. 

Pug, with thin layers of fine gravel. 

Gravel. 



ft. to 18 ft. 

18 ft. to 330 ft. 

330 ft. to 338 ft. 

338 ft. to 463 ft. 

463 ft. to 481 ft. 

481 ft. to 482 ft. 



Remarks. — The initial diameter of the bore was 6 in., reduced to Sin. ai 330ft. 
The method used in sinking was by cable drill and sand-pumping. Tubes were driven 
by monkey, but with very great difficulty, on account of tlie clinging nature of the 
material penetrated. No solid country was encountered, and only the faintest traces 
of oil [if any] seen. 

The strata encountered in this bore below- 18 ft. are of Pleistocene age, and were 
perhaps deposited in a glacial lake. 



No. 4 Well (3 in. Bore, 106 ft. Deep), about 2\ Chains North-east of No. 1 Well. 
Oft. to 2 ft. ... ... Soil. 



2 ft. to 11 ft. 

11 ft. to 35 ft. 

35 ft. to 75 ft. 

75 ft. to 93 ft. 

93 ft. to 99 ft. 

99 ft. to 106 ft. 



Brown gravel. 

Blue pug. 

Pug and gravel mixed 

Blue pug. 

Sand and gravel, with gas, oil, and water. 

Soft sandstone. 



Remarks. — A fair quantity of oil was got from the gravel overlying the sand- 
stone, 300 gallons being obtained in a few hours by bailing, and altogether some 
1,200 gallons of oil had been obtained from this hole in 1908, when it was still giving 
a little oil, though more water had come in as the oil gave out. 

The drilling of this hole was done by the hydraulic-jetting process. Tubes were 
driven by monkey to the oil-layer. 



No. 5 Well (J in 

Oft. to 14 ft. 

14 ft. to 24 ft. 

24 ft. to 67 ft. 

67 ft. to 93 ft. 

93 ft. to 97 ft. 

97 ft. to 105 ft. 

105 ft. to 117 ft. 

117 ft. to 124 ft. 

124 ft. to 135 ft. 



135 ft. to 430 ft. 
430 ft. to 435 ft. 



Bore, 435 ft. Deep), about 19 Chains North of No. 4 Well. 

Brown gravel. 

Blue sand. 

Blue pug [clay]. 

Blue gravel. 

Blue pug. 

Blue gravel. 

Quicksand [loose watery sand]. 

Hard conglomerate. 

Gravel, with flow of fresh water reaching sur- 
face. Showed globules of oil and inflam- 
mable gas. 

Sandstone [argillaceous and calcareous Mio- 
cene]. Showed oil in places. 

Decomposed [.soft] limestone, with salt water, 
carbon-dioxide, and a little oil. 



Remarks. — The hole [stated to have Ijeen bored by the diamond drill] was tubed to 
142 ft., below which no casing was used. After entering the limestone the pressure of 
10 — Grej'Tnouth. 



Oft. 


to 


3 ft. 


3 ft. 


to 


11 ft. 


11 ft. 


to 


34 ft. 


34 ft. 


to 


38 ft. 


38 ft. 


to 


39 ft. 


39 ft. 


to 


76 ft. 


76 ft. 


to 


411 ft. 



147 

No. S Well (4^ in. Bore, 450 ft. Deep), about 9 Chains North of No. 4 and 9 Chains South of No. 5. 

. Soil. 
Gravel. 
Blue pug. 

Clay and grave! mixed. 
Blue pug. 

Congloiuerate, with traces of oil. 
Sandstone [argillaceous and calcareous Mio- 
cene], with traces of oil at IIS ft., 201 ft., 
2ri2ft., and 275 ft. 
411ft. to 422ft. ... Decomposed [soft] limestone with carbon-di- 
oxide, oil, and salt water. 
422 ft. to 448ft. ... Limestone. 

448 ft. to 450ft. ... Decomposed limestone, with heavy pressure 

from salt water and carbon-dioxide. 
Remarks. — The diamond drill was used in boring tlie well [probably from sand- 
stone at 76 ft. downward]. Pipes driven t(> sand.stone (76 ft.), which was met nearer 
surface than in previous bores. Small shows of oil in conglomerate and sandstone. 
Some oil showed on meeting limestone. At 422 ft. tiiere was great pressure from the 
salt water and accompanying gas. Casing was lowered and the water shut off, but more 
was encountered at 448 ft. Diffictilty was experienced in keeping the drill in the hole 
which was finally abandoned. 

The salt water from the well shot up continuously for a long time, and even in 
1909 was still playing to some height, though the bore was partly blocked. The water 
deposited abundant calcium-carbonate. The cores of argillaceous sandstone obtained 
from this bore show a decided dip, but tiie samples pre.served were not marked, and 
have been mi.xed with tliose from No. 5 bore. About half tiie mixed samples show dips 
of from 4° to 12° (average 8° to 1()0), and the other half from 12° to 22° (average 
16° to 18°). 

According to information supplie<l to the writer i)y Mr. Thomas Smith (who drilled 
the wells), the more steeply (lii)ping coies are from No. 8 i)ore. 

No. 9 Well {8 in. to 4 in. Bore, 871 ft. Deep), about 8 Chains North of East from No. 8 Bore. 

Coai-.se gravel and boulders. 
Blue pug [clay]. 
Gravel. 

Pug mixed with gravel. 
Quicksand. 

Gravel, with flow of water from bore. Con- 
tains traces of oil. 
212 ft. to 455 ft. ... Sandstone [argillaceous, calcareous, Miocene 

age]. 
455 ft. to 565 ft. ... Limestone, soft at top and harder below. Con- 
tains salt water, carbon - dioxide, and a 
little oil. 
565 ft. to 566ft. ... Drift sand with traces of oil. 
566ft. to 855 ft. ... Conglomerate containing oil, s'alt water, and 

inflammable gas. 
855ft. to 871ft. ... Clay mixed with stones. 
Remarks. — The well was drilled with a Canadian cable rig. It was started with 
an Sin. bore, reduced to 6 in. at 125 ft., to Sin. at 214 ft., 4 in. at 700 ft. The hole 



Oft. 


to 


27 ft. 


27 ft. 


to 


78 ft. 


78 ft. 


to 


82 ft. 


82 ft. 


to 


96 ft. 


96 ft. 


to 


178 ft. 


178 ft. 


to 


212 ft. 



143 

was cased to 831ft. The quicksand at 9G ft. to 178 ft. gave a great deal of trouble. 
The limestone gave oS large quantities of carbon-dioxide, and a considerable amount 
of salt water, which was shot up at intervals to a height of 80 ft. 

The congloniei'ate below tlie limestone carried a little oil, and some inflammable 
gas. This latter increased in amount towards the bottom of tlie bore. In places small 
beds of drift sand were encountered. Owing to these, and the tendency of neighbouring 
boulders to roll inwards, it was at the same time necessary and difficult to case. Some 
very large boulders were drilled through. 

Th.3 writer may again remark that upon the accuracy of this log and that of No. 2 
bore, wliich like No. 9 entered the conglomerate below the limestone, much depends. 
The data given by these bores form an essential part of the positive evidence for the 
view that oil-bearing strata underlie the conglomerate. In addition, there are, of 
course, the geological considerations detailed on pages 67 and 138. 

The fact that many fragments of comparatively soft fissile argillite or slate were 
brought to the surface from the lower portion of this bore makes it somewhat probable 
that solid rock of the Greenland Series had lieen reached, notwitlistanding the log 
record to the contrary. In that case the "soft clay with stones" from 855ft. to 
871 ft. may indicate a fault. 

Kotuku Oilfields Syndicate. 

At the time that this report went finally to press (June, 1911) the Kotuku Oilfields 
Syndicate had landed a modern drilling plant at Kotuku, and was about to begin 
boring at a site selected by Dr. J. Wanner, an oil geologist, who has had much ex- 
perience in the Dutch East Indies. The site in question is practically the same as one 
of those recommended by the writer (see page 149). 

POSSIBLE OIL-BEARING STRATA. SOURCE OF OIL. 

Sinc3 the Miocene sandstones and clays contain Foraminifera and other organic 
remains, it is possible that they form a source of oil. At Kotuku the argillaceous 
sandstone is known to carry oil in minor quantity, and in places has sandy layers which 
yield a moderate amount of oil. The limestone at Kotuku is regarded by the writer 
as both likely to be a source of oil and to hold it in some quantity. Below this horizon 
all is speculation. Since, however, near Greymouth there is a great thickness of 
strata containing organic remains below the Cobden Limestone, it seems not unlikely 
that the source of the Kotuku petroleum may be at considerable depth, in a horizon 
corresponding to the Omotumotu Beds, Kaiata Mudstone, or Island Sandstone. There 
is also the possibility of the oil originating in the Brunner or Paparoa coal horizons. 
The chief evidence, however, in favour of the view that the oil occurs at depth is based 
on the logs of the Lake Brunner Oil Company's Nos. 2 and 9 bores. These logs state 
that a little oil and gas occur all through the conglomerates that lie below the lime- 
stone. Since the bores were cased, a mistake as to the occurrence can hardly have 
been made, and therefore a deeper source than the conglomerate for all or much of the 
Kotuku oil must be regarded as the most probable. The small amount of benzine in 
the oil hitherto obtained supports the hypothesis of a deeper source than the argillaceous 
sandstone or the limestone. 

POSSIBLE OIL-BEARING ANTICLINES, DOMES, AND TERRACES. 

The geological data obtained from outcrops of Miocene rocks and the bores at 
Kotuku are so scanty that at the present time the position of the axis of the gentle 
anticline believed to be present cannot be more than approximately indicated. This 
anticlinal axis, it is thought, extends from a point a little west of the oil-seepages in 



149 

Petroleum Creek towards the east of north, and, as indicated on the map facing page 146, 
it probably crosses to the east side of Deep Creek northward of Sawpit Creek. Ihere 
is some indication of the anticlinal axis rising northward to a point a little south- 
east of the mineral springs in Deep Creek gorge, beyond which it may dip somewhat. 
It recrosses to the north of Deep Creek about half a mile north-east of Deep Creek 
gorge. 

The southern jjart of the Paparoa anticline, from a point south of Mount Buckley 
to Fireball Creek, may be here mentioned as possibly oil-bearing. 

Elsewhere there are no well - marked anticlines or domes that can possibly be 
regarded as potentially oil-bearing. There is, however, a "terrace" east of Hatter 
Terrace (Nelson Creek), and the same or another terrace may be observed east of 
Notown. 

RECOMMENDATIONS HEGARDING BORING. 

On the niap of the Kotuku Oilfield facing page 146 three sites at which boring for 
oil may be recommended are marked. These, in the first place, need be bored only 
to the limestone. If it should then appear that they are not near the anticlinal axis, 
boring ought perhaps to be suspended until prospecting-bores have been put down else- 
where. In any case it might possibly be advisable thoroughly to test the upper 
horizon of the limestone for oil before boring deeper, but it is probable that the ques- 
tion of oil possibilities in the Greymouth Subdivision cannot be regarded as settled 
until one or more deep bores are drilled in suitable localities. 

At present boring cannot be recommended in any other district than Kotuku, but 
should petroleum be discovered there in large (|uantity, doubtless the southern part 
of the Paparoa anticline and the very sligiit anticlines, domes, or terraces which exist 
near Notown, Nelson Creek, and elsewhere, will receive attention. 

As regards the depth to which boring at Kotuku ought to be carried, nothing 
very positive can be said, owing cliiefly to the lack of knowledge as "o the strata occur- 
ring below the conglomerate found in Nos. 2 and 9 bores. There is a possibility of 
oil occurring in the limestone, and therefore some bores designed merely to test this 
possibility may be put down. In view of the fact that the oil probably has a deeper 
source, one or two deep bores are also to be recommended. Had full and indubitably 
correct records of the various bores drilled in the past been kept, the writer would 
have been able to make more positive recommendations concerning depth to which bores 
should be carried. In almost any case, however, it would be necessary to prove the 
strata below the conglomerate underlying the limestone by means of a deep bore. 

GENERAI, ItKC'OMMENDATIONS. 

It is possible that careful search may reveal oil-indications in other districts than 
Kotuku. As a matter of fact, limestone smelling of petroleum occurs in Fireball Creek. 
Though the petroleum in this case is probably indigenous to the limestone, and occurs 
in such small quantity as to indicate that boring in the limestone would b" useless, 
there is a slight possibility that it has come from a greater depth. In other localities 
freshly broken rock may be found to smell of petroleum, and there is, of course, the 
possibility of an actual oil-seepage being found. 

It is highly important that very careful logs of all bores should be kept. Samples 
of drill-borings ought to be frequently taken, and correctly labelled witli name of bore 
and depth at the time of taking. If tlie diamond drill is employed, all cores ought to 
be preserved, and, of course, properly marked, so that they can be identified at any 
future time. In the Kotuku district, where outcrops are so few, the use of a stratimeter 
for obtaining strike or dip in a bore-hole may be recommended. 

It may also be suggested that all Ijores giving oS gas or salt water should be plugged. 



150 

SuMMAitT OF Economic Geology. 

The metalliferous quartz veins of the Greymouth Subdivision occur in the ancient 
sedimentary rucks assigned to the Greenland Series, which are believed to be of the same 
age as the auriferous rocks of the Reefton district. Gold is the metal of most conse- 
quence, but antimony is found also in some quantity. Langdon Creek valley is the area 
of most promise to the prospector. 

The auriferous alluvial deposits have yielded many millions of ounces of gold, and 
are still of importance. Tliough the richer deposits have been almost exliausted, and 
the alluvial mining industry is now languishing, thei'e is hope that much of the poorer 
ground may yet be profitably worked. 

Small quantities of stream-tin, platinum, monazite, and chromite occur in some of 
the auriferous gravels. 

The building and ornamental stones incltide granite, limestone, sandstone, and 
greenstone (nephrite). The last-named occtus only as loose pebbles and boulders in the 
river and morainic gravels, the chief localities being Kumara and Maori Point. 

Limestones, though not of the highest quality, together with calcareous clays, are 
available for cement-manufacture, which, however, must be considered as one of the 
industries of the next generation rather than of the present. Clays and shales suitable 
for bricks, tiles, and rough earthenware abound, and at Briinner there is a good fireclay. 

The chief mineral resotirce of the subdivision lies in its coal-deposits, which occur 
over an area of nearly sixty square miles, and in the main are of fine quality. The 
total quantity of coal in the ground is estimated at over 600,000,000 tons, much of 
which is level-free. Unfortunately, owing to irregular folding, owing to the dissection 
of the seams into many small blocks by faulting and denudation, and owing to other 
drawbacks, not more than one-fourth of this coal can be won under the economic con- 
ditions now prevailing, and it may be that less than one-tenth will te profitably extracted. 
Under these circumstances the problem of conservation is one demanding the attention 
of all concerned in the proper utilization of the Dominion's coal-resources. 

In the Kotuku district are promising indications of a profitable oilfield. The rocks 
and the geological structure are of a favourable nature for the occurrence of petroleum, 
Hud therefore vigorous prospecting by means of boring is fully justified. 



161 



INDEX 



Page 
Acidic dykes . . . . .. 41, 77, 78, 79 

,, igneous rocks . . . . 41, 7&-80 

(See aUo Granite, Tuhua Formation.) 
Acknowledgments . . . . . . 2 

Aerial tram of Blackball Coal Company . . 22 
Agricultural and grazing industries . . 14 

Ahaura, rainfall at . . . . . . 12 

Air-gap . . . . . . . . 36 

Alluvial deposits, auriferous (see also Gold) 

15 el seq., 86-91, 150 

Alluvial deposits carrying tin,' &c. . . 91-92 

,, mining . . • . . . . 15-18 

,, „ historical account of . . 15-16 

Alps {see Southern Alps). 
Atnphistegiiut limestone (see also Foramini- 
feral limestone) . . . . . . 71 

Analyses and assays 66, 78, 79, 83 et seq., 91 et 

seq., 11 et seq., 116, 117 

et seq., 124, 134 et .leq. 

Andrew, L. (Dominion Laboratory) 10, 119 

Anthracite, .semi- . . . . . . 97 

Anticlinal theory of oil-accumulation . . 133 

Anticlines . . 32, 33, 54-55, M, 65, 114, 

116, 133, 148-49 



„ V-, or pitching 


32, 54-55, 114 


possible oil-bearing 


133, 148-49 


Antimony-ore (Langdon Creek) . . 


18, 19, 83, 84, 




85, 150 


„ shipped to England 


. . 18, 85 


Aorere Series . . 


49 


Aplite-porphyry 


79 


Aplites 


41, 77, 78, 79 


Arahura Lagoon 


40 


„ River. . 


.. 35,37 


„ Series (Bell and Fraser). . 


90 


Valley, river-flats of 


35 


Arnold Flats . . 


36 


Arnold River . . 


36, 37, 136 


„ volume of 


37 


Arthur's Pass tunnel 


13 


Asper Knob, coal -outcrops near . . 


101, 108 


Assays (see Analyses). 




Aston, B. C, oil-analysis by 


131 


Aucklanfl lead 


16, 88, 89 



Auriferous alluvial deposits 15 et seq., 86-91, 150 
origin of . . 89-90 

,, unworked . . 90-91 

{See also Beach sands; Gold.) 



B. 



Balfour, J. M. . . 


4 


Ballarat Syndicate or Company 


20 


Bartrum, J. A. 


2 


Basalt 


.. 77,81 


„ age and correlation of 


81 


Basic dykes 


41, 77, 80-81 


„ age of 


.. 41,81 


Batty, Matthew, mines the first c 


oal . . 20 


Beach, coal outcropping on 


121, 123 



Beach sands, auriferous 11, 16, 17, 76, 88, 89 

„ „ formation of .. 11,17 

(See also Black-sands ; Ironsands.) 



T. Page 

Beaches, raised . . 33, 34-35, 75, 88 

Becker, G. F. . . . . . . . . 133 

Bell, J. M. (see also Hokitika Sheet) . . 10 

Benzine in petroleum . . . . 134, 135, 148 

Big Hohonu River . . . . 35-3(), 37 

Binns, George J. . . . . . . 8 

Bins, coal- . . . . . . . . 25, 26 

Biotite-granite . •. . . . . 77, 78 

Bishop Creek, coal of . . . . . . 98, 99 

,, rocks and geology of . . 49, 56 

Bishop, James . . . . . . 10, 114, 128 

Bituminous coal . . 5, 28, 97 et seq., 150 

Blackball district, auriferous gravels near . . 87 
coal of 5, 22 et seq., 118-120 

„ rocks and geology of 

52, 65, 58, 59, 67, 68 
,, stream-tin near . . 91 

(See also Ford Creek ; Paparoa Creek ; 
Blackwater Creek ; &c.) 
Blackball Coal-mine and Company 

22, 24-25, 118, 119 
,, Coal-mine and Company, aerial 

tram of . . . . . . 22 

„ Mine seams .. .. 118-19 

Blackett, J. . . . . . . . . 4 

" Blacksanding " . . . . . . 17 

Black-sand leads . . . . . . 88-89 

Black-sands, auriferous,. . . . 9, 16, 17, 88, 89 

formation of 11, 17, 89 
(See also Beach sands ; Ironsands.) 
Blackwater Creek, coal of . . 120 

„ rocks and geology of 

58, 64, 65, 66, 67, 69 
Blanketings, assay of . . . . . . 86 

Blue Bottom 17, 62 et seq., 68, 71-73, 91, 95 

Paijeontdlogy of . . . . . . 71-73 

Blue Reef (see'Bluc Bottom). 

Boatman's, supposed Island samlstone at . . 53 
Bonanza Mine, tire-damp explosion in . . 19 

Boreholes .. .. 58, 59, 128-31, 137, 

140-^8, 149 
Bore logs . . . . 12&-31, 140-48, 149 

Bores, dip of cores from . . 131, 147 

,, recommended for petroleum 148, 149 

Bosses, granite. . . . . . 41, 42, 77 

" Bottoms," gold-bearing .. 16,17 

Boundaries of subdivision . . . . 1 

Braetown Creek, coal of . . . . . . 105-6 

fault . . 46, 105, 106 

Bray Creek, coal of . . . . 103 

„ rocks and geology of 

55, 56, 57, 63, 64, 65, 66, 69, 103 
Bricks, fire and common, manufacture of 

14, 24, 95, 96 

,, ,, material for . . 95-96 

Brighton Bottom . . . . 17 

Brine (-see Salt water). 

Brown's coal-prospecting license . . 23, 120 

,, Pviver (see Deep Creek). 
Brown, W. (prospector) . . 23, 83, 120 

Bruce's paddock or pakihi . . . . 35, 77 

Brunner Beds 42, 51, 57-59, 60-61, 113 et seq., 

129, 131 
„ age of . . . . . . 53, 61 

„ coal of .. 113-24,125-26,127 



152 



rage 
Bninner Beds, conglomerate and pebble beds 

of .. .. .. 67-58 

,, correlation of . . . . 53 

,, palaeontology of . . 53, fiO-61 

,, petrology of . . . . 57-59 

coal, analyses and tests of 2, 4, 20, 117 
coal-seam . . 20, 113, 116-18, 129, 131 

district, coal of 3, 4, 20 et seq., 116-18 
„ rocks and geology of 

3, 4, 17, 20 et seq., 32, 45, 46, 

49, 52, 54, 55, 57 et seq., 116-18 

fault . . . . . . . . 20, 46 

Gorge . . . . . . 36 

Lake . . . . . . 31, 36, 39-^0 

,, fluctuations in level of . . 39 

„ origin of . . . . . . 39 

„ soundings of . . . . 39-^ 

„ petroleum near (see Kotuku). 
Mine (see also St. Kilda Mine) 6, 8, 20-21, 

24, 116 
„ explosion in . . 6, 8, 21 

„ report of Royal Commission 

on . . . . . . 8, 21 

„ strike and lockout at . . 20, 21 

Rider .. .. 118,129,130 

Buckley, Mount, rocks and geology of 

49, 50, 52, 64, 83 

„ quartz veins near . . 83 

Building-stones . . . . 93, 150 

Burnett, H. B... .. .. 13,129 



c. 



Cainozoic strata (see also Coal-measures ; 

Grevmouth Series ; Pliocene Beds) . . 41 

Callaghan Hill beds . . . . . . 62, 63 

Callaghan's, gold at . . . . 15, 16, 87 

,, rocks and geology of, &c. . . 68, 71 

Cameron's, gold at . . . . . . 15, 87 

Campbell, W. D. . . . . . . 3, 5 

Camptonites . . . . . . . . 58, 80 

Cannel-like coals 

Cape Terrace, auriferous gravels of 

Carbon-dioxide, escapes of, &c. 



Card Creek, meanders of 

Cassiterite 

Cavern Creek, coal of . . 

,, disappearance of . . 

Cement, materials for . . 
Cervantite 
Chromite 
Cirques 

Classification of geological formations 
Clays for brick and cement 

,, analyses of 
Cliffs, sea- 
Climate 

Coal . . 2 et seq. 

„ age of 

,, analyses of (proximate) 
66, 97 et 
111 et 
„ (ultimate) 

conservation of 
estimates of amount of 
indicated by springs 
methods of working 
on fire 
origin of . . 
output of 

spontaneous ignition of 
transport of 



seq. 
seq.. 



119, 121 etseq. 

. . 87, 90 

39, 68, 132, 

140 e< seq. 

36 

..91,150 

121,124 

38 

. . 94, 95 

85 

..31,150 

31 

41 

95 

95 

40 

12 



20 et seq., 9(3-131, 150 
7, 9, 10, 41, 52-53, 61 



100, 101, 102, 

116 et seq., 124 

8, 102, 114, 118 

28-30, 150 

7, 28, 125-27 

38 

.. 23-26 

122 

125 

27, 126 

.. 24,25 

23 et seq. 



Page 
Coal, water-worn, in Miocene rocks 9, 65, 66 

Coal Creek (Cobden S.D.), coal of . . 102 

„ ,, rocks and geologv 

of . . 57", 58, 59 

„ (Mawheranui S.D.), rocks and 

geology of . . . . . . 58 

(See also Blackball.) 
Coal-dust, explosions of . . . . . . 6, 21 

Coal-hewing rates . . . . . . 26-27 

Coal-measures . . 41, 50-62, 86-87, 96 etseq., 

138, 148 
age of . . 7, 9, 10, 41, 52-53 

„ basal conglomerate of 50, 51, 56, 

86, 104 
„ conditions of deposition of 

51-52, 125, 127 
„ contacts of, with Greenland 

rocks 54, 56, 57, 58, 97, 123 

,, content of . . . . 50-51 

,, correlation of . . . . 53 

denudation of 101, 109, 116, 126 
,, distribution of . . . . 54 

„ igneous rocks in conglomerate 

of , . . . . 58, 77, 81 

,, nomenclature of . . . . 53—54 

„ palaeontology of . . . . 60-62 

„ petrology of . . . . 56-59 

,, structure of 54-55, 97 et seq. 

„ subdivisions of . . . . 51 

„ imconformity above 7, 42, 52, 54, 

66, 138 
below ..56,123 

Coal-mines 8, 9, 10, 20 et seq., 97 et seq. 

„ methods of working . . . . 23-27 

„ Royal Commission on . . 9 

Coal-mining . . . . . . . . 20-30 

„ future prospects of . . . . 27-28 

,, general and historical account 

of .. .. .. 20-23 

progress of . . . . . . 27 

Coal-pit Heath Jline and Company . . 21 

Coal-seams, correlation of 96 et seq., 113 et seq., 

120, 122, 123 

,, lenticular nature of . . 125, 127 

of the Brunner Beds 58, 59, 113-24, 

125-26, 127, 

129, 130 

„ „ Kaiata Mud.stone 59, 124-25 

„ „ Paparoa Beds 56, 57, 97-112, 

126-27 
Coal-washing machinery recommended 29, 117 

Coastal plain, ancient . . . . . . 33-34 

,, modem . . . . . . 11, 34 

,, ,, extension of, bj' 

mining debris, &c. 34 

Cobden Limestone 0, 53, 62, 63, 64, 68, 93, 94, 137 

„ age of . . . . 6, 63 

„ palaeontology of . . 69-70 

,, thickness of . . . . 68 

(See also Kotuku Limestone.) 
Cobden, suburb of Grej-mouth . . . . 12 

Cobden Survey District, coal in north part 

of . . 121-24 

„ geology of, &c. Passim 

Cochrane, N. D. . . . . . . 3, 8 

Coke, analysis of . . . . . . 117 

,, manufacture of, &c. . . 24, 29, 30 

Communication, means of . . . . 12-13 

Concentration of alluvial gold . . 11, 17, 87, 88 
Conchoidal fracture in coal . . . . 121 

Concretions, calcareous . . . . 59, 67, 68 

„ ferruginous.. .. .. 92 

„ pjTitic (in coal) . . 114, 121, 122 

Conglomerate, basal, of coal-measures 50, 51, 56, 

86, 104 
„ gold in . . . . . . 86-87 



153 



Page 
Conservation of coal . . . . 28-30, 96, 150 

,, conditions unfavourable 

to . . . . 28 

„ improvement of condi- 

tions relating to . . 29-30 
Continental extension of New Zealand . . 42 
Copper in alluvial gold (Ford's Creek) . . 89 
Coste, Eugene .. .. .. 113 

Cretaceo-tertiarj- System . . . . 52, 61 

Cretaceous rocks, supposed . . 3, 10, 53, 61 

Crooked River, flood plain and delta of . . 35 

„ volume of . . . . 37 

Curtis, Charles, injured by fire-damp explo- 
sion . . . . . . . . 19 

(Elizabeth), Port . . . . 4, 13 

Cutten, F., coal-prospecting by, &c. 23, 97, 98 



D. 



14 

69 

87 

2 

32 

57, 58, 116 



76 

H>-17, 90 

136 

139 



Dair>-ing industry 

Darkie's Terrace, fossils from 

„ gold of 

Davis, E. H., death by drowning of 
Dav}', Mount . . 

„ rocks and geology of 32 

Davy Mountains (see Paparoa Range). 
Debris, mining, coast-line extended by 

„ „ disposal of 

Deep Creek (Kotuku) . . 

., ,, gas-escapes in 

,, „ mineral springs near 

38-39, 139 

oU-rock of 132, 139 

„ ,, oil-seepages near 132, 138, 

139 
„ ,, rocks and geology of 

64, 68, 71, 73," 74-75, 132 
„ (Taramakau), faulting of rocks in 45 

„ „ rocks and geologv 

of . . .". 49, 64 

Deltas (lake) . . . . . . 35, 76 

Dentella, Giacomo, discovery of petroleum 

by . . . . . . " . . 30 (footnote) 

Denudation .. 31 €< se*/., 101, 109, 116, 126 

„ of coal-measures 101, 109, 116, 126 

Depression of land . . . . 42, 52, 63 

Diabases . . . . . . . . 80 

Differentiation of rock-magmas . . . . 77, 81 

Dobson, bores near 58, 116, 118, 129-31, 132 



„ fault . . 




45 


„ building sandstone of 




93 


„ petroleum in bore near . . 




132, 133 


Domes, possible oil-bearing 




148-t9 


Donovan, VV. (Dominion Laboratory 




10, 119 


Dredging 


11, 


16, 17-18 


„ boom 




18 


,, difficulties of . . 




18 


Drift theory of coal-formation 




.. 125 


Driving-out (alluvial gold) 




17 


Dublin Creek, rocks and geology of 




. . 56, 57 


Dunn, James, accident to 




6 


Dunollie, coal of (see State Coal- 


mines ; 


Seven-mile Creek). 






„ rocks and geology of 




. . 46, 59 


(See also Seven-mile Creek.) 






Dunollie fault . . . . . . 2c 


), 4t 


, 101, 106 


Dj'kes 


41, 


77, 78-81 


„ acidic 


41, 


77, 78-80 


„ basic 


41, 


77, 80-81 



E. 



Economic geology 



summary of 



2, 15 et seq., 81-150 
150 



Page 

Elevation of land 31, 33, 34, 35, 42, 43, 52, 73 

„ pauses in . . 33, 34, 125 

Elizabeth (Curtis), Port . . . . 4, 13 

Elizabeth, Point, coal-mines near (see also 

State Coal-mines) 22, 23, 25-26 
„ rocks and geology of . . 68 

Eocene rocks, supposed (see also Coal-mea- 
sures) . . . . . . 6, 9, 53, 61 

Erosion by water, ice, &c. (see also Denuda- 
tion) . . . . . . Zl et seq. 



Erua Moana (lagoon) 
Eskar 

Estuarine deposits, possible 
Ettinghausen, Constantin von 
Exhibition coal-seam 
Explosions of coal-dust . . 
,, fire-damp.. 



40 

87 

63 

6, 7, 53, 60, 61 

115-16 

. . 6, 21 

6, 19, 21 



F. 

Fans, stream . . . . . . . . 76 

Fault, great overthrust . . . . . . 44, 49 

Faults 31, 32, 34, 44-^7, 49, 54, 55, 64, 65, 

96, 101, 103 et seq., 115, 116, 121, 122, 
123, 131, 148 

,, age of . . . . . . . . 44 

,, detailed description of . . . . 44—47 

Field-work . . . . . . 2 

Finlayson, A. M. . . . . 94 (footnote) 

Fireball Creek, rocks and geology of . .64, 133 

„ limestone at, smells of pe- 



133, 149 

. . 24, 95 

59, 95-96 

96 

24, 25, 26 

6, 19, 21 

11, 14 



56 



troleum 
Firebricks, manufacture of 
Fireclay' 

„ analyses of 
Fire-damp .. ..6, 19, 21, 

„ explosions of 
Flax, New Zealand 
Fleming's Mine (set also South Brunncr Coal 

Company) 
Flood-plains (see River-flats). 

Fluviatile gravels 41, 42, 73, 74, 75, 76, 88, 137 

auriferous . . 74, 75, 87, 88 

Fluvio-glacial gravels . . . . 75-76, 87, 137 

,, auriferous . . . . 87 

Folding periods . . . . . . 42 

Folding of strata . . 32, 50, 54, et seq., 64, 65, 

104, 105 et seq., 123, 

126, 133, 148-49 

Foraminifera as a source of petroleum . . 134 

Foraminiferal limestone 68, 69, 71, 94, 137 

,, ,, analysis of . . 94 

,, mudstones and santlstones 

62, 68, 69, 71, 95, 137 

Ford Creek, coal of . . 97, 98, 99, 106-8 

gold (alluvial) of . . . . 87, 89 

,, rocks and geology of 

49, 55, 56, 64, 65, 67, 97 et seq. 
Forest line . . . . . . 12, 32 

Fossils and fossiliferous beds 48, 53, 56, 60-62, 

67, 69-73, 121, 
122, 134, 137 
Eraser, C. (See also Hokitika Sheet) . . 10 

French, Mount, rocks and geologj' of (see also 

Hohonu Range) . . . . . . 78, 80 

Fresh-water deposits (see also Brunner Beds, 

Paparoa Beds, Gravels) . . 51, 52, 63, 125 

Fucoid casts and remains . . 62, 69, 71 



G. 

Galvin, P. 

Garve}''8 Creek, coal of 
Gas, coal suited for making 
Gas and oil shale 



. . 6, 10 
102 

117, 121 
131 



154 



Gas-escapes 

Geological formations, tables of 

Geological history 

„ surveys, previous 

Geology, general 

,, outline of 
George Ridge, coal-outcrops of 



Page 
67, 68, 132, 139 
.. 41, 51 
.. 42-43 
. . 2-3 
.. 48-81 
.. 40-43 
101, 109 



German Gullj' (near Blackball), quartz veins 

of .. .. .. .. .. 83 

(Jeyser-like action of salt water . . 144, 146, 147 
Giliies and Spence (surveyors) . . . . 103 

Glaciation, earlv Tertiar\- . . . . 42, 51 

Pleistocene .'. 31, 32, 33, 42-43, 51, 
64, 75, 76, 87, 89, 
91, 137 
„ ,, connected with auri- 

ferous alluvial de- 
posits . . . . 87, 89 

Glacier, former piedmont 33, 36, 39, 42-43 

Glauconite . . . . . . . . 68 

Gneissic rocks . . . . . . . . 77, 91 

Golconda lead . . . . . . . . 89 

Gold, alluvial . . 2, 8, 11, 15 e/ seq., 76, 86 et seq., 
150 
character and quality of . . 89 



concentration of 
copper in 
discoveries of 
good sample of 
price of . . 
source or origin of 

Gold in quartz veins, &c. 

Goldsborough, gold of, &c. 

Gordon, H. A. 

Graben (Grey Valley) 

Granite 



11, 17, 87, 88 
89 
. . 15, 16 
89 
89 
. . 8, 75, 87, 89-90 
18-19, 83-86, 150 
15. 16, 87 
3, 8, 9, 89 
34 
41, 42, 76 et seq., 91, 93, 150 
,, intrusions of . . . . 41, 42, 77 

,, metamorphic effects of . . . . 50 

,, pebbles of, in coal-measures . . 77 

(See also Tuhua Formation.) 
Granite-porphvries . . . . 10, 77, 78-80 

Granophyric rocks . . . . . . 79, 80 

Gravels (see Fluviatile, Marine, and Mo- 
rainic gravels). 
,, auriferous (see Gk)ld). 
Grazing industry . . . . . . 12, 14 

Gregorj- VaUej-, ancient . . .. .. 31 

Greenland Series . . . . 40-41, 48-50 

„ age and correlation of 

40, 
argillites of 
content of 
distribution of . . 
grauwackes of . . 
metamorphism of 
petrology of 
quartz reefs in 



42, 48-49 

. . 48, 50 

.. 48-49 

49 

. . 48, 50 

50 

50 

of 

83-86, 90 
41. 42, 49-50 
o, 93, 94, 150 



rocks 



„ structure of 

Greenstone or Pounamu (mineral) 

„ ,, settlement of . . 3, 16 

„ or Big Hohonu River 15, 35-36, 37, 89 

,, Dredge . . . . . . 18 

Grej- or Greymouth coalfield 

» „ amoimt of coal 

in 7, 28, 125-27 
„ area of . . 7 



Grey River 

„ ancient course of 

,, flood plains of 

VaUey 

Grey VaUey Coal Company 



32, 34, 35, 36, 40 
32 
35 
36, 75 
20, 21 



Coal-mines, 
on 



34 

7, 8^ 
disputes of, with 
employees 
Royal Commission 



Greymouth Gorge 

,, Harbour Board, bores of 



Paee 

36 

58, 116, 118, 

128-31 

,, town and port of . . . . 12-13 

Greymouth - Point Elizabeth Railway and 

Coal Company . . . . ' 20-21, 22 

Grej-mouth Series . . . . 41, 42, 62-73 

,, age of . . . . 41, 62 

,, conditions of deposition of 63 



62 

63 
63-04 
65-68 

62 
69-73 
64-65 

62 



124 
17 



„ content of 

,, correlation of . . 

„ distribution of 

,, general description of 

,, nomenclature of 

,, palaeontologj- of 

,, structure of 

,, subdi^-ision of . . 

(See also Omotumotu Beds ; Port Eliza- 
beth Beds ; Cobden Limestone ; Kotuku 
Limestone; Blue Bottom ; &c.) 
Grigg, .John, thin coal-seam discovered b}-. . 
Ground-sluicing 



H. 



Haast, .JuUus Von (see Von Haast). 

Hamilton, A. . . . . . . . . 9, 11 

Hanging vaUevs . . . . . . 32 

Harbours " . . . . . . 4, 12, 13 

Hayes Terrace, auriferous gravels of . . 87, 90 

,, Government water-race ex- 

tended to . . 90 (footnote) 

Healy's Gully, auriferous gravels near . . 74, 91 

,, fault near . . . . 45, 55 

,, Pliocene beds near 45, 71, 73, 74 

,. quartz veins near . . . . 83 

Hector, James 2, et seq., 11, 49, 52, 60, 61, 84, 

85, 125 
Hoehstetter, Ferdinand von . . . . 4 

Hochstetter, Lake, water-race proposed from 90 
Hodson Creek (near Ross), limestone of . . 53 
Hohonu Range . . 31-32, 41, 44, 45, &c. 

„ rocks and geology of 

41, 49, 50, 65, 77 et seq. 

,, former glaciation of .. 31-32 

Hohonu River, Big . . . . 35-36, 37 

,, Eastern . . . . 37 

Little . . . . . . 79 

Hokitika, rainfall at . . . . . . 12 

Hokitika Sheet, Subdivision or Bulletin 

1, 10, 40, 41, 48, 53, 71, 77 
" Horseback "" in coal-seam . . . . 128 

Humbug Creek, basalt of . . . . 81 

Humphrey's Gullj- Beds (McKay) . . 73 

Hunt, Albert, discoven- of gold bv . - 15 

Hutton, F. W.. . 3', 4, 6, 7, 9, 42, 52, 61, 63, 69 
Hydraulic sluicing . . . . . . 16-17 

Hypabyssal rocks (see also Dykes) 41, 76 et seq. 



. 20, 21 



I. 



Igneous rocks (see also Granite ; Dykes ; 

Basalt, &c.) . . . . 41, 42, 58, 76-81 

Industries, primary (see also Coal ; Gold ; 

Petroleum) . . " .. .. .. 14-30 

Information, general . . . . . . 1-14 

Inhabitants . . . . . . . . 12 

Inorganic hypothesis of oil-origin 133, 134 

Introduction . . . . . . . . 1 

Iron-ore . . . . . . 57, 92-93, 123 

„ analyses of . . . . . . 92, 93 



155 



Page 
Ironsand, auriferous {see aUo Black-sand ; 

Beach sands) . . 9, 16, 17, 76, 88, 89, 92 

Iron springs, an indication of coal. . .. 38 

Island in Grey River . . . . 45, 51, 59 

Island Sandstone 42, 51, 53, 59, 61-62, 92, 93, 

117, 121, 122, 128, 129, 131 

age of . . 53, 61, 62 

,, building-stone of . . 93 

,, iron-ore of . . . . 92, 93 

,, origin of Hector's name . . 59 

,, palaeontologv and fossils 

of . . " . . 61-62, 121, 122 
Islets, islands . . . . . . 13, 40, 59 



J. 



Jay Creek, coal of . . . . 100, 104 

Joints, master, of granite . . . . 80 

Julil. C. . . . . 7 

Julian Claim . . . . . . . . 19 



K. 



Kaiata Creek, conl rejiorted in or near 124, 125 

,, „ rocks and gcologv of 64, 65, 66 

Mudstone 42, 50, 53, 59, 62, 95, 124, 

125, 128, 129, 131 

age of . . . . 53 

coal-seams of . . 59, 124—25 

pala?ontology of .. 62 

thickness of . . 59 

Rango . . 32, 33, &c. 

,, rocks and geology of 64,65,66, 124 

Karnes . . . . . . . . 87 

Kane Creek, coal of . . . . 121, 124 

Kane's coal-seam and mine . . 23, 124, 125 

Kangaroo Lake . . . . . . 40 

Kaniori Series (Bell and Fra.sor) . . . . 40, 48 

(Cox and McKay). . . . 62, 63 

Karamea System (Park) . . 53 

Karoro Lagoon . . . . . . 40 

Kells, W. H., reiwrts basalt . . 81 (footnote) 

Kersantite . . . . . . . . 80 

Kimberley fault . . 45 

Kinsella, Mount, rocks and geology of 64, 65, 67 
Knoll Point, calcareous rock of . . . . 64 

Koiterangi basalt . . . . . . 81 

„ Series . . . . . . 53 

Kotuku Conglomerate, Lower 62, 67, 137-38, 148 
,, age and corre- 
lation of 67, 138, 148 
Upper . . 68, 146 

,. „ „ age of 68 

„ Consolidated Oil Company 30, 140 

hereof.. 140 
., Flat .. .. .. ..136 

Limestone 68, 94, 137, 142 el seq., 148 

Oilrield 2, 9, 11, 30, 62, 65, 67, 68, 71, 

73, 74, 132-49, 150 

discoverj- of . . 30, 138 

exploitation of . . 30, 139-48 

gas-escapes of . . . . 139 

mineral springs of 38-39, 139 

oil-indications of 138-39, &c. 

rocks and geology of 

62, 67, 68, 137-38, 140 el seq. 
situation and topograph}- 

of .. .. 136-37 

Oil Sj-ndicate or Association 30, 132, 134, 

135, 140-43 
,, bores of, 

&c. 140-43 



Kotuku Oilfields Swdicate 


Page 
30, 143, 148 


Kumara, auriferous gravels of 


7, 16, 17, 87 


,, . discovery of gold at 


16 


,, deep lead (probable) at 
,, prospect ing-shaft at 
,, rocks and geology of 


91 

7 
7, 64, 68, 87 



Labour conditions . . . . . . 26-27 

troubles . . . . . . 20, 21 

,, imion . . . . . . . . 27 

Lacustrine gravels («ef also Deltas, lake).. 137 
Lagoons . . . . . . . . 40 

Lake Brunner (see Brunner, Lake). 

Oil Company 30, 137, 138, 143-48 
bores of 137, 143-18 

(See also Kotuku Oilfield.) 
Lakes (see nho Lagoons) 
Lani])lough lead 
Lam])rophyres 
Land and soil, character of 
Land, former extension of 
Lands and Survey Department . . 
Langdon Creek, golil and antimony lodes of 

6, 18-19, 83. 84-86, 150 
,, rocks and geology of 65, 84, 85, 86 

(See also Greenland Series.) 
Langdon's Exteniled Claim 

,, Hill, Reef, Antimony-lode, &c. 

(see Langdon Creek). 
Larrikins Flat, auriferous gravels of (see also 

Kumara) . . . . . . 

Lawrence, H. \\'., coal-analysis by 
Ix'ads, black-sand 

,, dee]), fiossible 
I>.'a\es, fo.s8il . . 
Ix-ucopyrite 
Lignite 
Lime . . 
Limestones, analys<'s of 

,, for l)uilding ])urj)oses 

,, for lime and cement 

(See also Cobden Limestone, &c.) 
Lindop, A. B. . . . . . . . . 10 

Lind.say, R. (driller) .. 116,129 

Literature, list of .. .. .. 3-11 

IxKle-mining .. .. .. .. 18-19 

Lodes, quartz (see Quartz lodes). 

Longwall working . . . . . . 23 

Ixjughnan, R. A. . . . . . . 10 



M. 



McKay, Alexander 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 41, 49, 52, 

61, 69, 75, 84, 85, 89, 132 
Madaren, J. M. .. 11, 17 (footnote) 

Maclaurin, J. S. (see also Analj-ses) 

2, 10, 11, 38, 39, 96, 97, 124, 135 
McLeod, H. N. . . . . . . 10, 32 

Magma, granitic, di£Ferentiation of . . 77, 81 

Manufacture of brick, lime, cement, &c. 14, 24, 94, 

95, 96. 
Maori Creek (Dunganville) . . . . 15 

,, Gully (near Golclsborough), geology 

of, &c. . . . . . . 68, 71 

„ (south of Arnold River) . . 16, 87 

Point, gold discovered at . . . . 15 

.Marine gravels and sands . . 77, 88, 89 

,, auriferous .. 88,89 

(See also Beach sands.) 



35, 39^0 

16, 33, 34, 88 

58, 80, 81 

.. 11-12 

. . 42, 51 

2 



18, 19 



87 

98, 99 

88-89 

90-91 

53, 56, 60-61, 62 

85 

71, 74, 137, 140 

94 

94 

93, 150 

94, 150 



156 



Page 
Marine strata, older {see Island Sandstone ; 
Kaiata Mudstono ; (Jrcymouth Series, &c.) 
" Marl " (sec «/«o Kaiata Mudstono ; Port 

Elizabeth Beds ; Blue Bottom, &c.) . . 51, 63 
Marshall, 1'. . . .. .. . . 10, 11 

Marshall's (Jolui) sawmill, reported gas-es- 
cape at . . . . . . . . 139 

Mawheranui River (see also Grey) . . 54 

,, Series (coal-measures) . . 54 

,, Survey District .. .. 1 

,, ,, geology of, &c. Passim 

Meanders of Card Creek and other streams . . 36 
Mesozoic strata, absence of . . . . 41 

Metalliferous quartz veins (see also Quartz- 
lodes) .. .. .. .. 83-86 

Metamorphism, thermal . . . . . . 50 

Midland Railway arbitration, evidence in . . 8-9 
Mikonui Subdivision or Bulletin . . 10, 40, 41, 48, 

50, 53, 71 
Mineral springs . . . . 38-39, 139 

,, wealth (see also Economic geology ; 

Coal ; Gold ; Petroleum, &c.) . . 2 

Minerva Reef and Claim . . 19, 83-84 

Mines (see Coal ; Gold ; Antimony ; &c. ) 

Mines Department, annual reports of . . 3, 1 1 

,, Record, New Zealand .. .. 11 

Mining industry . . . . 15-30, &c. 

,, alluvial (see Alluvial min- 

ing ; Gold). 
,, coal (see Coal-mining, &c.) 

Miocene strata (see also Greymouth Series) 

42, 63, 137 et seq. 
Moana (township) outcrop of Blue Bottom 

near . . . . . . . . 64, 65 

,, (Lake) (see also Brunner Lake) . . 39-40 
MoUoy Creek, volume of . . . . 37 

Molloy's Look-out, rocks and geology of 68, 137 
Monazite . . . . . . . . 91 

Montgomery Hill, rocks and geology of . . 45, 49 
,, quartz veins of . . 83 

Montgomery's Terrace Sluicing Claim, stream 

tin from, &c. . . . . . . 91 

Montgomery's Terrace Sluicing Claim, iron- 
oxide nodules from . . . . . . 93 

Moody's Creek, coal-seams near . . 57, 101 et seq. 
seams .. .. 101-3, 111, 112 

Moonlight Creek, Pliocene beds of . . 74 

Morainic gravels . . 33 e? seq., 75-76, 87, 137 

hiUs . . . . . . 33, 36, 137 

Morgan, P. G. (see also Mikonui Subdivision) 10 
Mortensen, Nils, discover}- of petroleum by 30, 138 
Mountains and hills . . . . . . 31-33 

Moutere Gravels . . 41, 42, 73-75, 137 

„ age of . . . . . . 41, 73 

„ gold-bearing character of. . 87, 90 

,, origin of . . . . 75 

(See also Pliocene beds.) 
Moutere River, ancient . . . . . . 75 

Muscovite-biotite-granite . . . . 77, 78 



N. 



Neilsen, H., coal-prospecting by . . . . 23 

Nelson Creek (Hatter's) possible oil-bearing 

" terrace " near . . . . 149 

,, dredging in . . . . 18 

Nepheline in igneous rocks . . . . 10, 81 

Nephrite (pounamu or greenstone) 5, 93, 94, 150 
New River . . . . . . . . 36, 40 

Beds . . . . . . 62, 63 

,, Lagoon . . . . . . 40 

Nine-mile Bluff, coal at . . 121-22, 124 

„ ,, rocks and geologj' of 59, 62, 121 



Nine-mile Creek, coal of . . 






Page 
122 


,, ,, iron-ore of 






92 


,, ,, rocks and geology 


of 


67 


58, 59 


North Beach dredge 






18 


,, Brunner Coal Company 






23 


Notown, auriferous gravels near . . 




89," 


90, 91 


,, possible oil - bearing " 


terrace " 




near 






149 


Beds . . 






62, 63 


Creek, possible deep lead 


in 




91 


Nuggets, gold- 






89 



0. 



Oamaru Formation or Series (see also Grey- 
mouth Series) . . . . . . 53, 63 

Oil . . . . . . 2, 9, 30, 67, 132-49, 150 

, -bearing anticlines, domes, strata, &c. 148-^9 
, indications . . . . 138-39, &c. 

, -production . . . . 30, 140 et seq. 

, rock smelling of . . . . 133, 139, 149 

, springs, &c. . . 30, 132, 134, 138-39 

(See also Petroleum ; Kotuku ; Dobson.) 
Oil-shale . . . . . . . . 131 

Old-man Bottom . . . . . . 17 

,, Gravels (see also Moutere Gravels) 

17, 75, 87, 137 
Oligocene age of Cobden Limestone, supposed 6 

Olivine-basalt . . . . . . . . 58, 81 

Omotumotu Beds 62, 63, 64, 65-67, 69, 138, 148 
palaeontology of . . 69 

,, stratigraphical position of 63 

,, unconformity below 

7, 42, 52, 54, 66, 138 
,, water- worn coal of 9, 65, 66 

Omotumotu Creek, rocks and geology of 

64 et seq., 69 
Ongionui Creek (see Notown Creek). 



Oolitic rocks, supposed . . 


. . 3, 52 


Orangipuku Stream, volume of . . 


37 


Ordovician rocks, possible 


49 


Organic hypothesis of oil-origin . . 


133, 134 


Ornamental stones 


5, 93, 94, 150 


Otira, rainfall at 


12 


Otto Creek, quartz veins of 


83 


,, rocks and geology of 


49, 55, 56, 60 


Output of coal 


27, 126 


Overthrust of Southern Alps 


44 



supposed, in Brunner Mine 



Pakihis 

Palaeontology of coal-measures 

,, Greymouth Series 

Panel system in Blackball Mine 



Paparoa Anticline 
Beds .. 



24 



35, 136 

60-62 
69-73 
24-25 
64, 65, 



,, age of 

,, coal-seams of 

,, correlation of 

,, iron-ore of 

,, palaeontology of 

,, petrology of 

Coal Basin 

Coal-mine and Company 



32, 33, 54, 55, 
116, 133, 149 
42, 50, 52, 53, 56-57, 
60, 61, 96 et seq., 131 
. . 53, 61 
97-112, 126-27 
53 
92 
. 53, 60 
. 56-57 
52, 103 
23, 26, 97, 98, 99 



Creek, coal of . . 99, 100, 104-6, 120 

,, rocks and geology of . . 56, 58 

Range . . . . 32, 34, 44 



157 



9, 10, 11, 41, 



, 


.. 83 


-86 


of 


49 et 


seq. 




32, 50 


, 54 




134, 


135 

111 

63 


42, 


49, 53, Gl 


, 63 
18 




.. 11 


, 12 
154 




57', 58, 


115 




123, 


125 
72 




'. . 77 


,78 
19 
33 
64 



Page 
Paparoa Range, coal on or near crest of 

97, 98, 101, 108-9 
,, ,, quartz veins of 

,, ,, rocks and geology 

,, ,, structure of 

Paraffin in petroleum 
Parawai Creek, coal of . . 
Pareora Beds . . 
Park, James 
Parker's dredge 
Pasture land . . 
Paj- Creek, coal of 
Pebble- beds 
Pebbles in coal 
Pecten andersoni 
Pegmatite 

Perotti, G. (Minerva Claim) 
Peter Ridge 

rocks and geology of 

2, 9, 30, 67, 132^9, 150 
,, analyses of . . . . . . 134-36 

,, -bearing anticlines, domes, strata, 

&c. .. .. 148-49 

Creek, oil discovered in 30, 132, 138 

„ oil-seepages of 30,132,134,138 

discovery of . . . . 30, 132, 138 

,, indications . . . . 138-39, &c. 

,, mode of accumulation of . . 133 

,, mode of occurrence of . . 132-33 

,, origin and source of . . 9, 133-34, 148 

,, physical and chemical characters 

of .. .. ..134-36 

,, production of . . 30, 140 et seq. 

„ recommendations regarding pro- 

specting for . . . . 149 

rock smelling of . . 133, 139, 149 

,, springs and seepages of 

30, 132, 134, 138-39 
Petrology of basic dykes . . . . 80, 81 



Petroleum 



coal-measures 
,, Greenland Series 

,, Grey mouth Series 

,, Tuhua Formation 

Phy8iogra])hy, outline of 

Piedmont glacier, former W'cstland 



Pillars (coal), removal of 

" Pinch " in coal-seam . . 

Pitch-coals 

Plains (see Coastal plain. River-flats). 

Plant-remains . . . . 53, 06, 60-61, 62, 69, 71 

Platinum .. .. 91, 1.50 

Pleistocene deposits . . 7.5-76, 87-88, 137 

,, auriferous . . . . 87-88 

,, origin of . . 75 

(See also Morainic, Fluvio-glacial, Fluvia- 
tile, and Marine gravels.) 

Pliocene Beds . . 34, 41, 42, 45, 71, 73-75, 87, 137 





age and correlation of 


73 




auriferous 


87 




conformable to Miocene 


71 




content of 


73 




distribution of . . 


73 




fault involved 


44,45 




general account of.. 


74-75 




origin of . . 


75 




structure of 


74 




unconformity above 


74 


Plutonic rocks (see Granite, Tuhua Forma 




tion, &c.) 






Point Elizabeth (see Elizabeth, Point). 




„ 


Coal-mining Company 


22 


ft 


State Coal-mine Xo. 1 






10, 22, 23, 2.5-26, 11 


3 el seq 


»» 


State Coal-mine No. 2 






23, 26, 98, 99, 1 


00, 111 



.. 56-59 

50 

65 et seq. 

.. 78-80 

.. 31-10 

33, 36, 39, 

42-43 

23 

128 

121 



Page 

Port Elizabeth beds . . 62, 63, 64, 67, 95, 138 

,, palaeontology of . . 69 

Porph3'rites .. .. .. .. 80 

Porphyritic rocks . . . . 78, 79, 80, 81 

Pounamu or greenstone (mineral) . . 5, 93, 94, 150 

,, Greenstone, settlement of .. 3,16 

PjTite and pyritic nodules in coal 114, 121, 122 



Q. 

Quartz lodes or veins . . 18, 19, 83-86, 150 

,, ,, lenticular nature of . . .. 83 

,, -mining (see also Lode-mining) . . 18-19 

-porphyry . . . . . . 79, 80 

Quaternary strata . . . . . . 41 

(See aho Pleistocene and Recent.) 



R. 



Railways 
Rainfall 

Rain-pits in shale 
Raised beaches 
Rapahoe Range 



13, 20, 22, 23, 26 

12 

57 

33, 34-35, 75, 78 

. . 32, 33 



rocks and geologj' of 
Recent deposits 

,, auriferous 

(See also Fluviatile and Marine gravels.) 

Rt>commen(lations re boring for oil, &c. 

Red or Saw))it Creek (Kotuku), oil and gas of 

Reefton, auriferous rocks of 

,, coal-measures of 

,, geology of . . . . 5, 6, 53 

Resm (retinite) in coal 1 14, 119, 120, 121, 122, 125 

,, ,, in Island .sandstone . . 62 

Reversed or overt hru.st faults . . 24, 44, 45 

Riebeckitc-Kranite-jwrphyry . . 10, 77, 79-80 

Ripi)le-mark8 in shale . . 

River-flats 

Rivers 

,, table of volumes of 
Roa, quartz veins near . . 
,, rocks and geologj' of 
Roa fault 

Road-making material . . 
Rock-ba.sins formed by ice-erosion 
Rocky Creek (Cobden S.D.), coal of 

,, ,, rocks and geo- 

logy of . . 58, 59 
,, (Mawheranui S.D.), coal of . . 103 

,, (Mawheranui S.D.), rocks and 

geology of 
" Rolls " in coal-seams . . 

,, of strata 
Ruby Creek, rocks and geology of 



. . 64, 68 
76, 88-89 
. . 88, 89 



149 

132 

5, 6 

53 



57 

.. II, 35 

.. 3.5-37 

37' 

83 

. . 49, 56 

45, 54, 55 

94 

32 

121, 124 



Ryan, Lake 



55, 59, 63 el seq. 
127-28 
55, 114, 127 
55, 63, 64, 
66, 67 
. . 35, 40 



S. 



St. Kilda Mine (Brunnor) 21, 24, 95, 96, 116 

faults of . . . . 46 

Salt water from oil-bores 38-39, 132, 142, 144, 

146, 147, 148 

, , analyses of . . . . . . 38-39 

" geysers " . . 144, 146, 147, 148 

Sandhills .. .. .. .. 40 

Sands, marine . . . . . . 76, 88, 89 

,, ,, auriferous . . . . 88, 89 

(See also Beach sands.) 



158 



Sandstone, buikling, at Dobson and else- 
where 
,, Island (sec Island Sandstone). 

Sawpit on Red Creek, oil and gas of 
Sohnlz Creek, coal of . . 
Schulz's house, coal near 
Semi-anthracite 
Seven-mil(^ Creek 

,, coal of 



Page 
93, 150 



132, 139 

123, 124 

123 

97 

. . 36, 40 

99, 100, 101-3, 109-11, 

113, Ho, 121 

,, faulted country in vallej' of 46,47 

,, rocks and geology of 57, 58, 59 

Shale, fissile, near Mount Watson 

,, for bricks, tiles, &c. 

,, oil and gas 

Shipping (Port of Gre5'mouth) 

Shore-line 

, , former seaward extension of 
Siderite (see also Iron-ore) 
Skey, W. 

Slate, rocks resembling . . 
Sludge-channels 

Sluicing, hydraulic and ground . 
Smith, J. P. . . 

,, Thomas (Lake Brunner 
pany) 
Smoke-Ho Creek, coal near 

,, oU-shale near . 

,, quartz veins of 

" Soda " springs 
Soil, character of 
Soldier Creek, coal of . . 

,, rocks and geology of 

(See also Paparoa Creek.) 
Soundings of Lake Brunner 
South Brunner Coal Company 
Southern Alps . . . . 13, 42, 44, 50, 77, 89 

„ fault at western base of . . 44 

„ gold from . . . . 89 

,, tunnel being made through 13 

Spathic iron (siderite) . . . . 5, 57, 92, 123 

Sphalerite or zinc-blende . . . . 83 

Spheroidal nodules in Island Sandstone . . 59 
SpheruUtic rocks . . . . . . 79, 80 

Spring Creek (Cobden Survey District), coal 

of .. .. .. ..Ill 

Springs . . . . . . 38-39, 139 

mineral .. .. .. 38-39 

,, petroleum (see Petroleum ; Oil). 
Stafford, gold of, &c. . . . . 15, 16, 87 

State coal-mines 10, 22-23, 25-26, 98 et seq.. Ill, 

113 et seq. 
Stibnite (see also Antimony) 
StUlwater Creek Coal Company . . 

,, rocks and geology of 

Stones, building and ornamental . . 
Stony Creek (Brunner), faults of . . 
Streams 

,, volumes of 
Stream-tin 

Structure, general, of geological formations 
Structure of coal-measures 
,, Greenland Series 

, , Greymouth Series 

Sub-glacial deposits, auriferous . . 
Surveys, previous geological 
Sulky Gully, auriferous gravels of 
Sylvester Creek, rocks and geology of 









57 








96 








131 








13 








40 


)n of 




. 36 


, 40 




57, 


92, 


123 


. 11 


, 85, 


92, 


131 




48 e< 


seq 


,57 
16 






'. 16-17 




10 


, 79 


, 81 


Oil 


Com 


- 






] 


143, 


147 

119 

131 

83 




38-39, 


139 


E 


; 


. 11 


-12 
120 

58 






. 39-40 




22', 


55, 


116 



, 84, 85 

22 

49, 66 

93-94 

46, 47 

35-37 

36-37 

91, 150 

40-41 

54-55 

41, 49-50 

64-65 

87 

2-3 

87 

64, 66 



Synclines 



T. 



Table of rainfall 

,, river discharges 
Tables of geological formations 



50, 55, 65, 105 



12 

37 

41,51 



Page 
Talus-deposits . . . . . . 76 

Taramakau River . . 15, 35-36, 37, 40 

,, ancient courses of 31, 35, 91 

,, flood-plains of . . 35 

Tararu Creek, coal of . . . . . . Ill 

fault in valley of . . 47, 111 

Tate, Ralph . . . . . . . . 8, 70 

Taylor, Charles . . 30 (footnote), 140 

Joseph .. 30 (footnote), 140 

Taylorvillc fault . . . . . . 46 

Tectonic valley of Grey River . . 34, 36, 75 

T» Kinga, Mount, building-granite of . . 93 

,, ,, rocks and geology of 41, 77 et 

seq., 93 
Temiko Survc}- District, coal in south part 

of .. .. .. 123-24 

Ten-mile Creek . . . . . . 36, 40 

coal of lower . . 122-23 

,, ,, upper . . 98 e< seq. 

,, rocks and geology of 49, 56, et seq. 

,, stream-tin of . . . . 91 

(See also Bishop Creek, tributary.) 
Teremakau River (see Taramakau River). 
Terraces, terrace-tops, &c. . . . . 35 

" Terraces," possible oil-bearing . . 133, 149 

Tertiary conglomerates, gold in . . . . 87-88 

,, strata (See Coal-measures ; Gre}-- 
mouth Series ; Pliocene Beds). 
Theralite .. .. .. .. 81 

Three-mile Hill . . . . . . 33 

Timber industrj' . . . . . . 14 

,, trees . . . . . . . . 14 

Tin, stream . . . . . . 91, 150 

,, ,, source of . . . . . . 91 

Tinguaite and tinguaite porphyry . . 81 

Tom Ridge, coal of . . . . 100, lOI 

Topography . . . . 2, 31 e< seq., 136 

Tourmaline . . . . . . . . 78 

Trigonometrical Station, initial . . . . I 

Tuhua Formation . . . . 41, 42, 77-80 

age of . . 41, 42, 77 

,, content of . . . . 77 

,, correlation of . . . . 77 

,, distribution and mode of 

occurrence of . . 77 

petrology of .. .. 78-80 

Tuff, possible, in coal-measures . . . . 58 

Tunnel Creek, coal of . . . . 98, 106 

Twelve Apostles Range (see also Rapahoe 

Range) . . . . . . . . 32, 33 

Tyneside Mine and proprietary companies . . 21-22 
fault .. ' .. .. 46 



u. 



Unconformities . . 5, 6, 7, 42, 52, 54, 56 

Underground watercourses . . . . 38 

Unions, miners' . . . . . . 27 

Uplift of land (see Elevation). 



Valleys, hanging 
V-anticlines 
Veins, quartz . . 
Victory Claim . . 



32 

'.. 55, 105, 114 
18, 19, 83-86, 150 
18, 83, 85, 



explosion of firedamp in . . 19 

Vogesite . . . . . . . . 80 

Volcanic rocks . . . . 58, 77, 81 

Volumes of streams . . . . . . 36-37 



Von Haast, Julius 
V-sjTiolines 



2, 3, 4, 5, 11, 41, 51, 52, 63 
55 



159 



W. 

Wages, rates of 
Waimangaroa Series (Park) 
Waimatuku or Seven-mile 

Seven-mile Creek) 
Waimea Stream 
,, Lagoon 
Waianiwhaniwha River or 

(see also Ten-mile Creek) 
Waiomo Creek, coal of . . 
Wallsend Mine . . 

,, accident in 

Walter Creek, quartz veins of 
Wanganui Series 
Water, salt, from oil-bores 



Page 

26-27 

53 



Creek (see also 

36 
15, 36, 40 
40 
Ten-mile Creek 

. . 36, 40 
110-11 
..6,21 
6 
83 
63 
38-39, 132, 142, 144, 
146, 147, 148 

38 
98, 99, 100, 106-7 



Watercourses, miderground 
Waterfall Creek, coal of. . 

,, structure of coal-measures 

in . . . . 55, 

Watergapsof Gre_v River 
Waters, D. B., oil-analysis bj- . . 



106-7 

36 

135 



Page 
Watson, J. T. . . . . . . . . 60 

,, Mount, coal-seams near .. 97, 98 

,, ,, quartz veins of . . . . 83 

Westland Coalfields Committee, report of 6 

,, coastal plain . . . . . . 33 

,, piedmont glacier, ancient 33, 36, 39, 

42-43 
Westport Coal Company . . . . 21 



Westpoit— Seddonville district, coal-measures 

of .. .. .. .. .. 53 

Whales, fossil remains of . . . . 70, 73 

Wheel of Fortune Claim . . . . 16-17 

Will Ridge, coal-outcrops on . . 100, 101, 108 

Woolly Creek, rocks anil geology of 55, 63 et seq. 



Zinc-blende or .sphalerite 
Zones, fault 



83 

45, 46, 47, 105, 106 



By Authority : John Mackay, Government Printer, Wellington. — 1911. 



[700/1/11—1343 



) 



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